T Cells in Viral Infections Volume 2

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Viral Immunology, Vaccines, and Antivirals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2024 | Viewed by 1249

Special Issue Editor

Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology Department, College of Medicine Faculty, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, TX, USA
Interests: adaptive immunity; immunotherapy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

T cell-based therapy has shown great potential as a more powerful approach to treating numerous diseases, including cancers and infectious and autoimmune disorders by harnessing the body's immune system. It is anticipated that responses initiated by immunotherapeutic interventions would explicitly uncover a venue of discerningly suppressing the individual disease while maintaining the rest of the immune system functionally active. Increasing knowledge in cellular immunology and the host immune response has led to the exciting development of diverse immunotherapeutic modalities, including the blockade of immune checkpoints, induction of activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), the use of non-specific immunosuppressive drugs with associated side effects (e.g., anti-CD3, CD20 or CD52 antibody), adoptive T-cell transfer (ACT)-based therapy, and modulation of the local environment including the tumor microenvironment (TME) and inflammatory microenvironment (IME) to facilitate T cell immunity (e.g., low-dose IL-2 treatment). Nevertheless, despite enormous advances in T cell-based therapy, the clinical efficacy and benefits remain less satisfactory due to a variety of factors that lessen anti-disease immunity, which include ex vivo T cell production, limited in vivo T cell expansion and persistence, auto antigen identification, generation of antigen-specific T cells, off-target complications, local environment, T cell trafficking to the local sites, etc. Effective strategies to bypassing these barriers should significantly improve T cell-based immunotherapy for various diseases and are thus urgently needed.

Prof. Dr. Jianxun Song
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • virus
  • T cell
  • animal model
  • mouse model
  • immunotherapy
  • viral latency
  • cell metabolism
  • immunomodulation
  • exhaustion
  • memory

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

16 pages, 2249 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Follow-Up of COVID-19 Convalescents—Immune Response Associated with Reinfection Rate and Symptoms
Viruses 2023, 15(10), 2100; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15102100 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 965
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide, causing millions of deaths and leaving a significant proportion of people with long-term sequelae of COVID-19 (“post-COVID syndrome”). Whereas the precise mechanism of post-COVID syndrome is still unknown, the immune response after the first infection may play a role. [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide, causing millions of deaths and leaving a significant proportion of people with long-term sequelae of COVID-19 (“post-COVID syndrome”). Whereas the precise mechanism of post-COVID syndrome is still unknown, the immune response after the first infection may play a role. Here, we performed a long-term follow-up analysis of 110 COVID-19 convalescents, analyzing the first SARS-CoV-2-directed immune response, vaccination status, long-term symptoms (approximately 2.5 years after first infection), and reinfections. A total of 96% of convalescents were vaccinated at least once against SARS-CoV-2 after their first infection. A reinfection rate of 47% was observed, and lower levels of anti-spike IgG antibodies after the first infection were shown to associate with reinfection. While T-cell responses could not be clearly associated with persistent postinfectious symptoms, convalescents with long-term symptoms showed elevated SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels at the first infection. Evaluating the immune response after the first infection might be a useful tool for identifying individuals with increased risk for re-infections and long-term symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cells in Viral Infections Volume 2)
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