Eye and Head Movements in Visuomotor Tasks

A special issue of Vision (ISSN 2411-5150).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 5380

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
College of Optometry, The Ohio State University, 338 W 10th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210-1240, USA
Interests: eye and head tracking; binocular vision; nystagmus; space perception; sports vision

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The development of wearable tracking technologies has promoted studies on eye and head movements, given that individuals perform visuomotor tasks with unrestrained head movement. These studies have implications for performance in tasks such as driving and sports, and for clinical disorders of eye–head coordination. In this feature issue, we invite both original and review articles that examine the manner in which the eyes and head are coordinated in both normal and disease states when individuals are engaged in everyday activities and in naturalistic tasks, such as those in sports, driving, or piloting aircraft. This Special Issue aims to collate studies on eye–head coordination that utilize techniques including, but not limited to, eye and head tracking, neuroimaging, and virtual reality. 

Prof. Dr. Nicklaus Fogt
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 4536 KiB  
Communication
Dynamic Visual Acuity, Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex, and Visual Field in National Football League (NFL) Officiating: Physiology and Visualization Engineering for 3D Virtual On-Field Training
by Joshua Ong, Nicole V. Carrabba, Ethan Waisberg, Nasif Zaman, Hamza Memon, Nicholas Panzo, Virginia A. Lee, Prithul Sarker, Ashtyn Z. Vogt, Noor Laylani, Alireza Tavakkoli and Andrew G. Lee
Vision 2024, 8(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision8020035 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 526
Abstract
The ability to make on-field, split-second decisions is critical for National Football League (NFL) game officials. Multiple principles in visual function are critical for accuracy and precision of these play calls, including foveation time and unobstructed line of sight, static visual acuity, dynamic [...] Read more.
The ability to make on-field, split-second decisions is critical for National Football League (NFL) game officials. Multiple principles in visual function are critical for accuracy and precision of these play calls, including foveation time and unobstructed line of sight, static visual acuity, dynamic visual acuity, vestibulo-ocular reflex, and sufficient visual field. Prior research has shown that a standardized curriculum in these neuro-ophthalmic principles have demonstrated validity and self-rated improvements in understanding, confidence, and likelihood of future utilization by NFL game officials to maximize visual performance during officiating. Virtual reality technology may also be able to help optimize understandings of specific neuro-ophthalmic principles and simulate real-life gameplay. Personal communication between authors and NFL officials and leadership have indicated that there is high interest in 3D virtual on-field training for NFL officiating. In this manuscript, we review the current and past research in this space regarding a neuro-ophthalmic curriculum for NFL officials. We then provide an overview our current visualization engineering process in taking real-life NFL gameplay 2D data and creating 3D environments for virtual reality gameplay training for football officials to practice plays that highlight neuro-ophthalmic principles. We then review in-depth the physiology behind these principles and discuss strategies to implement these principles into virtual reality for football officiating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye and Head Movements in Visuomotor Tasks)
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11 pages, 2625 KiB  
Article
Properties of Gaze Strategies Based on Eye–Head Coordination in a Ball-Catching Task
by Seiji Ono, Yusei Yoshimura, Ryosuke Shinkai and Tomohiro Kizuka
Vision 2024, 8(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision8020020 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 804
Abstract
Visual motion information plays an important role in the control of movements in sports. Skilled ball players are thought to acquire accurate visual information by using an effective visual search strategy with eye and head movements. However, differences in catching ability and gaze [...] Read more.
Visual motion information plays an important role in the control of movements in sports. Skilled ball players are thought to acquire accurate visual information by using an effective visual search strategy with eye and head movements. However, differences in catching ability and gaze movements due to sports experience and expertise have not been clarified. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of gaze strategies based on eye and head movements during a ball-catching task in athlete and novice groups. Participants were softball and tennis players and college students who were not experienced in ball sports (novice). They performed a one-handed catching task using a tennis ball-shooting machine, which was placed at 9 m in front of the participants, and two conditions were set depending on the height of the ball trajectory (high and low conditions). Their head and eye velocities were detected using a gyroscope and electrooculography (EOG) during the task. Our results showed that the upward head velocity and the downward eye velocity were lower in the softball group than in the tennis and novice groups. When the head was pitched upward, the downward eye velocity was induced from the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during ball catching. Therefore, it is suggested that skilled ball players have relatively stable head and eye movements, which may lead to an effective gaze strategy. An advantage of the stationary gaze in the softball group could be to acquire visual information about the surroundings other than the ball. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye and Head Movements in Visuomotor Tasks)
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Review

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26 pages, 342 KiB  
Review
Studies of Vision in Cricket—A Narrative Review
by Jennifer Swingle Fogt and Nick Fogt
Vision 2023, 7(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7030057 - 28 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1800
Abstract
Vision is thought to play a substantial role in hitting and fielding in cricket. An understanding of which visual skills contribute during cricket play could inform future clinical training trials. This paper reviews what has been reported thus far regarding the relationship of [...] Read more.
Vision is thought to play a substantial role in hitting and fielding in cricket. An understanding of which visual skills contribute during cricket play could inform future clinical training trials. This paper reviews what has been reported thus far regarding the relationship of visual skills to cricket performance and reviews the results of clinical trials in which the impact of visual skills training on cricket performance has been addressed. Fundamental or low-level visual skills, with the exception of color vision and perhaps near stereopsis and dynamic visual acuity, are similar between cricket players and the general population. Simple reaction time has been found to be shorter in cricket players in some but not all studies. While there is mixed or no evidence that the aforementioned visual skills are superior in cricket players compared to non-players, comparisons of eye and head movements and gaze tracking have revealed consistent differences between elite cricket batters and sub-elite batters. Future training studies could examine whether teaching sub-elite batters to emulate the gaze tracking patterns of elite batters is beneficial for batting. Lastly, clinical trials in which visual skills of cricket players have been trained have in many cases resulted in positive effects on visual skills, or judgments required in cricket, or cricket play. However, clinical trials with larger and more diverse groups of participants and correlations to on-field metrics and on-field performance (i.e., domain-specific assessments) are necessary before conclusions can be drawn regarding the efficacy of vision training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye and Head Movements in Visuomotor Tasks)

Other

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8 pages, 1045 KiB  
Case Report
Postural and Proprioceptive Deficits Clinically Assessed in Children with Reading Disabilities: A Case-Control Study
by Franck Scheveig and Maria Pia Bucci
Vision 2023, 7(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7020037 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Several studies have reported motor deficiencies in children with dyslexia, in line with the cerebellar deficit theory. In the present study, we explored whether tests used by physiotherapists during clinical evaluation were able to report motor deficits in a group of fifty-six dyslexic [...] Read more.
Several studies have reported motor deficiencies in children with dyslexia, in line with the cerebellar deficit theory. In the present study, we explored whether tests used by physiotherapists during clinical evaluation were able to report motor deficits in a group of fifty-six dyslexic children (mean age 10.9 ± 0.2 years old) compared to a group of thirty-eight non-dyslexic children (mean age 11.2 ± 0.4 years old). The occurrence of instability on an unstable support; spinal instability in the sagittal, frontal and horizontal plane; head-eye discoordination; and poor eye stability were clinically assessed in the two groups of children. All such measures were found to be significantly more frequent in dyslexic than in non-dyslexic children (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively, for occurrence of instability on an unstable support, spinal instability, head-eye discoordination and poor eye stability). These results, firstly, confirmed the poor motor control of dyslexic children, suggesting deficient cerebellar integration. Secondly, for the first time, we reported that simple tests that can be done by pediatricians and/or during a clinical routine evaluation could be useful to discriminate children with reading difficulties. The tests used in this study could be a reference for a first exploration of motor deficiencies in children with dyslexia that can be easily assessed by clinicians and/or physiotherapists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye and Head Movements in Visuomotor Tasks)
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