Soil-Groundwater Pollution Investigations

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Soil and Water".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 May 2024 | Viewed by 5565

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China
Interests: groundwater monitoring; groundwater dynamic variations; groundwater anomaly identification; groundwater response to crustal deformation and earthquakes; hydrogeological parameters variations; groundwater-surface water interactions
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Guest Editor
Center for Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology Survey, China Geological Survey, Baoding, China
Interests: soil and groundwater pollution; geogenic trace elements in soil and groundwater; CO2 geological sequestration and risk assessment; geothermal energy exploration; utilization and environmental impact
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China
Interests: groundwater pollution; water quality evaluation; contaminations transport and transformation; water-rock interaction; in-situ pyrolysis of oil shale and the influences on deep fliuds geochemistry
School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China
Interests: hydrobiogeochemical processes in hyporheic zone; soil and groundwater pollution; stable and radioactive isotopes tracing; solute transport simulation; basin hydrogeochemical processes; pollution risk

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Soil and groundwater pollution have been a global issue with regard to ecological-environment security and human health risk. Pollution in soil and groundwater is often very closely interlinked. Water infiltration reaches the aquifer through the soil, which could bring contaminants to the soil or leach the soil contaminants into groundwater. Both groundwater and soil pollution could pose the great threats to water quality and ecosystem security. More and more researchers suggest that the investigation into pollution in groundwater and soil should be integrated. Insights from soil-groundwater pollution investigations can benefit its systemic prevention and control.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to bring together broad views on investigation methods, transport mechanisms, and treatment of soil-groundwater pollution for various kinds of pollutants at varied spatial and temporal scales. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following: the characterization of soil/groundwater pollution at various scales (e.g., site and regional scale) using effective investigation methods (field investigation, experiments, and simulation); the identification and apportionment of pollution sources; the transport and reactive processes of contaminants in soil, groundwater, and the soil-groundwater interface under dynamic hydrological conditions; the hydrobiogeochemical processes associated with the migration and transformation of contaminants; pollution in the soil and groundwater near the river/lake/wetland affected by surface water-groundwater interaction; the evaluation of water quality under natural and anthropogenic influences and the associated risks to the ecological environment and human health; and the theoretical treatment and remediation engineering of contaminated soil-groundwater. In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Guangcai Wang
Prof. Dr. Dongguang Wen
Dr. Shuya Hu
Dr. Liao Fu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • the investigation methods of soil/groundwater pollution
  • contaminants transport and transformation
  • pollution under surface water-groundwater interaction conditions
  • water quality evaluation
  • assessment of ecological environment and human health risks
  • treatment and remediation of contaminated soil-groundwater

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 3020 KiB  
Article
Hydrochemical Characteristics and Quality Evaluation of Groundwater in Jinta Basin, Northwest China
by Xiaoyan Wang, Shuangbao Han, Mengnan Zhang, Sai Wang, Dechao Yin, Xi Wu, Huqun Cui and Yonghui An
Water 2023, 15(23), 4171; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234171 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1003
Abstract
The ecological environment of the northwest inland basin is fragile. The groundwater environment is a crucial influencing factor for the harmonious and sustainable development of the local social economy and the ecological environment. It is significant to investigate the groundwater chemical characteristics, water [...] Read more.
The ecological environment of the northwest inland basin is fragile. The groundwater environment is a crucial influencing factor for the harmonious and sustainable development of the local social economy and the ecological environment. It is significant to investigate the groundwater chemical characteristics, water quality, and the factors that influence groundwater chemistry for groundwater resources development and construction of the ecological environment. In this study, the Jinta Basin (JB), Gansu Province, was the selected study area. Three hundred and fifty groups of shallow groundwater samples in the JB were collected and analyzed, and the characteristics and controlling factors of groundwater were determined by using Piper diagram, Gibbs plot, ion ratio relationship, and factor analysis. Single index evaluation method, comprehensive evaluation method, and entropy-weighted water quality index method were used to evaluate the water quality of the groundwater. The results indicated that the shallow pore water in the JB was alkaline as a whole; the ranges of total dissolved solids (TDS) in the Beidahe River impact area (BIA), the transition area (TA) and the Heihe River impact area (HIA) were 328.4–12,400 mg·L−1, 372.70–3774.0 mg·L−1, and 366.30–75,200.0 mg·L−1, respectively; the major anions and cations of the shallow pore water were SO42−/Cl and Mg2+/Na+, respectively. The Piper diagram illustrated that the hydrochemical type of groundwater in the JB were mainly HCO3·SO4-Mg type, SO4·HCO3-Mg type, SO4-Mg·Na type, SO4·Cl-Na·Mg type, and Cl-Na type. The overall water quality of the shallow groundwater in the JB was relatively poor, mainly falling into Class IV-V water quality. Sulfate, total hardness (TH), TDS, chloride and sodium were the main influencing factors of water quality. The chemical characteristics of groundwater in the JB were controlled by a variety of natural factors, including rock weathering, evaporative concentration, and cation exchange, among which the main controlling factors of shallow pore water were leaching, evaporative concentration and anthropogenic activities (contribution rate of 73.94%), and sulfate rock and carbonate rock dissolution (contribution rate of 14.91%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil-Groundwater Pollution Investigations)
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19 pages, 7484 KiB  
Article
Groundwater Hydrogeochemical Processes and Potential Threats to Human Health in Fengfeng Coal Mining Area, China
by Zhiqiang Zhang, Haixue Li, Fawang Zhang, Jiazhong Qian, Shuangbao Han and Fenggang Dai
Water 2023, 15(22), 4024; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15224024 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 851
Abstract
The Fengfeng mining area is in the transition zone between the North China Plain and the Taihang Mountains, and groundwater is the main source of water supply in the district. Under the combined influence of human activities and natural geological conditions, the quality [...] Read more.
The Fengfeng mining area is in the transition zone between the North China Plain and the Taihang Mountains, and groundwater is the main source of water supply in the district. Under the combined influence of human activities and natural geological conditions, the quality of different types of groundwater varies greatly, posing a potential threat to the safety of drinking water. In this study, hydrogeochemical processes in different types of groundwater were analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis methods with ion–ratio relationships, and a groundwater quality and health risk assessment model was developed. The research findings show that the main chemical components and TDS in the groundwater have obvious spatial distribution characteristics, i.e., the content of deep karst water (DKW) in the west is significantly lower than that of shallow pore water (SPW) in the east, and the hydrochemical type has changed from HCO3–Ca to SO4–Ca. The chemical components of SPW and DKW are mainly derived from silicates and carbonates, accompanied by weathering dissolution of sulphidic minerals, especially SPW. The chemical components of the groundwater was also influenced by the cation exchange reaction and human activities. The quality of the SPW was significantly worse than that of the DKW, and the nitrates in SPW carry a high non-carcinogenic risk, especially to children. The shallow pore water is not suitable for drinking water. This study can provide guidance on the safety of drinking water in the Fengfeng coal mining area and other areas with intensive industrial, mining, and agricultural activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil-Groundwater Pollution Investigations)
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21 pages, 4158 KiB  
Article
Intrinsic Vulnerability Assessment of the Qingduo Karst System, Henan Province
by Leihao Yin, Beiyi Xu, Wutian Cai, Pengpeng Zhou and Li Yang
Water 2023, 15(19), 3425; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15193425 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Groundwater vulnerability assessments are vital for protecting valuable resources by revealing susceptibility to contamination. This study developed an enhanced index model to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of a supplied karst aquifer in Qingduo, Henan Province. The model considered the 3-D geological structure and [...] Read more.
Groundwater vulnerability assessments are vital for protecting valuable resources by revealing susceptibility to contamination. This study developed an enhanced index model to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of a supplied karst aquifer in Qingduo, Henan Province. The model considered the 3-D geological structure and modified indices to account for Northern China’s mild karstification. Emphasizing the absolute infiltration capacity of surface contaminants, the model also integrated the groundwater sources and sinks (SS) index. The vulnerability map revealed that over 60% of the aquifers, including the Qingduo wellfield, exhibited very low to low vulnerability. Conversely, only small areas (<5%) along the Kejing (KJ) fault’s southern wall were classified as highly vulnerable. These findings highlighted the significant role of groundwater flow alongside aquifer conditions. The upward groundwater flow through the Fengmenkou (FMK) faults slowed the downward infiltration of surface contaminants into the lower karst aquifer, effectively reducing vulnerabilities. Lower levels of dissolved lead (Pb) and nitrate (NO3) in Qingduo groundwater aligned with PISSR vulnerability mapping. Sensitivity analysis assessed the results’ sensitivity to index weight assignment. The inclusion of the sources and sinks (SS) index holds implications for semi-quantitatively assessing dynamic groundwater vulnerability by delineating flow patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil-Groundwater Pollution Investigations)
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13 pages, 2364 KiB  
Article
Study on the Release Law of Phenol during Water-Oil Shale Interaction Process
by Zhaoxia Sun, Qingyu Li, Quansheng Zhao and Shuya Hu
Water 2023, 15(11), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112017 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 882
Abstract
Oil shale, as a reserve resource of conventional energy, has gradually attracted attention. However, water-rock interactions occur during in-situ shale oil extraction, and pollutants generated during this process can contaminate surrounding geological formations and groundwater environments. This article focuses on phenol produced by [...] Read more.
Oil shale, as a reserve resource of conventional energy, has gradually attracted attention. However, water-rock interactions occur during in-situ shale oil extraction, and pollutants generated during this process can contaminate surrounding geological formations and groundwater environments. This article focuses on phenol produced by water-rock interactions and investigates the release behavior of phenol under different reaction temperatures and times, as well as how total organic carbon (TOC), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and pore size changes affect phenol. The study found that the release concentration of phenol increased with the increase in reaction temperature, reaction time, and the average pore size of the mineral. In addition, with the increase of TOC and TPH concentrations, the concentration of phenol also increased continuously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil-Groundwater Pollution Investigations)
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15 pages, 13938 KiB  
Article
Impact of Inorganic Solutes’ Release in Groundwater during Oil Shale In Situ Exploitation
by Qingyu Li, Laijun Lu, Quansheng Zhao and Shuya Hu
Water 2023, 15(1), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010172 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Oil shale can produce oil and shale gas by heating the oil shale at 300–500 °C. The high temperature and the release of organic matter can change the physical and mechanical properties of rocks and make the originally tight impervious layer become a [...] Read more.
Oil shale can produce oil and shale gas by heating the oil shale at 300–500 °C. The high temperature and the release of organic matter can change the physical and mechanical properties of rocks and make the originally tight impervious layer become a permeable layer under in situ exploitation conditions. To realize the potential impact of the in situ exploitation of oil shale on groundwater environments, a series of water–rock interaction experiments under different temperatures was conducted. The results show that, with the increase of the reaction temperature, the anions and cations in the aqueous solution of oil shale, oil shale–ash, and the surrounding rock show different trends, and the release of anions and cations in the oil shale–ash solution is most affected by the ambient temperature. The hydrochemical type of oil shale–ash solution is HCO3-SO4-Na-K at 80 °C and 100 °C, which changes the water quality. The main reasons are that (1) the high temperature (≥80 °C) can promote the dissolution of FeS in oil shale and (2) the porosity of oil shale increases after pyrolysis, making it easier to react with water. This paper is an important supplement to the research on the impact of the in situ exploitation of oil shale on the groundwater environment. Therefore, the impacts of in situ mining on groundwater inorganic minerals should be taken into consideration when evaluating in situ exploitation projects of oil shale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil-Groundwater Pollution Investigations)
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