Coronaviruses Pathogenesis, Immunity, and Antivirals

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Coronaviruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 January 2025 | Viewed by 526

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. National Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2. The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Interests: coronaviruses; nanoparticles; drug delivery; viruses; viral diseases diagnosis
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Guest Editor
Hebei Key Laboratory of Analysis and Control of Zoonotic Pathogenic Microorganism, College of Life Sciences, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071001, China
Interests: influenza; COVID-19; HIV; antivirals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Coronaviridae family includes a large number of viruses affecting humans, farm animals, pets, wildlife, and birds. Since coronaviruses have a broad host range and tropism, there is a continuous emergence of new coronaviruses, new serotypes, and new variants of the currently known coronaviruses. Some of them might cross the species barrier and infect humans, such as in the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Thus, it is important to study the pathogenesis and immunity of coronaviruses to better develop antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this Special Issue of Viruses, we invite the submission of original research papers and review articles spanning all aspects of coronaviruses, including molecular mechanisms mediating virus virulence, the molecular basis of virus replication, virus pathogenesis, virus diagnosis, animal models, host immune responses involved in protection against infection, the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs, and coronaviruses in wildlife.

Prof. Dr. Wentao Li
Prof. Dr. Fei Yu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • coronaviruses
  • virus pathogenesis
  • animal models
  • immune response
  • development of vaccines and antiviral drugs

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Review

20 pages, 1484 KiB  
Review
3-Chymotrypsin-like Protease (3CLpro) of SARS-CoV-2: Validation as a Molecular Target, Proposal of a Novel Catalytic Mechanism, and Inhibitors in Preclinical and Clinical Trials
by Vitor Martins de Freitas Amorim, Eduardo Pereira Soares, Anielle Salviano de Almeida Ferrari, Davi Gabriel Salustiano Merighi, Robson Francisco de Souza, Cristiane Rodrigues Guzzo and Anacleto Silva de Souza
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060844 - 24 May 2024
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Abstract
Proteases represent common targets in combating infectious diseases, including COVID-19. The 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) is a validated molecular target for COVID-19, and it is key for developing potent and selective inhibitors for inhibiting viral replication of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we discuss structural [...] Read more.
Proteases represent common targets in combating infectious diseases, including COVID-19. The 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) is a validated molecular target for COVID-19, and it is key for developing potent and selective inhibitors for inhibiting viral replication of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we discuss structural relationships and diverse subsites of 3CLpro, shedding light on the pivotal role of dimerization and active site architecture in substrate recognition and catalysis. Our analysis of bioinformatics and other published studies motivated us to investigate a novel catalytic mechanism for the SARS-CoV-2 polyprotein cleavage by 3CLpro, centering on the triad mechanism involving His41-Cys145-Asp187 and its indispensable role in viral replication. Our hypothesis is that Asp187 may participate in modulating the pKa of the His41, in which catalytic histidine may act as an acid and/or a base in the catalytic mechanism. Recognizing Asp187 as a crucial component in the catalytic process underscores its significance as a fundamental pharmacophoric element in drug design. Next, we provide an overview of both covalent and non-covalent inhibitors, elucidating advancements in drug development observed in preclinical and clinical trials. By highlighting various chemical classes and their pharmacokinetic profiles, our review aims to guide future research directions toward the development of highly selective inhibitors, underscore the significance of 3CLpro as a validated therapeutic target, and propel the progression of drug candidates through preclinical and clinical phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coronaviruses Pathogenesis, Immunity, and Antivirals)
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