Viral Diseases of Aquaculture: Epidemiology, Mechanism, Diagnosis and Treatment 2.0

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 January 2024) | Viewed by 6215

Special Issue Editors

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanning 530007, China
Interests: diseases of aquatic animals
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Harbin 150070, China
Interests: diseases of aquatic animals; fish viruses; epidemiology; co-infection; vaccine development
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the identification of the first aquatic animal virus, more than 70 have been isolated worldwide, with some members being highly virulent and widely distributed, causing huge global economic losses, and more than half of the OIE-listed ones being viral diseases. Despite a growing understanding of aquatic animal viruses in recent years, they still present serious threats to the sustainable development of aquaculture due to a high infectivity and lack of effective antiviral treatments. Viral diseases are the result of the “pathogen–host–environment” interaction. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment studies are critical to reveal the complexity of viral diseases and develop efficient prevention strategies against them in the field of aquaculture.

In this Special Issue on “Viral Diseases of Aquaculture: Epidemiology, Mechanism, Diagnosis and Treatment”, we seek research papers contributing to our understanding of viral diseases of aquaculture, studying topics including but not limited to epidemiology, emerging diseases, virus identification, virus infection mechanism, diagnosis, virulence, vaccines, and antiviral research.

Dr. Pengfei Li
Prof. Dr. Liming Xu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • viral diseases of aquaculture
  • emerging diseases
  • virus epidemiology
  • virus identification
  • infection mechanism
  • biosecurity
  • diagnostic techniques
  • virulence
  • antiviral research
  • vaccines

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

8 pages, 359 KiB  
Communication
Detection of Acipenser European Iridovirus (AcIV-E) in Sturgeon Farms in Northern Italy between 2021–2023
by Fabio Bondavalli, Dáša Schleicherová, Paolo Pastorino, Davide Mugetti, Claudio Pedron and Marino Prearo
Viruses 2024, 16(3), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16030465 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Sturgeon farming is rapidly expanding in Europe, where Italy ranks first in farmed caviar production. A major threat to sturgeon health in captivity is infection with Acipenser European Iridovirus (AcIV-E), a viral disease definitively identified in 2016. Here we present data on the [...] Read more.
Sturgeon farming is rapidly expanding in Europe, where Italy ranks first in farmed caviar production. A major threat to sturgeon health in captivity is infection with Acipenser European Iridovirus (AcIV-E), a viral disease definitively identified in 2016. Here we present data on the occurrence of AcIV-E in 482 sturgeons (age ≤ 12 months, species of the genus Acipenser and the species Huso huso) collected from sturgeon farms in northern Italy between January 2021 and December 2023. The health status of each specimen was determined by necroscopy and virological assay. Virological analysis was performed on gill samples and real-time PCR specific to the MCP gene of the iridovirus viral capsid. Molecular analysis revealed positivity to the virus in 204 samples (42.68% of the total), while anatomopathological examination of nearly all fish with positive real-time PCR disclosed swollen abdomen, hepatic steatosis, splenomegaly, and increased gill volume. Two challenges to timely diagnosis are the absence of pathognomonic symptoms and the inability to isolate the virus on cell monolayers. Continuous and widespread health monitoring is therefore crucial for disease management and to effectively control spread of the virus. Full article
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12 pages, 2850 KiB  
Article
Antiviral Effect and Mechanism of Edaravone against Grouper Iridovirus Infection
by Jihui Kuang, Mingzhu Liu, Qing Yu, Yuan Cheng, Jing Huang, Shuyu Han, Jingu Shi, Lin Huang and Pengfei Li
Viruses 2023, 15(11), 2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15112237 - 10 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 790
Abstract
Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is a virus with high fatality rate in the grouper culture industry. The outbreak of SGIV is often accompanied by a large number of grouper deaths, which has a great impact on the economy. Therefore, it is of great [...] Read more.
Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is a virus with high fatality rate in the grouper culture industry. The outbreak of SGIV is often accompanied by a large number of grouper deaths, which has a great impact on the economy. Therefore, it is of great significance to find effective drugs against SGIV. It has been reported that edaravone is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug, most widely used clinically in recent years, but no report has been found exploring the effect of edaravone on SGIV infections. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral effect of edaravone against SGIV, and the anti-SGIV mechanism of edaravone was also explored. It was found that the safe concentration of edaravone on grouper spleen (GS) cells was 50 µg/mL, and it possessed antiviral activity against SGIV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, edaravone could significantly disrupt SGIV particles and interference with SGIV binding to host cells, as well as SGIV replication in host cells. However, edaravone was not effective during the SGIV invasion into host cells. This study was the first time that it was determined that edaravone could exert antiviral effects in response to SGIV infection by directly interfering with the processes of SGIV infecting cells, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for the control of grouper virus disease. Full article
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24 pages, 5430 KiB  
Article
The Way of Water: Unravelling White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Transmission Dynamics in Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp
by Natasja Cox, Evelien De Swaef, Mathias Corteel, Wim Van Den Broeck, Peter Bossier, João J. Dantas-Lima and Hans J. Nauwynck
Viruses 2023, 15(9), 1824; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15091824 - 28 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1526
Abstract
White spot disease (WSD) is a severe viral threat to the global shrimp aquaculture industry. However, little is known about white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission dynamics. Our aim was to elucidate this in Litopenaeus vannamei using peroral in vivo WSSV challenge experiments. [...] Read more.
White spot disease (WSD) is a severe viral threat to the global shrimp aquaculture industry. However, little is known about white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission dynamics. Our aim was to elucidate this in Litopenaeus vannamei using peroral in vivo WSSV challenge experiments. We demonstrated that WSD progression was rapid and irreversible, leading to death within 78 h. Viral DNA shedding was detected within 6 h of disease onset. This shedding intensified over time, reaching a peak within 12 h of the time of death. Isolating shrimp (clinically healthy and diseased) from infected populations at different time points post-inoculation showed that host-to-host WSSV transmission was occurring around the time of death. Exposing sentinels to environmental components (i.e., water, feces, molts) collected from tanks housing WSSV-infected shrimp resulted in a significantly (p-value < 0.05) increased infection risk after exposure to water (1.0) compared to the risk of infection after exposure to feces (0.2) or molts (0.0). Furthermore, ingestion of WSSV-infected tissues (cannibalism) did not cause a significantly higher number of WSD cases compared to immersion in water in which the same degree of cannibalism had taken place. Full article
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12 pages, 10659 KiB  
Article
The Modulation of Immune Responses in Tilapinevirus tilapiae-Infected Fish Cells through MAPK/ERK Signalling
by Tuchakorn Lertwanakarn, Matepiya Khemthong, Puntanut Tattiyapong and Win Surachetpong
Viruses 2023, 15(4), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15040900 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is a novel RNA virus that has been causing substantial economic losses across the global tilapia industry. Despite extensive research on potential vaccines and disease control methods, the understanding of this viral infection and the associated host cell responses [...] Read more.
Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is a novel RNA virus that has been causing substantial economic losses across the global tilapia industry. Despite extensive research on potential vaccines and disease control methods, the understanding of this viral infection and the associated host cell responses remains incomplete. In this study, the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway in the early stages of TiLV infection was investigated. The results showed a distinct pattern of ERK phosphorylation (p-ERK) upon TiLV infection in two fish cell lines, E-11 and TiB. Specifically, the p-ERK levels in the TiB cells decreased substantially, while the p-ERK levels in the E-11 cells remained constant. Interestingly, a large number of cytopathic effects were observed in the infected E-11 cells but none in the infected TiB cells. Furthermore, when p-ERK was suppressed using the inhibitor PD0325901, a significant reduction in the TiLV load and decrease in the mx and rsad2 gene expression levels were observed in the TiB cells in days 1–7 following infection. These findings highlight the role of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway and provide new insights into the cellular mechanisms during TiLV infection that could be useful in developing new strategies to control this virus. Full article
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10 pages, 1995 KiB  
Communication
Meta-Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Novel RNA Viruses in Hippocampus erectus
by Fan Zhang, Zhihao Ren, Xiaomeng Guo, Yiting Wang, Fanzeng Meng, Weifeng Shi, Xinping Wang and Xuan Dong
Viruses 2023, 15(3), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15030772 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1190
Abstract
Lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus, is an important aquatic animal due to its medicinal and ornamental purposes. However, our understanding of the viral spectrum in H. erectus is still limited. Here, we studied the viruses in H. erectus using meta-transcriptomic sequencing. A total [...] Read more.
Lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus, is an important aquatic animal due to its medicinal and ornamental purposes. However, our understanding of the viral spectrum in H. erectus is still limited. Here, we studied the viruses in H. erectus using meta-transcriptomic sequencing. A total of 213,770,166 reads were generated and assembled de novo into 539 virus-associated contigs. Three novel RNA viruses from the Astroviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Picornaviridae families were finally identified. In addition, we identified a strain of nervous necrosis virus from H. erectus. In particular, the unhealthy group showed a higher viral diversity and abundance than the normal group. These results revealed the diversity and cross-species transmission of viruses in H. erectus and highlighted the threat of viral infections to H. erectus. Full article
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