The Regulatory Mechanism of Nutrient Metabolism on Porcine Intestinal Health

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases in Veterinary Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 11169

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
College of Animal Science and Feed Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Interests: pig nutrition; intestinal health; gut microbiota

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Problems such as the emergence of drug-resistant genes and food safety, caused by the overuse of antibiotics, are becoming increasingly prominent. Dietary nutrients can replace antibiotics for killing pathogens effectively and enhancing the immune functions of the host, and it is not easy to produce drug resistance genes. However, the potential mechanisms of dietary nutrient metabolism are vague; thus, there is an urgent need to explore the potential mechanisms of dietary nutrients on regulating host health. Furthermore, different sources of nutrients have diverse responses on the intestinal barrier function of the host. It is vital to distinguish the specific effects of different nutrient metabolism mechanisms on intestinal health.

The objective of this proposed Special Issue on “The Regulatory Mechanism of Nutrient Metabolism on Porcine Intestinal Health” is to publish meaningful papers pertaining to the interactions between nutrient metabolism and intestinal health. In particular, papers (reviews and/or clinical or experimental studies) dealing with the role of dietary nutrients in the regulation of intestinal health will be included.

Dr. Jinbiao Zhao
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • antibiotics
  • intestinal health
  • microbiota community
  • nutrients
  • prebiotics
  • probiotics

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3167 KiB  
Article
The Alleviating Effect of Taxifolin on Deoxynivalenol-Induced Damage in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells
by Min Zhu, Yongxia Fang, Yujie Cheng, E Xu, Yiyu Zhang and Zhenya Zhai
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040156 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 536
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in feed is a global concern that severely threatens the health of animals and humans. Taxifolin (TA) is a natural flavonoid, a member of the polyphenols, that possesses robust antioxidant properties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TA [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in feed is a global concern that severely threatens the health of animals and humans. Taxifolin (TA) is a natural flavonoid, a member of the polyphenols, that possesses robust antioxidant properties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TA on DON-induced damage in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). The cells were pre-incubated with a series of concentrations of TA for 24 h and exposed to DON (0.5 μg/mL) for another 24 h. The results showed that pretreatment with TA (150 μM) significantly inhibited the DON-induced decline in cell viability (p < 0.05) and cell proliferation (p < 0.01). Additionally, 150 μM TA also alleviated DON-induced apoptosis (p < 0.01). Moreover, TA decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by DON (p < 0.01). In addition, TA attenuated DON-induced cell junction damage (p < 0.05). Further experiments showed that TA reversed the DON-induced reduction in antioxidant capacity in the IPEC-J2 cells, probably via activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway (p < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that 150 μM TA can protect against 0.5 μg/mL DON-induced damage to IPEC-J2 cells, potentially via the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway. This study provides insight into TA’s potential to act as a green feed additive in the pig farming industry and its efficacy in counteracting DON-induced intestinal damage. Full article
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12 pages, 3477 KiB  
Article
Genistein Alleviates Intestinal Oxidative Stress by Activating the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in IPEC-J2 Cells
by Yanpin Li, Long Cai, Qingyue Bi, Wenjuan Sun, Yu Pi, Xianren Jiang and Xilong Li
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040154 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 629
Abstract
In the weaning period, piglets often face oxidative stress, which will cause increased diarrhea and mortality. Genistein, a flavonoid, which is extracted from leguminous plants, possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative bioactivities. However, little is known about whether genistein could attenuate the oxidative stress that [...] Read more.
In the weaning period, piglets often face oxidative stress, which will cause increased diarrhea and mortality. Genistein, a flavonoid, which is extracted from leguminous plants, possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative bioactivities. However, little is known about whether genistein could attenuate the oxidative stress that occurs in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). Herein, this experiment was carried out to investigate the protective effects of genistein in the IPEC-J2 cells oxidative stress model. Our results disclosed that H2O2 stimulation brought about a significant diminution in catalase (CAT) activity and cell viability, as well as an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in IPEC-J2 cells (p < 0.05), whereas pretreating cells with genistein before H2O2 exposure helped to alleviate the reduction in CAT activity and cell viability (p < 0.05) and the raise in the levels of ROS (p = 0.061) caused by H2O2. Furthermore, H2O2 stimulation of IPEC-J2 cells remarkably suppressed gene level Nrf2 and CAT expression, in addition to protein level Nrf2 expression, but pretreating cells with genistein reversed this change (p < 0.05). Moreover, genistein pretreatment prevented the downregulation of occludin expression at the gene and protein level, and ZO-1 expression at gene level (p < 0.05). In summary, our findings indicate that genistein possesses an antioxidant capacity in IPEC-J2 cells which is effective against oxidative stress; the potential mechanism may involve the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Our findings could offer a novel nutritional intervention strategy to enhance the intestinal health of piglets during the weaning process. Full article
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13 pages, 1790 KiB  
Article
Effects of Low Protein Diet on Production Performance and Intestinal Microbial Composition in Pigs
by Dong Wang, Guoshun Chen, Wenzhong Li, Mingjie Chai, Hua Zhang and Yingyu Su
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110655 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1417
Abstract
In order to study the effects of a low protein diet on the production performance and intestinal microbiota composition of Hexi pigs, twenty-seven Hexi pigs with an initial body weight of 60.50 ± 2.50 kg were randomly divided into three groups (control group [...] Read more.
In order to study the effects of a low protein diet on the production performance and intestinal microbiota composition of Hexi pigs, twenty-seven Hexi pigs with an initial body weight of 60.50 ± 2.50 kg were randomly divided into three groups (control group (CG), group 1 (G1), and group 2 (G2)) and participated in a 60-day finishing trial. The CG was fed a normal protein level diet with a protein level of 16.0%, and G1 and G2 were fed a low protein level diet with protein levels of 14.0% and 12.0%, respectively. The results showed that the low protein level diet had no significant effect on the production performance of Hexi pigs, compared with the CG, the slaughter rate of G1 and G2 increased by 2.49% (p > 0.05) and 6.18% (p > 0.05), the shear force decreased by 2.43% (p > 0.05) and 15.57% (p > 0.05), the cooking loss decreased by 24.02% (p < 0.05) and 21.09% (p > 0.05), and the cooking percentage increased by 13.20% (p > 0.05) and 11.59% (p > 0.05). From 45 min to 24 h and 48 h after slaughter, each group of pH decreased by 1.02, 0.66, and 0.42. For muscle flesh color, the lightness (L) increased by 13.31% (p > 0.05) and 18.01% (p > 0.05) in G1 and G2 and the yellowness (b) increased by 7.72% (p > 0.05) and 13.06% (p > 0.05). A low protein level diet can improve the intestinal flora richness and diversity of growing and finishing pigs. In the jejunum, the ACE index (899.95), Simpson index (0.90), and Shannon (4.75) index were higher in G1 than in the other groups, but the Chao1 index (949.92) was higher in G2 than in the remaining two groups. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Euryarchaeota, and Verrucomicrobia were significantly higher in G1 than in the CG. The relative abundances of Lactobacillus, Terrisporobacter, and Megasphaera in G1 was significantly higher than in the CG (p < 0.05). In the cecum, the ACE index (900.93), Chao1 index (879.10), Simpson index (0.94), and Shannon (5.70) index were higher in G1 than in the remaining groups. The Spirochaetes in G2 were significantly higher than in the other groups, but the Verrucomicrobia was significantly lower than in the other groups. The relative abundances of Lactobacillus were higher in G1 and G2 than in the CG (p > 0.05). The relative abundances of unidentified_Clostridiales and Terrisporobacter in G2 were significantly lower than in the CG (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of Turicibacter in G1 was significantly lower than in the CG (p < 0.05). The relative abundances of other bacterial genera in G1 and G2 were increased by 30.81% (p > 0.05) and 17.98% (p > 0.05). Full article
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10 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Dietary Complex Probiotic Supplementation Changed the Composition of Intestinal Short-Chain Fatty Acids and Improved the Average Daily Gain of Growing Pigs
by Juan Wang, Shuwei Li, Wenjie Tang, Hui Diao, Hongfu Zhang, Honglin Yan and Jingbo Liu
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020079 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
At present, probiotics are being extensively evaluated for their efficacy as an alternative to antibiotics, and their safety in livestock production. In this study, 128 (Duroc, Yorkshire and Landrace) pigs with an average initial body weight of 28.38 ± 0.25 kg were allocated [...] Read more.
At present, probiotics are being extensively evaluated for their efficacy as an alternative to antibiotics, and their safety in livestock production. In this study, 128 (Duroc, Yorkshire and Landrace) pigs with an average initial body weight of 28.38 ± 0.25 kg were allocated to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete-block design. There were eight pens per treatment, with four pigs per pen (two barrows and two gilts). Dietary treatments included: (1) control diet; (2) control diet + 0.05% complex probiotic; (3) control diet + 0.1% complex probiotic; (4) control diet + 0.2% complex probiotic. During the 28-day experimental period, the feeding of 0.1% complex probiotic in the diet increased body weight and average daily gain (p < 0.05). The addition of complex probiotics decreased total cholesterol and glucose concentrations in the blood (p < 0.01). Acetate concentrations in the blood increased from 0.1% complex probiotic in the diet (p < 0.05), while NH3 and H2S emissions in the feces decreased (p < 0.05) from 0.1% or 0.2% complex probiotic in the diet. In conclusion, dietary complex probiotic supplementation changed the composition of intestinal short-chain fatty acids and improved growth performance for growing pigs. Full article
15 pages, 3540 KiB  
Article
Joint Application of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis Improves Growth Performance, Immune Function and Intestinal Integrity in Weaned Piglets
by Yisi Liu, Wei Gu, Xiaoyi Liu, Youwei Zou, Yujun Wu, Youhan Xu, Dandan Han, Junjun Wang and Jinbiao Zhao
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120668 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
This study was conducted to explore the effects of the joint application of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, immune function, antioxidant capacity, intestinal integrity, and gut microbiota composition in weaned piglets. The piglets were allocated randomly into 4 dietary groups, [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to explore the effects of the joint application of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, immune function, antioxidant capacity, intestinal integrity, and gut microbiota composition in weaned piglets. The piglets were allocated randomly into 4 dietary groups, which were a control diet (NC), NC + 150 ppm mucilage sulfate (PC), and 3 additional diets containing 1 kg/t (LT), 1.5 kg/t (MT), or 2 kg/t (HT) mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Results showed that joint application of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis increased ADFI and ADG of weaned piglets in d 14~28 and d 28~42 (p < 0.05), and decreased serum concentrations of DAO, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-2. The LT group increased jejunal and colonic sIgA contents compared with the PC group (p < 0.05). Groups of MT and HT increased colonic mRNA expression of host defense peptides and tight junction proteins compared with the NC and PC groups. The joint application of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis increased the abundance of colonic Lactobacillus compared with NC and PC groups (p < 0.10). In conclusion, the joint application of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis as an antibiotics alternative improved growth performance via promoting immune function and intestinal integrity of weaned piglets. Full article
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12 pages, 4252 KiB  
Article
Detection of Colistin Sulfate on Piglet Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome Alterations
by Shulin Fu, Yuzhen Yuan, Xinyue Tian, Linglu Zhou, Ling Guo, Dan Zhang, Jing He, Chun Peng, Yinsheng Qiu, Chun Ye, Yu Liu and Bingbing Zong
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120666 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
The gut microbiome exerts important functions on host health maintenance, whereas excessive antibiotic use may cause gut flora dysfunction resulting in serious disease and dysbiosis. Colistin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with serious resistance phenomena. However, it is unclear whether colistin alters the gastrointestinal [...] Read more.
The gut microbiome exerts important functions on host health maintenance, whereas excessive antibiotic use may cause gut flora dysfunction resulting in serious disease and dysbiosis. Colistin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with serious resistance phenomena. However, it is unclear whether colistin alters the gastrointestinal tract microbiome in piglets. In this study, 16s rDNA-based metagenome analyses were used to assess the effects of colistin on the modification of the piglet microbiome in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, cecum, and feces. Both α- and β-diversity indices showed that colistin modified microbiome composition in these gastrointestinal areas. In addition, colistin influenced microbiome composition at the phylum and genus levels. At the species level, colistin upregulated Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Lactobacillus agilis, Weissella paramesenteroides, and Lactobacillus salivarius abundance, but downregulated Actinobacillus indolicus, Campylobacter fetus, Glaesserella parasuis, Moraxella pluranimalium, Veillonella caviae, Neisseria dentiae, and Prevotella disiens abundance in stomachs. Colistin-fed piglets showed an increased abundance of Lactobacillus mucosae, Megasphaera elsdenii DSM 20460, Fibrobacter intestinalis, and Unidentified rumen bacterium 12-7, but Megamonas funiformis, Uncultured Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, Actinobacillus porcinus, Uncultured Bacteroidales bacterium, and Uncultured Clostridiaceae bacterium abundance was decreased in the cecum. In feces, colistin promoted Mucispirillum schaedleri, Treponema berlinense, Veillonella magna, Veillonella caviae, and Actinobacillus porcinus abundance when compared with controls. Taken together, colistin modified the microbiome composition of gastrointestinal areas in piglets. This study provides new clinical rationalization strategies for colistin on the maintenance of animal gut balance and human public health. Full article
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Review

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12 pages, 619 KiB  
Review
A Review Focusing on Microbial Vertical Transmission during Sow Pregnancy
by Shengjun Liu, Zixi Zhang and Longteng Ma
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020123 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2370
Abstract
Microorganisms are closely related to the body’s physiological activities and growth and development of the body, and participate in many physiological metabolic activities. Analysis of the structure and source of early colonizing bacteria in the intestinal tract of humans and rodents shows that [...] Read more.
Microorganisms are closely related to the body’s physiological activities and growth and development of the body, and participate in many physiological metabolic activities. Analysis of the structure and source of early colonizing bacteria in the intestinal tract of humans and rodents shows that early colonizing bacteria in the intestinal tract of mammals have solid maternal characteristics, and maternal microbes play an essential role in the formation of progeny intestinal flora. The placental microbiome, maternal microbiome and breast milk microbiome are currently hot topics in the field of life science. This paper discusses the vertical transmission and endogenous sources of the mother-to-piglet microbiome through these three pathways, aiming to provide a new research idea for intervention in the intestinal microbiome in young piglets. Full article
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