Climate Impact on Sustainability of Aquatic Organisms

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and Climate Change".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 29869

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Interdepartmental Research Center for Environment, IECEnv (CIRAm), University of Naples Federico II, 80134 Naples, Italy
Interests: climate change and reprotoxicity; antioxidative physiological defense; steroids and steroid receptors; antioxidants under steroid control; reproductive health assessment; endangered species and validation of non-destructive examination methods; biodiversity conservation microassay
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Dear Colleagues,

Climate change is causing alterations in the physical and chemical properties of water and having consequences for aquatic ecosystems. Large temperature variations can severely impact fertility in animals, plants, and fungi. Given the importance of fertility for population persistence, the aim of this Special Issue is to provide an understanding of how climate change affects thermal fertility limits and how to standardize detection methodology. The current literature on how thermal stress impacts fertility is fragmented. Therefore, we cordially invite authors to contribute original research articles and reviews. These may include all aspects of effective strategies for marine and freshwater biodiversity conservation and sustainability. This issue will also welcome research focused on factors that limit or facilitate species’ responses, such as fisheries loading, the availability of prey, habitat, light, and dispersal by sea currents. The main perspective of submitted work should be on applications in areas such as stress, immune and growth response, calcification rates, demography, abundance, distribution, invasion and phenology of species. Critical and objective perspectives of specific research areas related to technical approaches useful for monitoring and/or mitigating the effects of climate change will also fall well within the scope of this Special Issue.

We look forward to your valuable contributions.

Dr. Giulia Guerriero
Dr. Matteo Gentilucci
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • global warming
  • aquatic organism
  • sustainability
  • thermal fertility limit (TFL)
  • biodiversity conservation
  • oxidative stress and antioxidants
  • immune and growth response
  • calcification rate
  • invasive species
  • climate change effects monitoring

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 7956 KiB  
Article
Natural Bioactive Phytocompounds to Reduce Toxicity in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: A Challenge to Environmental Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials
by Aasma Noureen, Farhat Jabeen, Abdul Wajid, Muhammad Zafarullah Kazim, Nafeesa Safdar and Tiziana Cappello
Water 2023, 15(6), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061152 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1740
Abstract
Nanomaterials, due to their large aspect-to-size ratio and reactive surfaces that facilitate their access through biological barriers, can induce oxidative stress in host cells. Therefore, there is a growing concern about the biological risks of nanomaterials. This study investigated the biological effects of [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials, due to their large aspect-to-size ratio and reactive surfaces that facilitate their access through biological barriers, can induce oxidative stress in host cells. Therefore, there is a growing concern about the biological risks of nanomaterials. This study investigated the biological effects of copper (1.5 mg/L) as CuO or nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) in common carp Cyprinus carpio along with the beneficial effects of Myristiga fragrans seed extract (MFSE) administrated as post-treatment at different doses (4 or 8 or 12 mg/L) for 28 days. The MFSE exhibited a protective role by reducing in a dose-dependent manner the bioaccumulation of Cu level in CuO (from 2.46 to 1.03 µg/Kg in gills; from 2.44 to 1.06 µg/Kg in kidney) and Cu-NPs treated carps (from 2.44 to 1.23 µg/Kg in gills; from 2.47 to 1.09 µg/Kg in kidney) as well as modulating different blood parameters. A mitigation of the histological alterations induced by CuO and Cu-NPs exposure in carp gills (i.e., primary and secondary lamellar degeneration, lamellar fusion, necrosis) and kidneys (i.e., abnormal glomerulus, tubular injury, necrosis) was also observed after MFSE administration. The dietary supplementation of MFSE modulated also the antioxidant defense of carps with respect to the elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GST) and the reduced catalase (CAT) induced by CuO and Cu-NPs. Overall, the CuO and Cu-NPs-induced toxicity in C. carpio was mitigated by using MFSE. Further studies are suggested to determine the optimum dose and delivery method of MFSE to guarantee a sustainable conservation of aquatic species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impact on Sustainability of Aquatic Organisms)
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19 pages, 1615 KiB  
Article
Biodiversity Studies for Sustainable Lagoon: Thermophilic and Tropical Fish Species vs. Endemic Commercial Species at Mellah Lagoon (Mediterranean, Algeria)
by Costantino Parisi, Giuseppe De Marco, Sofiane Labar, Mustapha Hasnaoui, Gaetano Grieco, Lidia Caserta, Sara Inglese, Rubina Vangone, Adriano Madonna, Magdy Alwany, Olfa Hentati and Giulia Guerriero
Water 2022, 14(4), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040635 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3574
Abstract
Lagoons play an important socio-economic role and represent a precious natural heritage at risk from fishing pressure and chemical and biological pollution. Our research focused on better understanding the discrimination of fish biodiversity, the detection of non-indigenous species, and the valorization of commercial [...] Read more.
Lagoons play an important socio-economic role and represent a precious natural heritage at risk from fishing pressure and chemical and biological pollution. Our research focused on better understanding the discrimination of fish biodiversity, the detection of non-indigenous species, and the valorization of commercial indigenous species at Mellah lagoon (Algeria). Taxonomic characterization and barcoding for all fish species and Inkscape schematic drawings for the most common species are provided. A total of 20 families and 37 species were recorded. The thermophilic species Coris julis, Thalassoma pavo, and Aphanius fasciatus and tropical species such as Gambusia holbrooki and Parablennius pilicornis were identified. Numerous Mediterranean species of socio-economic importance are highlighted, and detailed information is summarized for the lagoon’s sustainability. This short-term evaluation goes hand in hand with long-term programs documenting the interaction between indigenous and non-indigenous species in the lagoon and will allow the development of a provisional relationship model for future studies. Thermophilic and tropical species patterns in the Mellah lagoon are presented. Taken together, we provide useful data that can guide future investigations and may become a potential management tool for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and protecting species with large socio-economic roles from potential thermal stress impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impact on Sustainability of Aquatic Organisms)
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20 pages, 2456 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting Efficiency of Biosorption of Fe (III) and Zn (II) by Ulva lactuca and Corallina officinalis and Their Activated Carbons
by Mahy M. Ameen, Abdelraouf A. Moustafa, Jelan Mofeed, Mustapha Hasnaoui, Oladokun Sulaiman Olanrewaju, Umberto Lazzaro and Giulia Guerriero
Water 2021, 13(23), 3421; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233421 - 3 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3201
Abstract
The removal of heavy metals from industrial waste has become crucial in order to maintain water quality levels that are suitable for environmental and species reproductive health. The biosorption of Zn+2 and Fe+3 ions from aqueous solution was investigated using Ulva [...] Read more.
The removal of heavy metals from industrial waste has become crucial in order to maintain water quality levels that are suitable for environmental and species reproductive health. The biosorption of Zn+2 and Fe+3 ions from aqueous solution was investigated using Ulva lactuca green algal biomass and Corallina officinalis red algal biomass, as well as their activated carbons. The effects of biosorbent dosage, pH, contact time, initial metal concentration, and temperature on biosorption were evaluated. The maximum monolayer capacity of Ulva lactuca and Corallina officinalis dry algal powder and algal activated carbon was reached at pH 5 and 3 for Zn+2 and Fe+3, respectively, while the other factors were similar for both algae, which were: contact time 120 min, adsorbent dose 1 g, temperature 40 °C and initial concentrations of metal ion 50 mg·L−1. The batch experimental data can be modelled using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Thermodynamic characteristics revealed that the adsorption process occurs naturally and is endothermic and spontaneous. For the adsorption of Zn+2 and Fe+3 ions, the value of G° was found to be negative, confirming the practicality of the spontaneous adsorption process, which could be helpful for remediation in the era of temperature increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impact on Sustainability of Aquatic Organisms)
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20 pages, 5683 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Temperature, Light, and Feeding on the Physiology of Pocillopora damicornis, Stylophora pistillata, and Turbinaria reniformis Corals
by Kerri L. Dobson, Christine Ferrier-Pagès, Casey M. Saup and Andréa G. Grottoli
Water 2021, 13(15), 2048; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152048 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3373
Abstract
Evidence has shown that individually feeding or reduced light can mitigate the negative effects of elevated temperature on coral physiology. We aimed to evaluate if simultaneous low light and feeding would mitigate, minimize, or exacerbate negative effects of elevated temperature on coral physiology [...] Read more.
Evidence has shown that individually feeding or reduced light can mitigate the negative effects of elevated temperature on coral physiology. We aimed to evaluate if simultaneous low light and feeding would mitigate, minimize, or exacerbate negative effects of elevated temperature on coral physiology and carbon budgets. Pocillopora damicornis, Stylophora pistillata, and Turbinaria reniformis were grown for 28 days under a fully factorial experiment including two seawater temperatures (ambient temperature of 25 °C, elevated temperature of 30 °C), two light levels (high light of 300 μmol photons m−2 s−1, low light of 150 μmol photons m−2 s−1), and either fed (Artemia nauplii) or unfed. Coral physiology was significantly affected by temperature in all species, but the way in which low light and feeding altered their physiological responses was species-specific. All three species photo-acclimated to low light by increasing chlorophyll a. Pocillopora damicornis required feeding to meet metabolic demand irrespective of temperature but was unable to maintain calcification under low light when fed. In T. reniformis, low light mitigated the negative effect of elevated temperature on total lipids, while feeding mitigated the negative effects of elevated temperature on metabolic demand. In S. pistillata, low light compounded the negative effects of elevated temperature on metabolic demand, while feeding minimized this negative effect but was not sufficient to provide 100% metabolic demand. Overall, low light and feeding did not act synergistically, nor additively, to mitigate the negative effects of elevated temperature on P. damicornis, S. pistillata, or T. reniformis. However, feeding alone was critical to the maintenance of metabolic demand at elevated temperature, suggesting that sufficient supply of heterotrophic food sources is likely essential for corals during thermal stress (bleaching) events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impact on Sustainability of Aquatic Organisms)
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24 pages, 2141 KiB  
Article
Advances in Egyptian Mediterranean Coast Climate Change Monitoring
by Matteo Gentilucci, Abdelraouf A. Moustafa, Fagr Kh. Abdel-Gawad, Samira R. Mansour, Maria Rosaria Coppola, Lidia Caserta, Sara Inglese, Gilberto Pambianchi and Giulia Guerriero
Water 2021, 13(13), 1870; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131870 - 5 Jul 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4527
Abstract
This paper characterizes non-indigenous fish species (NIS) and analyses both atmospheric and sea surface temperatures for the Mediterranean coast of Egypt from 1991 to 2020, in relation to previous reports in the same areas. Taxonomical characterization depicts 47 NIS from the Suez Canal [...] Read more.
This paper characterizes non-indigenous fish species (NIS) and analyses both atmospheric and sea surface temperatures for the Mediterranean coast of Egypt from 1991 to 2020, in relation to previous reports in the same areas. Taxonomical characterization depicts 47 NIS from the Suez Canal (Lessepsian/alien) and 5 from the Atlantic provenance. GenBank accession number of the NIS mitochondrial gene, cytochrome oxidase 1, reproductive and commercial biodata, and a schematic Inkscape drawing for the most harmful Lessepsian species were reported. For sea surface temperatures (SST), an increase of 1.2 °C to 1.6 °C was observed using GIS software. The lack of linear correlation between annual air temperature and annual SST at the same detection points (Pearson r) could suggest a difference in submarine currents, whereas the Pettitt homogeneity test highlights a temperature breakpoint in 2005–2006 that may have favoured the settlement of non-indigenous fauna in the coastal sites of Damiette, El Arish, El Hammam, Alexandria, El Alamain, and Mersa Matruh, while there seems to be a breakpoint present in 2001 for El Sallum. This assessment of climate trends is in good agreement with the previous sightings of non-native fish species. New insights into the assessment of Egyptian coastal climate change are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impact on Sustainability of Aquatic Organisms)
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24 pages, 3097 KiB  
Article
Examining the Effect of Heat Stress on Montastraea cavernosa (Linnaeus 1767) from a Mesophotic Coral Ecosystem (MCE)
by John E. Skutnik, Sango Otieno, Sok Kean Khoo and Kevin B. Strychar
Water 2020, 12(5), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051303 - 5 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2945
Abstract
Coral reefs are under increasing pressure from global warming. Little knowledge, however, exists regarding heat induced stress on deeper mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs). Here, we examined the effect of acute (72 h) and chronic (480 h) heat stress on the host coral Montastraea [...] Read more.
Coral reefs are under increasing pressure from global warming. Little knowledge, however, exists regarding heat induced stress on deeper mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs). Here, we examined the effect of acute (72 h) and chronic (480 h) heat stress on the host coral Montastraea cavernosa (Linnaeus 1767) collected from an upper MCE (~30 m) in Florida, USA. We examined six immune/stress-related genes: ribosomal protein L9 (RpL9), ribosomal protein S7 (RpS7), B-cell lymphoma 2 apoptosis regulator (BCL-2), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), catalase, and cathepsin L1, as a proxy for coral response to heat stress. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to evaluate the gene expression. Overall, both acute and chronic heat stress treatments elicited a response in gene expression relative to control samples. Acute heat exposure resulted in up-regulation of catalase, BCL-2, and HSP90 at all time points from hour 24 to 48, suggesting the activation of an oxidative protective enzyme, molecular chaperone, and anti-apoptotic protein. Fewer genes were up-regulated in the chronic experiment until hour 288 (30 °C) where catalase, RpL9, and RpS7 were significantly up-regulated. Chronic heat exposure elicited a physiological response at 30 °C, which we propose as a heat-stress threshold for Montastraea cavernosa (M. cavernosa) collected from an MCE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impact on Sustainability of Aquatic Organisms)
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Review

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20 pages, 2572 KiB  
Review
Climate Change and Reproductive Biocomplexity in Fishes: Innovative Management Approaches towards Sustainability of Fisheries and Aquaculture
by Anisa Mitra, Fagr Kh. Abdel-Gawad, Samah Bassem, Prabal Barua, Loredana Assisi, Costantino Parisi, Tarek A. Temraz, Rubina Vangone, Kimia Kajbaf, Vikas Kumar and Giulia Guerriero
Water 2023, 15(4), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040725 - 12 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 8775
Abstract
The ongoing rapid climate change, combined with the disturbance of fish breeding grounds, may impact reproduction by endangering successful breeding and survival, and thus affect the viable sustainability in aquaculture systems as well as in the sea. In this study we focus on [...] Read more.
The ongoing rapid climate change, combined with the disturbance of fish breeding grounds, may impact reproduction by endangering successful breeding and survival, and thus affect the viable sustainability in aquaculture systems as well as in the sea. In this study we focus on the biocomplexity of fish reproduction in response to climate change. Further, we propose adaptive strategies, including technological advancements, using a noninvasive and non-lethal approach, and we outline an assisted reproduction and nutrigenomics approach to mitigating fish reproductive risks posed by climate change. This was done in an effort to monitor fish aquaculture and ensure that, as a livelihood, it may provide a useful source of nutrition for our society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impact on Sustainability of Aquatic Organisms)
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