Novel Approaches to Nutrients and Pollutants Removal from Wastewaters

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2023) | Viewed by 27062

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Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Josip Juraj University of Osijek, Franje Kuhaca 18, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
Interests: water quality monitoring; drinking water and wastewater treatment; adsorption; arsenic; nutrients
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 21st century brings many challenges for humankind among which demands for the continuous availability of safe water takes priority. Water is a unique and unreplaceable natural resource, crucial for human health and wellbeing, and despite that fact, each day we are witnessing human interruptions to the Water Cycle where water pollution makes one of the negative ones.

The World Economic Forum ranks the water crisis in the top three global risks, while the General Assembly of United Nations (UN) proclaims the period from 2018 to 2028 as the UN Water Action Decade in order to improve educational outreach related to water and water pollution control and to improve communication to achieve water-related goals.

For the achievement of those ambitious goals, effective water treatments, i.e., effective removal of nutrients and pollutants from wastewaters should be applied prior to their discharge into ecosystems.

As Guest Editor for a Special Issue “Novel Approaches to Nutrients and Pollutants Removal from Wastewaters”, I have the honour of inviting you to publish a feature paper in this issue, as your contribution to achieving UN Sustainable Development Goals, especially for Goal & Clean Water and Sanitation.

Within this framework, for this Special Issue, I would like to invite original research contributions, review articles, as well as short communications that emphasize and gives an overview of the novel, approaches in wastewater treatment, especially focused on the latest achievements and novel techniques, materials, and methods for effective nutrient and pollutant removal from wastewater. Please feel free to reach me or alexandra.wang@mdpi.com should you have any questions. 

Prof. Dr. Mirna Habuda-Stanic
Guest Editor

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wastewater treatment
  • nutrients removal
  • inorganic pollutants removal
  • organic pollutants removal
  • physicochemical methods
  • biological methods
  • chemical methods

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 3109 KiB  
Article
Coupled In-Situ Fermentation for Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal from Digested Swine Wastewater
by Yifang Liao, Chiqian Zhang, Ping Li, Tao Feng and Jinhua Wu
Water 2024, 16(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010080 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1191
Abstract
This study demonstrated the feasibility of enhanced biological phosphorus removal coupled with in-situ fermentation (EBPR-F) to improve phosphorus removal from real digested swine wastewater. We used fermentable substrates (casein hydrolysate and glucose) as the external carbon sources to promote in-situ fermentation and enhance [...] Read more.
This study demonstrated the feasibility of enhanced biological phosphorus removal coupled with in-situ fermentation (EBPR-F) to improve phosphorus removal from real digested swine wastewater. We used fermentable substrates (casein hydrolysate and glucose) as the external carbon sources to promote in-situ fermentation and enhance biological phosphorus removal. Compared with conventional EBPR dominated by Candidatus Accumulibacter, EBPR-F had significantly better phosphorus removal with enriched polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs). Under supplementation with 100 mg/L glucose, total phosphorus (TP) removal was over 95% in EBPR-F, with an average TP concentration in the effluent below 1.0 mg/L, satisfying the discharge standard (8 mg P/L) in China. The PAO activity and relative abundance of Candidatus Accumulibacter (44.7% ± 3.1%) and Tetrasphaera (18.1% ± 6.6%) in EBPR-F were much higher than those in EBPR. The improvement in phosphorus removal of EBPR-F was due to the enrichment of Tetrasphaera through the enhanced in-situ fermentation, as Tetrasphaera can efficiently ferment complex organic matter and provide bioavailable organics for phosphorus removal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Nutrients and Pollutants Removal from Wastewaters)
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20 pages, 3515 KiB  
Article
Utilization of Modified Sunflower Seed as Novel Adsorbent for Nitrates Removal from Wastewater
by Antonija Kristek Janković, Mirna Habuda-Stanić, Huiyu Dong, Ana Tutić, Željka Romić, Maja Ergović Ravančić, Tibela Landeka Dragičević and Mario Šiljeg
Water 2024, 16(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010073 - 24 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1437
Abstract
The food processing waste, sunflower seed shells (SS), were chemically modified and tested as adsorbents for nitrate removal from water and wastewater. Chemical modification of the SS implied a quaternization reaction. Efficiency and mechanisms of nitrate removal from water by modified sunflower seed [...] Read more.
The food processing waste, sunflower seed shells (SS), were chemically modified and tested as adsorbents for nitrate removal from water and wastewater. Chemical modification of the SS implied a quaternization reaction. Efficiency and mechanisms of nitrate removal from water by modified sunflower seed shells (MSS) were examined using model nitrate solution (MS) and samples of real wastewater (RW) in batch adsorption experiments while the regeneration capacity was tested by fixed bed adsorption column and regeneration experiments. The MSS had the highest nitrate adsorption capacity of 12.98 mg g−1 for model nitrate solution, 12.16 mg g−1 for model wastewater, 13.70 mg g−1 for the wastewater generated by the confectionery industry (CI), and 12.52 mg g−1 for the wastewater generated from the meat industry (MI). Equilibrium data were analyzed, and results demonstrated a better fit for the Freundlich isotherm model, while kinetic models showed that the adsorption has pseudo-second-order kinetics. Adsorption and desorption experiments in fixed bed columns showed good MSS regeneration performances and efficiency after a minimum of three cycles. Lower efficiencies of regenerated MSS were noted when real confectionery and meat industry effluent were treated. Environmental toxicity of nitrate saturated MSS was tested using an acute toxicity test with freshwater plankton Daphnia magna. SS showed very good properties and could be competitive among already known and existing “low-cost” adsorbents as potential adsorbents for nitrate removal from water and wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Nutrients and Pollutants Removal from Wastewaters)
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25 pages, 4708 KiB  
Article
Numerical Modelling and Performance Evaluation of Vacuum Membrane Distillation for Energy-Efficient Seawater Desalination: Towards Energy-Efficient Solutions
by Zakaria Triki, Zineb Fergani, Sabrina Lekmine, Hichem Tahraoui, Abdeltif Amrane, Meriem Zamouche, Mohammed Kebir, Amin Aymen Assadi, Lotfi Khezami and Jie Zhang
Water 2023, 15(20), 3612; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203612 - 16 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is a compelling technique for desalinating water because it exhibits superior pure water permeability at lower operating temperatures compared to other membrane distillation technologies. This leads to reduced energy consumption, lower heat loss via conduction across the membrane surface, [...] Read more.
Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is a compelling technique for desalinating water because it exhibits superior pure water permeability at lower operating temperatures compared to other membrane distillation technologies. This leads to reduced energy consumption, lower heat loss via conduction across the membrane surface, and minimal heat transfer through conduction due to the low pressure on the permeate side. Detailed modelling of heat and mass transfer in VMD is essential for optimizing the process as it provides valuable insights that contribute to the advancement and successful implementation of seawater desalination using VMD technology. The aim of this study is to establish a comprehensive numerical model that describes the water vapor transfer across a hydrophobic micro-porous membrane in single-stage and multi-stage VMD processes for seawater desalination. The numerical predictions were compared to experimental data in addition to numerical computations based on an existing literature database, and good agreement has been found. The investigation also conducted a sensitivity analysis of process variables and membrane specifications on the VMD performance, as well as an assessment of the impact of temperature and concentration polarization. The obtained results showed that the permeation flux reached 18.42 kg/m2·h at 35 g/L feed concentration, 65 °C feed temperature, 50 L/h feed flow rate, and 3 kPa vacuum pressure. Moreover, the findings revealed that the feed temperature was the most significant factor, while the feed flow rate was the least important in determining the permeation flux. Additionally, the findings suggested that the effectiveness of the VMD process heavily relies on the composition and permeability of the support materials. Finally, the results confirmed that temperature polarization had a more significant effect on the reduction of the permeate flux than the concentration polarization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Nutrients and Pollutants Removal from Wastewaters)
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17 pages, 3523 KiB  
Article
Technological and Economic Optimization of Wheat Straw Black Liquor Decolorization by Activated Carbon
by Gabriel Dan Suditu, Elena Niculina Drăgoi, Adrian Cătălin Puițel and Mircea Teodor Nechita
Water 2023, 15(16), 2911; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162911 - 12 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Wheat straws are a globally abundant agro-waste that may play a critical role in the global transition from single-use plastics to green materials as an inexpensive and renewable raw material. Vast amounts of wastewater are produced during the technological process of wheat straw-cellulose/hemicellulose [...] Read more.
Wheat straws are a globally abundant agro-waste that may play a critical role in the global transition from single-use plastics to green materials as an inexpensive and renewable raw material. Vast amounts of wastewater are produced during the technological process of wheat straw-cellulose/hemicellulose conversion. In this context, this work focuses on wastewater decolorization via activated carbon adsorption. A set of carefully planned experiments enabled the identification of a model that described the relationship between the system’s outputs and parameters. While process optimization is frequently connected with identifying process parameters that improve efficiency, this work employed a multi-objective optimization approach from both a technological and economic aspect. Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm versions II and III—NSGA-II and NSGA-III algorithms—were applied. As objectives, maximum efficiency and minimum cost per experiment were followed in different scenarios using pseudoweights and trade-off metrics. When optimizing only the efficiency, the results indicated a 95.54% decolorization yield, costing 0.1228 Euro/experiment, and when considering both the efficiency and cost, different solutions were obtained. The lowest cost was 0.0619, with a 74.42% decolorization. These findings indicate that incorporating an economic perspective into the optimization procedure can improve cost estimation and facilitate managerial decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Nutrients and Pollutants Removal from Wastewaters)
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13 pages, 6140 KiB  
Article
Influence of Radical Scavenger on Radiation Synthesis of Graphene Oxide/TiO2 Nanotubes/Ag Nanoparticles Nanocomposites and Their Dye Photodegradation Efficiency
by Anh Phuong Thi Nguyen, Thuy Thanh Thi Nguyen and Khoa Dang Nguyen Vo
Water 2023, 15(15), 2799; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152799 - 2 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Aqueous solutions of graphene oxide (GO), TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs), and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized through a facile, single-step radiolytic method at room temperature and ambient pressure. The resulting material, referred to as GO-TNTs-AgNPs (GTA), was investigated for its potential application in [...] Read more.
Aqueous solutions of graphene oxide (GO), TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs), and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized through a facile, single-step radiolytic method at room temperature and ambient pressure. The resulting material, referred to as GO-TNTs-AgNPs (GTA), was investigated for its potential application in the photodegradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) dye. This synthesis process relies on the interaction of high-energy gamma rays from a 60Co source with the water in the aqueous solutions. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation dose and the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution on the combination within the nanocomposite materials. The inefficiency of GTA synthesis experimentally was in agreement with the hydroxyl radical (HO•) scavenger. Then, the irradiated materials were structurally characterized using various spectroscopic methods (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible absorption (UV–Vis)). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal the variable morphology of nanocomposites. GTA samples in water exhibited significantly higher degradation efficiency on Rhodamine B dye under natural sunlight irradiation conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Nutrients and Pollutants Removal from Wastewaters)
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15 pages, 3415 KiB  
Article
Removal of Ibuprofen and Diclofenac in Batch Nitrifying Reactors: Effect of Natural Zeolite on the Process
by Jenny Escobar, Leslie Hernández, Jorge Leiva González, Ricardo Salazar-González, Wendy Calzadilla, Lorna Guerrero, Néstor Escalona and César Huiliñir
Water 2023, 15(14), 2665; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142665 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1593
Abstract
Ibuprofen (IBP) and diclofenac (DFC) are two of the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat inflammation and pain. However, they can impact the environment if not treated adequately before discharge into waterways. Biodegradation through the nitrification process is an alternative [...] Read more.
Ibuprofen (IBP) and diclofenac (DFC) are two of the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat inflammation and pain. However, they can impact the environment if not treated adequately before discharge into waterways. Biodegradation through the nitrification process is an alternative to reducing the concentration of these micropollutants (MPs) in wastewater. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the effect of natural zeolite on IBP and DFC removal in a nitrifying batch reactor. Mini-reactors were set up with 90 mL of inoculum and 110 mL of synthetic wastewater with a concentration of 25 mg total ammonia nitrogen TAN/L, at 25 °C and 1 vvm (volume of air/volume liquid∙min) of aeration. Two conditions were tested: high concentrations (IBP = 700 μg/L, DFC = 100 μg/L) and low concentrations (IBP = 30 μg/L, DFC = 20 μg/L). The research used a concentration of 5 g/L of the natural zeolite. Results indicated that the zeolite negatively affected the nitrification rate. At high MPs concentration, the natural zeolite negatively affects the removal of IBP and DFC, where biodegradation and sorption are the mechanisms that eliminate both NSAIDs. Conversely, at low DFC and IBP concentrations, the natural zeolite improves the removal of IBP and DFC, wherein biodegradation is the primary removal mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Nutrients and Pollutants Removal from Wastewaters)
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13 pages, 1295 KiB  
Article
Design of Chitosan-Polyester Composites to Reduce Particulate Contamination of Washing Wastewater
by Tea Kaurin, Mirjana Čurlin, Ana Šaravanja, Branka Vojnović and Tanja Pušić
Water 2023, 15(13), 2418; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132418 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1230
Abstract
In this research, the modification of different polyester structures (fabrics and knits) by the biopolymer chitosan was studied to evaluate the effects of the polyester structure and treatments on the particulate pollution of wastewater. The pristine polyester and the chitosan-polyester fabric and polyester [...] Read more.
In this research, the modification of different polyester structures (fabrics and knits) by the biopolymer chitosan was studied to evaluate the effects of the polyester structure and treatments on the particulate pollution of wastewater. The pristine polyester and the chitosan-polyester fabric and polyester knit composites were washed cyclically with standard ECE A detergent at 60 °C. The laser diffraction technique was used to characterize the particle size of the washing wastewaters from the 1–5, 6–10 and 1–10 wash cycles. In addition, the total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were also determined, according to standard procedures. The obtained results show the influence of the polyester fabrics and polyester knit structures and chitosan-polyester composites on the particle size distribution (PSD) in the washing wastewater. Differences in the values of the characteristic parameters, especially the span value and shape factor (k) of the individual curves, are visible, indicating the release of particles during the washing process. The experimental results show that the laser diffraction technique is suitable for characterizing the particle dimensions of the washing wastewater for different pristine polyester structures and chitosan-polyester composites. Modification with chitosan has been shown to provide potential protection against the release of microplastic particles into the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Nutrients and Pollutants Removal from Wastewaters)
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13 pages, 2840 KiB  
Article
Composite Polysilicate Metal Coagulants for Simultaneous Removal of Organic Matter, Phosphorus, and Ammonium-Nitrogen: Effects of Metal/Silicate Molar Ratio and Basicity
by Hanxu Guo, Peng Li, Lianfeng Du, Guoyuan Zou and Xuan Guo
Water 2023, 15(9), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091782 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Coagulation can effectively recover substances from wastewater; however, there is a lack of efficient coagulants for simultaneous recovery of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus. We prepared a composite polysilicate metal (CSM) flocculant by combining Fe3+ and Mg2+ ions in polysilicic acid [...] Read more.
Coagulation can effectively recover substances from wastewater; however, there is a lack of efficient coagulants for simultaneous recovery of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus. We prepared a composite polysilicate metal (CSM) flocculant by combining Fe3+ and Mg2+ ions in polysilicic acid (PSiA). According to the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the CSM exhibited a larger amorphous phase along with new compounds, including Mg3Fe2(SiO4)3 and hydroxyl metals. The CSM demonstrated a higher coagulation efficiency than PSiA and polymeric ferric sulfate, particularly for PO43−-P and NH4+-N removal. The metal/silicate molar ratio substantially influenced the structure and composition of the CSM, along with the coagulation efficiency, with an optimal ratio of 3:1. Additionally, we proposed a novel preparation strategy to achieve an optimum CSM basicity (B*) for coagulation by adjusting the initial pH of PSiA (pHInitial) without adding an alkali agent. The results demonstrated that the optimum B* can be obtained by adjusting pHInitial to 0.5 or 1. The overall optimum coagulation performance for the simultaneous removal of organic matter, PO43−P, and NH4+-N from wastewater was 68.5%, 99%, and 17.5%, respectively. This study provides a feasible approach for synchronous pollutant recovery from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Nutrients and Pollutants Removal from Wastewaters)
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14 pages, 3623 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Heavy Metal Contamination in Macroalgae from Surface Waters in Djelfa, Algeria
by Meriem Dehbi, Faouzia Dehbi, Muhammad Imran Kanjal, Hichem Tahraoui, Meriem Zamouche, Abdeltif Amrane, Aymen Amine Assadi, Amina Hadadi and Lotfi Mouni
Water 2023, 15(5), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050974 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2363
Abstract
The heavy metals concentration in algae can be used as a bioindicator of the pollution of an ecosystem. In the present study, we determined the levels of the elements Fe, Pb, Cu, and Zn in chlorophyta of the species Cladophora, Spirogyra, Chara, and [...] Read more.
The heavy metals concentration in algae can be used as a bioindicator of the pollution of an ecosystem. In the present study, we determined the levels of the elements Fe, Pb, Cu, and Zn in chlorophyta of the species Cladophora, Spirogyra, Chara, and Zygnema. The samples were collected in February of 2021 in three different locations in Algeria (Dar El Chioukh lake, Oued Mellah, and Oued Boucedira). Our results showed that all four algae species accumulated high levels of heavy metals in surface water, with concentrations ranging from 3.14 to 5600 mg/kg. The Pb levels in all four species exceeded the recommended standard set by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) of 0.574 mg/kg, with the highest concentration of 50.85 mg/kg recorded in Cladophora at the first location. Similarly, Fe and Cu levels were found to be above the recommended standard, with maximum concentrations of 5600 mg/kg and 82.5 mg/kg, respectively. On the other hand, Zn levels were found to be lower than the standard of 128 mg/kg, with the highest concentration of 47.5 mg/kg recorded in Spirogyra at the third location. The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the heavy metal pollution of these waters was of anthropogenic origin, likely stemming from urban, industrial, and agricultural activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Nutrients and Pollutants Removal from Wastewaters)
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22 pages, 3226 KiB  
Article
The Role of Oxygenated Functional Groups on Cadmium Removal using Pyrochar and Hydrochar Derived from Guadua angustifolia Residues
by Carlos Navas-Cárdenas, Manuel Caetano, Diana Endara, Rocío Jiménez, Ana B. Lozada, Lucía E. Manangón, Angélica Navarrete, Carlos Reinoso, Alicia E. Sommer-Márquez and Yanet Villasana
Water 2023, 15(3), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030525 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3188
Abstract
In the Ecuadorian Amazonia, there is a concern about the presence of high concentrations of cadmium (Cd) in rivers and sediments because of changes in land use and anthropogenic activities, e.g., mining and oil exploitation. Hence, the research related to water treatment processes [...] Read more.
In the Ecuadorian Amazonia, there is a concern about the presence of high concentrations of cadmium (Cd) in rivers and sediments because of changes in land use and anthropogenic activities, e.g., mining and oil exploitation. Hence, the research related to water treatment processes to meet environmental standards has gained relevance. The use of biochar (BC) as adsorbent is considered a promising and low-cost alternative to improve the water quality in developing countries. In this work, lignocellulosic wastes from Guadua angustifolia were transformed through thermochemical treatments, into a promising carbonaceous material, such as BC. BC samples were prepared by pyrolysis (termed pyrochar, PC) and hydrothermal carbonization (termed hydrochar, HC). Their physicochemical properties were correlated with the Cd adsorption removal performance, analyzing the effect of adsorbent dosage, initial solution pH, adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms. HC showed the highest Cd adsorption performance, due to the presence of a higher number of oxygenated functional groups, as confirmed by FTIR, XPS and Raman spectroscopy. This research has proposed a sustainable alternative for the recovery of an available waste, contributing to mitigate the effects of the presence of metals on the health and economy of the most vulnerable sectors of society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Nutrients and Pollutants Removal from Wastewaters)
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Review

Jump to: Research

17 pages, 875 KiB  
Review
The Bacterial Degradation of Lignin—A Review
by Dijana Grgas, Matea Rukavina, Drago Bešlo, Tea Štefanac, Vlado Crnek, Tanja Šikić, Mirna Habuda-Stanić and Tibela Landeka Dragičević
Water 2023, 15(7), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071272 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 10030
Abstract
Microbial degradation of lignin, a natural complex biopolymer, a renewable raw material with a wide range of applications, has been mainly directed at fungal systems, nevertheless, recent studies have proposed the bacterial role in lignin degradation and modification since bacteria possess remarkable environmental [...] Read more.
Microbial degradation of lignin, a natural complex biopolymer, a renewable raw material with a wide range of applications, has been mainly directed at fungal systems, nevertheless, recent studies have proposed the bacterial role in lignin degradation and modification since bacteria possess remarkable environmental adaptability, and various production of enzymes and biochemistry. An occurrence of a high proportion of lignin-degrading genes has been confirmed in actinobacteria and proteobacteria classes by bioinformatics analysis, which points to the probability of undiscovered pathways and enzymes. Because of that, bacterial lignin decomposition might be substantially different from fungal lignin decomposition. Bacteria capable of lignin modification and degradation belong to actinomycetes, some Firmicutes, α-proteobacteria, and γ-proteobacteria. The enzymes responsible for lignin degradation are lignin peroxidase, manganese-dependent peroxidase, versatile peroxidase, dye-decolourizing peroxidase, and laccases. One of the main lignin producers is the pulp and paper manufacturing industry. Lignolytic microorganisms have been identified from diverse habitats, such as in plants, soil, wood, and the gut. Bacterial strains Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Sterptomyces, and Pseudomonas have been reported to have lignin decomposition ability. This review aims to describe the role of bacteria in lignin degradation, bacterial species, and bacterial enzymes included in lignin degradation. Several reports about bacterial species involved in lignin degradation are also highlighted, and the current state of the knowledge on the degradation of lignin from the pulp and paper manufacturing industry are reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Nutrients and Pollutants Removal from Wastewaters)
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