Aquatic Ecotoxicology: A Tool for Monitoring the Effects of Anthropogenic Chemical Contamination on Fisheries and Aquaculture

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water, Agriculture and Aquaculture".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 March 2024) | Viewed by 7389

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Earth and Marine Sciences, University of Palermo, Laboratory of Marine Biochemistry and Ecotoxicology, via Barlotta 4, Trapani, Italy
Interests: fish quality; aquaculture; aquatic ecotoxicology; fish diets; marine lipids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; marine bioactive compounds; marine biotechnology; zero waste; circular economy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Earth and Marine Sciences, University of Palermo, Laboratory of Marine Biochemistry and Ecotoxicology, via Barlotta 4, Trapani, Italy
Interests: fish quality; aquaculture; aquatic ecotoxicology; fish diets; marine lipids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; marine bioactive compounds; marine biotechnology; zero waste; circular economy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Earth and Marine Sciences, University of Palermo, Laboratory of Marine Biochemistry and Ecotoxicology, via Barlotta 4, Trapani, Italy
Interests: fish quality; aquaculture; aquatic ecotoxicology; fish diets; marine lipids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; marine bioactive compounds; marine biotechnology; zero waste; circular economy

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor Assistant
Department of Earth and Marine Sciences, University of Palermo, Laboratory of Marine Biochemistry and Ecotoxicology, via Barlotta 4, Trapani, Italy
Interests: fish quality; aquaculture; aquatic ecotoxicology; fish diets; marine lipids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; marine bioactive compounds; marine biotechnology; zero waste; circular economy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The adverse effects of the contamination of aquatic food resources on human health represent a growing concern due to threats to aquatic ecosystems from classical and emerging contaminants.

Aquatic ecotoxicology, using multidisciplinary approaches, studies interactions among pollutants and biological systems at different levels of the organization, from molecules to communities and the ecosystem. These studies could contribute to the development of an efficient strategy for the security control of the livelihoods provided by fishing and aquaculture and to identify bioactive substances counteracting the effects of environmental contaminants.

In fact, to avoid negative consequences for human health, studies of contaminant effects at a lower level of biological organization, by means of molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology and physiology, could develop sensitive tools to ensure we are provided with early warnings of threats to aquatic organisms utilized for human consumption produced by fishery and aquaculture.

In order to explore these aspects, still too little addressed in the scientific literature, this Special Issue will gather articles aimed at investigating molecular, biochemical, and cellular markers involved in the adaptation mechanisms to environmental stressors in fishery and aquaculture organisms. Furthermore, we encourage reviews and original research focused on monitoring and preventing human health potential risks and on the identification of bioactive substances counteracting contaminant adverse effects.

Dr. Andrea Santulli
Dr. Concetta Messina
Dr. Eleonora Curcuraci
Guest Editors

Simona Manuguerra
Guest Editor Assistant

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Keywords

  • aquatic ecotoxicology
  • fisheries and aquaculture
  • biotic and abiotic stressors
  • cellular markers
  • biochemical markers
  • early warning
  • human health risks
  • aquatic food safety
  • bioactive compounds

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 1071 KiB  
Article
Allantoin and Tissue Specific Redox Regulation in Mud Crab Scylla serrata under Varied Natural Water Physico-Chemical Parameters
by Samar Gourav Pati, Biswaranjan Paital and Dipak Kumar Sahoo
Water 2024, 16(3), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16030480 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1176
Abstract
Effects of varied sediment and physico-chemical properties of water on allantoin content in tissues of Scylla serrata and its role in antioxidant homeostasis were investigated. Tissues of crabs were sampled from different coastal natural habitats of S. serrata of India during summer, winter, [...] Read more.
Effects of varied sediment and physico-chemical properties of water on allantoin content in tissues of Scylla serrata and its role in antioxidant homeostasis were investigated. Tissues of crabs were sampled from different coastal natural habitats of S. serrata of India during summer, winter, and rainy seasons and were analyzed to detect the variation in allantoin content and lipid peroxidation (LPx) and oxidative stress (OS) neutralizing antioxidant factors. High allantoin content in hepatopancreas over muscle tissue was observed in all seasons and sampling sites. The correlation coefficient values between allantoin and environmental factors, i.e., temperature, pH, salinity, organic carbon, Mg, and Ca, strongly support the stress-induced allantoin variation level in tissues. The level of allantoin had a negative correlation with levels of ROS, which was probably due to the upregulation of the activity of major antioxidant enzymes and assisting enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and biotransforming enzyme glutathione -s- transferases (GST). A significant seasonal variation in the level of allantoin was correlated with the activity of including superoxide dismutase, catalase, GPx, GR, and GST, which was clearly noticed as a function of abiotic factors. Additionally, the level of allantoin did not correlate with small antioxidant molecules, such as ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the level of allantoin and CAT and GR activities were the major contributing factors for the clear discrimination of groups. Therefore, allantoin can be considered as a significant factor for the seasonal modulation of OS physiology in mud crab Scylla serrata. Full article
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16 pages, 2824 KiB  
Article
Acute and Subchronic Exposure of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) to Herbicide S-Metolachlor
by Božidar Rašković, Vesna Poleksić, Gorica Vuković, Bojana Špirović Trifunović, Gavrilo Božić, Dejana Ćupić Miladinović, Zoran Marković and Dragica Brkić
Water 2023, 15(23), 4182; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234182 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1066
Abstract
S-metolachlor is one of the most frequently used herbicides worldwide. However, toxicity studies of this herbicide to aquatic organisms are scarce. In the present study, two experiments were conducted to test the effects of S-metolachlor on common carp, one of the [...] Read more.
S-metolachlor is one of the most frequently used herbicides worldwide. However, toxicity studies of this herbicide to aquatic organisms are scarce. In the present study, two experiments were conducted to test the effects of S-metolachlor on common carp, one of the most economically important fish species, with a distribution throughout the world: (1) 96 h acute semi-static toxicity test, aiming to determine LC50; (2) a subchronic semi-static test that lasted 28 days, in which juvenile carp were exposed to 3%, 8%, and 25% of previously determined LC50—0.5 mg·L−1, 1.4 mg·L−1, and 4.1 mg·L−1, respectively. Several biomarkers were employed to assess fish responses to toxicants. Blood biochemistry analysis and nuclear alterations of erythrocytes did not show any difference among experimental groups. Semi-quantitative histopathological analysis revealed mild alterations in the gills and liver, where oedema of secondary epithelium of gills and leukocyte infiltration in liver were significantly higher in fish exposed to 1.4 mg·L−1 and 4.1 mg·L−1. Histopathological indices in liver, as well as the total histopathological index, also showed significantly higher scores in the same groups. Bioconcentration factors of S-metolachlor ranged from 3.2 to 9.4, depending on the experimental group. Full article
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11 pages, 2769 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Submerged Macrophytes on the Water and Sediment in Aquaculture Ponds with Enrofloxacin Residues
by Lingling Zhang, Lizao Liu and Yuping Zhang
Water 2023, 15(13), 2493; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132493 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Submerged macrophyes have been widely used to restore aquaculture ponds in recent years. Yet, whether the residual antibiotics in ponds will affect the remediation effect of submerged macrophyes, and the effect of different submerged macrophyes on the water and sediment in aquaculture ponds [...] Read more.
Submerged macrophyes have been widely used to restore aquaculture ponds in recent years. Yet, whether the residual antibiotics in ponds will affect the remediation effect of submerged macrophyes, and the effect of different submerged macrophyes on the water and sediment in aquaculture ponds with antibiotic residues, is unclear. A microcosm experiment was carried out to study the interaction between three kinds of submerged macrophytes and their growing environment with antibiotic residues. Ceratophyllum demersum L. with no roots, Vallisneria spiralis L. with flourish roots, and Hydrilla verticillata L with little roots were chosen to be planted in the sediment added with enrofloxacin (ENR). The growth of submerged macrophytes, the changes of the overlying water and sediment characteristics, and the microbial community in the sediment were analyzed. The results showed that according to the growth rate and nutrients accumulation ability, V. spiralis with flourish roots performed best among the three submerged macrophytes. The concentrations of TOC, TP, NH4+-N, and TN in the overlying water were 25.0%, 71.7%, 38.1%, and 24.8% lower in the V. spiralis treatment comparing with the control, respectively. The richness and diversity of the microorganisms in the sediment of V. spiralis treatment were significantly higher than those in the control, but this advantage was not obvious in the H. verticillata treatment. V. spiralis promoted the growth of Proteobacteria (22.8%) and inhibited the growth of Acidobacteria (32.1%) and Chloflexi (31.7%) in the rhizosphere sediment with ENR residue. The effects of the three submerged macrophytes on the removal of ENR from sediment were not reflected due to the limitation of water depth. Compared with C. demersum and H. verticillata, V. spiralis was more suitable for the remediation of the aquaculture ponds with ENR residue. Full article
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Review

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41 pages, 1073 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review on Metallic Trace Elements Toxicity in Fishes and Potential Remedial Measures
by Saima Naz, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha, Guillermo Téllez-Isaías, Shakeeb Ullah, Qudrat Ullah, Muhammad Zahoor Khan, Muhammad Kamal Shah, Ghulam Abbas, Azka Kiran, Rubina Mushtaq, Baseer Ahmad and Zulhisyam Abdul Kari
Water 2023, 15(16), 3017; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163017 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3450
Abstract
Metallic trace elements toxicity has been associated with a wide range of morphological abnormalities in fish, both in natural aquatic ecosystems and controlled environments. The bioaccumulation of metallic trace elements can have devastating effects on several aspects of fish health, encompassing physiological, reproductive, [...] Read more.
Metallic trace elements toxicity has been associated with a wide range of morphological abnormalities in fish, both in natural aquatic ecosystems and controlled environments. The bioaccumulation of metallic trace elements can have devastating effects on several aspects of fish health, encompassing physiological, reproductive, behavioural, and developmental functions. Considering the significant risks posed by metallic trace elements-induced toxicity to fish populations, this review aims to investigate the deleterious effects of prevalent metallic trace elements toxicants, such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and copper (Cu), on the neurological, reproductive, embryonic, and tissue systems of fish. Employing diverse search engines and relevant keywords, an extensive review of in vitro and in vivo studies pertaining to metallic trace elements toxicity and its adverse consequences on fish and their organs was conducted. The findings indicate that Cd was the most prevalent metallic trace elements in aquatic environments, exerting the most severe impacts on various fish organs and systems, followed by Cu and Pb. Moreover, it was observed that different metals exhibited varying degrees and types of effects on fish. Given the profound adverse effects of metallic trace elements contamination in water, immediate measures need to be taken to mitigate water pollution stemming from the discharge of waste containing metallic trace elements from agricultural, industrial, and domestic water usage. This study also compares the most common methods for treating metallic trace elements contamination in water. Full article
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