Advanced Oxidation Technologies for Water and Wastewater Treatment from Organic Pollutants by Nanostructure Materials

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 3801

Special Issue Editors

Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, 1 James Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria
Interests: physical chemistry; materials chemistry; spectroscopy; photoelectron spectroscopy
Laboratory of Science and Technology of Nanoparticles, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sofia, J. Bourchier 1, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria
Interests: heterogeneous photocatalysis; pharmaceutical drug; organic dyes; semiconductor nanomatirials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water is the most important natural resource in the world and the availability of safe drinking water is a high priority issue for human existence and quality of life. Unfortunately, water resources are coming under increasing pressure due to population growth, over-use and wastage. AOPs are particularly attractive as a method for removing organic pollutants from water using nanostructure materials because they utilize hydroxyl radicals as a major oxidizing agent. Therefore, they can destroy hazardous contaminants, not simply transfer them to another phase, as do air stripping and granular activated carbon adsorption. 

The nanostructure semiconductor materials can degrade most kinds of persistent organic pollutants, such as detergents, dyes, pesticides and pharmaceutical drugs, under light illumination. Semiconductors can act as sensitizers for light-induced redox processes due to the electronic structure of the metal atoms.

The aim of the Special Issue “Advanced Oxidation Technologies for Water and Wastewater Treatment from Organic Pollutants by Nanostructure Materials: Latest Advances, Challenges, and Prospects” is to serve scientists through the Latest Advances, Challenges, and Prospects in solving environmental problems. In this context, we request you submit your articles to our Special Issue on or before October 31, 2023, so that it may be included article in the upcoming issue.

Dr. George Tzvetkov
Dr. Nina Kaneva
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • advanced oxidation technologies
  • nanostructure materials
  • organic pollutants
  • water purification

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 6040 KiB  
Article
Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions by Using Nano-ZnO/Kaolin-Clay-Based Nanocomposite
by Shreya Modi, Virendra Kumar Yadav, Daoud Ali, Nisha Choudhary, Saud Alarifi, Dipak Kumar Sahoo, Ashish Patel and Madhusudan Hiraman Fulekar
Water 2023, 15(22), 3915; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15223915 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1443
Abstract
Dyes are toxic organic compounds released as effluent from various industries that need proper treatment as they pose serious hazards to the environment and living beings, including humans. Nanocomposites can be employed as photocatalysts for the elimination of such organic compounds from wastewater. [...] Read more.
Dyes are toxic organic compounds released as effluent from various industries that need proper treatment as they pose serious hazards to the environment and living beings, including humans. Nanocomposites can be employed as photocatalysts for the elimination of such organic compounds from wastewater. One such attempt is made in this present research study, where a zinc-based nanocomposite has been fabricated for the elimination of the methylene blue dye (MB). For the development of nanocomposite, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) were prepared to utilize Allium sativa peel (garlic skin) extract, which was further processed to develop ZnO/kaolin clay NC. ZnONPs and ZnO/kaolin clay NC formation have been confirmed by UV–Vis spectral bands at 379 nm and 423 nm. The NC was rod-shaped, with width of 60–100 nm and length of 200–800 nm and an average size of 50.0 ± 0.58 nm. Both materials were compared for their efficacy in photocatalytic degradation of the MB under solar light irradiation. ZnONPs removed 65% of MB, whereas the degradation efficiency of ZnO/clay NC was calculated to be 96% for 10 ppm MB. A kinetics study for photocatalytic degradation of MB using both nanomaterials showed that the photocatalytic degradation followed the pseudo-first-order (PFO) type of reaction. This investigation represents an expeditious, lucrative, ecological, and appropriate technique for the fabrication of functional nanomaterials for the remediation of diverse organic pollutants. Full article
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16 pages, 5221 KiB  
Article
Degradation of Paracetamol in Distilled and Drinking Water via Ag/ZnO Photocatalysis under UV and Natural Sunlight
by Dobrina Ivanova, George Tzvetkov and Nina Kaneva
Water 2023, 15(20), 3549; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203549 - 11 Oct 2023
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Abstract
The present study demonstrates the synthesis and application of Ag/ZnO powder films (thickness of 4 μm) as photocatalysts for natural sunlight and ultraviolet (UV, 315–400 nm) irradiation. The synthesis procedure is simple and eco-friendly, based on the photo-fixation of silver ions onto commercial [...] Read more.
The present study demonstrates the synthesis and application of Ag/ZnO powder films (thickness of 4 μm) as photocatalysts for natural sunlight and ultraviolet (UV, 315–400 nm) irradiation. The synthesis procedure is simple and eco-friendly, based on the photo-fixation of silver ions onto commercial ZnO powder via UV illumination for the first time. The photocatalytic efficiency of the newly developed films is evaluated through degradation of paracetamol in distilled and drinking water. Our experimental evidences show that the Ag/ZnO nanostructure films are more active than pristine ZnO films in the photodegradation process. Namely, the photocatalytic efficiency of the films modified with 10−2 M concentration of silver ions achieve the highest degradation (D) percentages for paracetamol in both types of water (Ddistilled = 80.97%, Ddrinking = 82.5%) under natural sunlight. Under UV exposure, the degradation percentages are slightly lower but still higher than those achieved by pure ZnO films (Ddistilled = 53.13%, Ddrinking = 61.87%). It is found that the photocatalytic activity grows in direct proportion to the concentration of Ag+ ions: ZnO < Ag 10−4/ZnO < Ag 10−3/ZnO < Ag 10−2/ZnO. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy are used to characterize the as-prepared ZnO and Ag/ZnO nanostructures. The improved photocatalytic performance of the Ag/ZnO films is mostly attributed to the combination of excited electron transfer from ZnO to Ag and the inhibition of photogenerated electron–hole pair recombination. Furthermore, Ag/ZnO nanostructure films can retain their photocatalytic activity after three cycles of use, highlighting their potential practical application for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater in real-world scenarios where natural sunlight is often more readily available than artificial UV light. Full article
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15 pages, 9680 KiB  
Article
Degradation of 2-Chlorophenol in Aqueous Solutions Using Persulfate Activated by Biochar Supported Sulfide-Modified Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron: Performance and Mechanisms
by Ronghuan Xie, Mu Wang, Weiping Li and Junjie Song
Water 2023, 15(15), 2805; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152805 - 03 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 825
Abstract
In this work, soybean biochar-supported sulfide-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron (BC@S-nZVI) was synthesized and used to activate persulfate (PS) to degrade 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the degradation effects under different conditions, including initial mass ratios among [...] Read more.
In this work, soybean biochar-supported sulfide-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron (BC@S-nZVI) was synthesized and used to activate persulfate (PS) to degrade 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the degradation effects under different conditions, including initial mass ratios among 2-CP, PS, and BC@S-nZVI, initial pH values, temperature, and anions. The results showed that the mass ratio of PS to 2-CP equal to 70 and the mass ratio of BC@S-nZVI to PS equal to 0.4 were the optimum mass ratios in the degradation system. The degradation efficiency of 2-CP was higher under acidic and alkaline conditions than the neutral condition, and the effect was best at a pH of 3; meanwhile, it increased with the increase in temperature. Moreover, the degradation rate was restrained with the addition of Cl, promoted with the addition of NO3 and CO32−. Both free radical and material functions played leading roles in the degradation of 2-CP, and the stability of BC@S-nZVI was better than nZVI and S-nZVI. The experimental results showed that it was promising to remove 2-CP and other organic pollutants from groundwater by PS activated with BC@S-nZVI. Full article
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