Vaccination and Virus Epidemic Control

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 8629

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CNR-IFC Italian National Research Council - Institute of Clinical Physiology, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: epidemiology; public health; vaccination; viruses
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CNR-IFC Italian National Research Council - Institute of Clinical Physiology, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: health risk communication; patient engagement; informed consent; health literacy

E-Mail
Guest Editor
Operative Unit of Infectious Diseases, “V. Fazzi” Hospital, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: infectious diseases; viruses; immunology; vaccination safety; clinical outcome

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

The recent COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of achieving rapid research advance to control virus epidemics. 

Vaccination is the main pharmaceutical intervention to contain an epidemic and to protect the population against the transmission of an infection. 

On the epidemiological and clinical level, vaccines face challenges in terms of reducing the spread of the infection, inducing immunity, and reducing the morbidity/mortality of the infection-induced disease. On the psycho-social level, many factors influence the effective involvement of the population and the achievement of adequate vaccination coverage. Those factors include vaccine acceptability, risk perception, and vaccine hesitancy among a part of the population. 

Evidence is critical for the assessment of vaccine-induced protection. It regards the immunogenicity, adverse events, and outcome of patients affected by infections preventable by vaccination. 

Moreover, research studies are essential about risk communication implemented by authorities to overcame the many obstacles to vaccination coverage. These barriers include doubts or concerns about vaccine efficacy, safety and side effects, low confidence in vaccination, infodemic, difficulties in accessing health services, unreadability of informed consent forms and educational leaflets. 

We are pleased to invite you to submit articles on the efficacy, safety and duration of immunity induced by vaccines as well as on the clinical impact of vaccination in terms of reducing virus infections and severity of diseases. Other valued contributions regard learning and communication programs to raise the vaccination uptake, interventions to improve the readability of official educational documents, and analyses to assess the vaccine literacy. 

We look forward to receiving your contributions. 

Dr. Antonella Zizza
Dr. Virginia Recchia
Dr. Pierfrancesco Grima
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • efficacy
  • safety
  • effectiveness
  • immunogenicity
  • incidence
  • prevalence
  • vaccine acceptability
  • risk perception
  • risk communication
  • community engagement

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

12 pages, 1352 KiB  
Article
Kinetics of Humoral Immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in Healthcare Workers after the Third Dose of BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine
by Tiziana Grassi, Giambattista Lobreglio, Alessandra Panico, Chiara Rosato, Antonella Zizza, Roberta Lazzari, Michele Chicone, Floriano Indino and Francesco Bagordo
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111948 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
Protection provided by COVID-19 vaccines is compromised due to waning immunity over time. This study aimed to assess the level of antibodies anti-S-RBD of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of healthcare workers before and, on average, one and four months after the third dose [...] Read more.
Protection provided by COVID-19 vaccines is compromised due to waning immunity over time. This study aimed to assess the level of antibodies anti-S-RBD of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of healthcare workers before and, on average, one and four months after the third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. The determination of antibodies was carried out in serum samples using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). All 34 participants (10 males, 24 females, 19 participants <50 years old, 15 participants ≥50 years old) showed a significant antibody level increase after the booster dose. Subsequently, a significant decrease in the antibody concentration was observed, with a reduction of about 60% after 150 days from the booster. Six subjects were infected by SARS-CoV-2 after the booster and showed a significantly higher antibody concentration on average four months after the third dose compared to naïve ones. Male and female participants had a similar trend in the antibody decline, while older subjects, compared to the younger ones, had a slightly slower decrease, even if they developed a lower level of antibodies after the third dose. These findings support the importance of the booster dose and underline the need for surveillance programs to better understand the antibody kinetics and optimize vaccination strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Virus Epidemic Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1468 KiB  
Article
Antibody Response in Healthcare Workers before and after the Third Dose of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine: A Pilot Study
by Alessandra Panico, Giambattista Lobreglio, Francesco Bagordo, Antonella Zizza, Antonella De Donno, Chiara Rosato, Roberta Lazzari, Michele Chicone, Floriano Indino, Virginia Recchia, Pietro Alifano and Tiziana Grassi
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060862 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to the development of various vaccines. The BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was the first approved due to its efficacy in eliciting a humoral immunity response after the second dose. However, a decrease in the antibody concentration was observed over time. [...] Read more.
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to the development of various vaccines. The BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was the first approved due to its efficacy in eliciting a humoral immunity response after the second dose. However, a decrease in the antibody concentration was observed over time. Therefore, the administration of a third dose was scheduled, primarily for frail people and workers of essential public activities. The aim of this study was to assess the level of antibodies against the spike (S) RBD of SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare workers before and after the third dose of BNT162b2 vaccine, according to sex, age, and the time interval between vaccine doses and tests. All 37 (12 males, 25 females, 19 < 50 years old, 18 ≥ 50 years old) healthcare workers recruited showed a consistent antibody titer increase after the third dose. Data analysis showed that the antibody concentration before the third dose significantly decreased as the time interval up to the test increased, and a significantly higher level was shown in young than older people. Cluster analysis revealed that young females had a higher antibody level than older females before the third dose (p < 0.05). This study indicated the benefit of the third dose of BNT162b2 vaccine and its effect on leveling up the humoral immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Virus Epidemic Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 906 KiB  
Article
Susceptibility to Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in Four Districts of Xaysomboun Province, Lao People’s Democratic Republic
by Siriphone Virachith, Mapor Lao, Magnoula Inthepphavong, Saythong Inthalath, Judith M. Hübschen, Sengchanh Kounnavong, Somphou Sayasone and Antony P. Black
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030463 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
Xaysomboun province has some of the lowest health indicators in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the vaccination, susceptibility and exposure status of the population to hepatitis B virus (HBV), measles, rubella, and tetanus. Participants aged 5 years [...] Read more.
Xaysomboun province has some of the lowest health indicators in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the vaccination, susceptibility and exposure status of the population to hepatitis B virus (HBV), measles, rubella, and tetanus. Participants aged 5 years and older were randomly selected from four districts. From each enrolled participant, demographic data and 5 mL of blood sample were taken. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies against HBV, measles, rubella, and tetanus were detected by ELISA. A total of 363 participants (age 5 to 80 years) were included. HBV exposure, as determined by anti-HBV core (anti-HBc) antibodies, was 56.2% overall, and was significantly higher among those aged ≥21 years (78.1%). HBsAg was detected in 9.4% overall and increased to 20% in ages 31–40 years. Only 13.8% of participants had serology indicative of vaccination (anti-HBs positive, anti-HBc negative). Seroprotection against measles was 74.6% overall but only 41.7% in children aged 5–10 years. Anti-rubella IgG was 94.2% overall and high in all age groups. Tetanus seroprevalence was only 47.4% overall but significantly higher in females aged 31–40 (75.6%). We suggest strengthening of routine and booster HBV, measles, and tetanus vaccine coverage in Xaysomboun province. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Virus Epidemic Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

23 pages, 467 KiB  
Review
Hepatitis a Vaccine as Opportunity of Primary Prevention for Food Handlers: A Narrative Review
by Alessandra Fallucca, Vincenzo Restivo, Maria Chiara Sgariglia, Marco Roveta and Cecilia Trucchi
Vaccines 2023, 11(7), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11071271 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2304
Abstract
The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is still a leading cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. After a long incubation period, the clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic infection to acute liver failure. The severity of the disease increases with age and pre-existing liver disease. The [...] Read more.
The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is still a leading cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. After a long incubation period, the clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic infection to acute liver failure. The severity of the disease increases with age and pre-existing liver disease. The transmission is mainly via person-to-person contact or ingestion of contaminated food or water. Food contamination can occur at any step of the food chain, especially when infected people handle not-heated or otherwise-treated food. HAV is endemic in low-income countries because of poor sanitary and sociodemographic conditions. The populations of developed countries are highly susceptible, and large outbreaks occur when HAV is introduced from endemic countries due to globalization, travel, and movement of foodstuffs. HAV prevention includes hygiene practices, immunoglobulins, and vaccination. Safe and effective inactivated and live attenuated vaccines are available and provide long-term protection. The vaccine targets are children and subjects at increased risk of HAV exposure or serious clinical outcomes. This review discusses the critical role of food handlers in the spread of HAV and the opportunity for food industry employers to consider food handler immunization a tool to manage both food safety in compliance with HACCP principles and food operators’ biologic risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Virus Epidemic Control)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

10 pages, 259 KiB  
Brief Report
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among Unvaccinated Adults: A Cross-Sectional Exploratory Analysis of Vaccination Intentions in Italy Related to Fear of Infection
by Olivia Curzio, Liliana Cori, Fabrizio Bianchi, Federica Prinelli, Massimo Galli, Andrea Giacomelli, Maria Cristina Imiotti, Nithiya Jesuthasan, Virginia Recchia and Fulvio Adorni
Vaccines 2023, 11(12), 1790; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11121790 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 793
Abstract
From the initial COVID-19 outbreak, Italy was the first Western country to be seriously affected by the pandemic. Understanding vaccine hesitancy can help efforts to achieve broad vaccination coverage. The objectives of this research were to determine the extent of vaccine hesitancy in [...] Read more.
From the initial COVID-19 outbreak, Italy was the first Western country to be seriously affected by the pandemic. Understanding vaccine hesitancy can help efforts to achieve broad vaccination coverage. The objectives of this research were to determine the extent of vaccine hesitancy in Italy and to understand the characteristics of those segments of the population with some hesitancy. Between January and February 2021, 41,473 subjects answered the second questionnaire delivered in phase II of the web-based EPICOVID19 survey. Among the included adult volunteers living in Italy, 4653 (11.2%) reported having previously received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. In the sample of 36,820 respondents, all not vaccinated (age 51.1 ± 13.5; 59.7% female; 63.6% high level of education), the comparison between hesitant and inclined participants was accompanied by percentages and odds ratios. A total of 2449 individuals were hesitant (6.7% of the unvaccinated ones). Hesitancy was higher among women (OR = 1.48; 95%CI: 1.36–1.62); it was highest in the 50–59 and 40–49 age groups and among those with a lower educational level. A higher level of education was associated with a lower proportion of hesitancy (5.54%) compared with 9.44% among respondents with a low level of education (OR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.46–0.68). Hesitancy was most common in subjects who did not report fear of infection (12.4%, OR = 4.0; 95%CI: 3.46–4.61). The results can guide the design of tailored information and communication campaigns through considering objective and subjective characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Virus Epidemic Control)
Back to TopTop