Immunobiology and Vaccination Strategies in Emerging Infectious Diseases

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 16112

Special Issue Editors


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School of Allied Health Sciences and World Union for Herbal Drug Discovery [WUHeDD], Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand
Interests: infectious parasitic diseases; epidemiology; clinical relevant; diagnostic challenges
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1. CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2. Department of Medical Sciences, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: biomaterials; chromium compounds and the adverse effects of some pollutants; combining histological, ultrastructural, and cell biology approaches; obesogens and natural compounds related to alleviate obesity on rats are in current studies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 51666, Tabriz 14766, Iran
Interests: infectious and tropical diseases; vaccines; nanothecnology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They are usually harmless or even helpful. Some of them, however, can cause diseases under certain conditions. Although significant advances have been made in the control, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, statistics show that these diseases remain the second leading causes of death worldwide. On the other hand, in recent decades, with the emergence of atmospheric phenomena, environmental changes, and other factors, emerging diseases have appeared and affected the health of people living around the world. Vaccination is an important approach that can prevent infectious diseases. Thanks to general vaccination programs worldwide, the prevalence of many infectious diseases has remarkably decreased. However, for some diseases, studies are ongoing to find effective vaccines combating especially emerging infectious diseases.

The Scope of this Special Issue includes but is not limited to:

  • Vaccination;
  • Immunization;
  • New adjuvants;
  • Nano-adjuvants;
  • DNA vaccine;
  • Cocktail vaccine;
  • In silico vaccine design;
  • Vaccine hesitancy and safety;
  • Public health rapid response vaccines to pandemics;
  • New regulatory pathways for urgent vaccines;
  • Vaccine platforms and delivery systems. 

Dr. Veeranoot Nissapatorn
Prof. Dr. Maria de Lourdes Pereira
Dr. Ehsan Ahmadpour
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • infectious diseases
  • parasitic diseases
  • bacterial infections
  • viral infections
  • fungal infections
  • disease control

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 619 KiB  
Article
Continuing Medical Education Improves Physician Communication Skills and Increases Likelihood of Pediatric Vaccination: Findings from the Pediatric Influenza Vaccination Optimization Trial (PIVOT)—II
by William A. Fisher, Vladimir Gilca, Michelle Murti, Alison Orth, Hartley Garfield, Paul Roumeliotis, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Vivien Brown, John Yaremko, Paul Van Buynder, Constantina Boikos and James A. Mansi
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010017 - 21 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1251
Abstract
This study evaluated the impact of a continuing medical education (CME) program that emphasized actionable information, motivation to act, and skills to strengthen physician recommendations for seasonal influenza vaccination in children 6 through 23 months of age for whom influenza immunization rates are [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the impact of a continuing medical education (CME) program that emphasized actionable information, motivation to act, and skills to strengthen physician recommendations for seasonal influenza vaccination in children 6 through 23 months of age for whom influenza immunization rates are suboptimal. Physicians were randomly assigned to an accredited CME program or to no CME. Participants completed pre- and post-study questionnaires. Influenza immunization rates were compared between groups. A total of 33 physicians in the CME group and 35 in the control group documented 292 and 322 healthy baby visits, respectively. Significantly more parents immunized their children against influenza after interacting with CME-trained physicians than those with no CME training (52.9% vs. 40.7%; p = 0.007). The odds ratio for vaccination after visits with CME-trained physicians was 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 2.12; p = 0.014), which was unaffected by the socioeconomic status of parents. Parents who discussed influenza vaccination with CME-trained physicians were 20% more likely to choose an approved but publicly unfunded adjuvanted pediatric influenza vaccine. The percentages of physicians reporting the highest levels of knowledge, ability, and confidence doubled or tripled after the CME intervention. Significantly more parents immunized very young children after interacting with physicians who had undergone CME training. Full article
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8 pages, 417 KiB  
Article
Parental Attitudes and Perceptions of Support after Brief Clinician Intervention Predict Intentions to Accept the Adjuvanted Seasonal Influenza Vaccination: Findings from the Pediatric Influenza Vaccination Optimization Trial (PIVOT)–I
by William A. Fisher, Vladimir Gilca, Michelle Murti, Alison Orth, Hartley Garfield, Paul Roumeliotis, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Vivien Brown, John Yaremko, Paul Van Buynder, Constantina Boikos and James A. Mansi
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111957 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1373
Abstract
Adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (aTIV) provides enhanced protection against seasonal influenza in children compared with nonadjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). This prospective cohort study assessed parental attitudes, beliefs, and intentions to vaccinate their infants aged 6–23 months with aTIV. Parents were surveyed before [...] Read more.
Adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (aTIV) provides enhanced protection against seasonal influenza in children compared with nonadjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). This prospective cohort study assessed parental attitudes, beliefs, and intentions to vaccinate their infants aged 6–23 months with aTIV. Parents were surveyed before and after routine healthy baby visits, and post clinician interaction results were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Physicians at 15 community practice clinics and nurses at 3 public health clinics participated; 207 parents were surveyed. After clinician consultation, most parents considered immunization with aTIV to be safe (72.9%), effective (69.6%), and important (69.0%); most perceived support for vaccination from significant others (62.8%) and clinicians (81.6%); and 66.6% intended to vaccinate their infant with aTIV. Parental attitudes toward vaccinating their infant with aTIV were strongly correlated with perceptions of vaccine safety, efficacy, and importance, and these represented the strongest influence on intentions to vaccinate (odds ratio (OR) 79.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.05–1037.50). Parental intentions were further influenced by perceived strength of clinician recommendation (OR 4.55, 95% CI 1.38–15.06) and social support for vaccination (OR 3.46, 95% CI 0.50–24.13). These findings may inform clinician approaches to parental education to ensure optimal seasonal pediatric influenza vaccination. Full article
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6 pages, 397 KiB  
Article
Clinicians Are Not Able to Infer Parental Intentions to Vaccinate Infants with a Seasonal Influenza Vaccine, and Perhaps They Should Not Try: Findings from the Pediatric Influenza Vaccination Optimization Trial (PIVOT)–IV
by William A. Fisher, Vladimir Gilca, Michelle Murti, Alison Orth, Hartley Garfield, Paul Roumeliotis, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Vivien Brown, John Yaremko, Paul Van Buynder, Constantina Boikos and James A. Mansi
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111955 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1284
Abstract
This prospective cohort survey evaluated the concordance of clinicians’ perceptions of parental intentions and parents’ actual intentions to vaccinate their infants against influenza. During a routine healthy baby visit, clinicians provided parents with information about influenza, children’s vulnerability to influenza, and nonadjuvanted and [...] Read more.
This prospective cohort survey evaluated the concordance of clinicians’ perceptions of parental intentions and parents’ actual intentions to vaccinate their infants against influenza. During a routine healthy baby visit, clinicians provided parents with information about influenza, children’s vulnerability to influenza, and nonadjuvanted and adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV and aTIV, respectively). Before and after the clinician–parent interaction, parents were surveyed about their attitudes, their perceptions of support from significant others, and the intention to vaccinate their infant with aTIV. Clinicians were asked about their perception of parents’ intentions to choose aTIV for their children. These assessments included 24 clinicians at 15 community practices and nine public health clinics, and 207 parents. The correlation coefficients of the clinicians’ assessment of parents’ intention to vaccinate were 0.483 (p < 0.001) if the vaccine was presented as free of cost, 0.266 (p < 0.001) if the cost was $25, and 0.146 (p = 0.036) if the cost was $50, accounting for 23%, 7%, and 2% of the variance in parental intentions, respectively. The clinicians were poor at predicting parental intentions to immunize, particularly when cost was involved. Information on vaccine options and influenza infection should be provided for every eligible patient to allow parents to determine if the vaccine is appropriate for their child. Full article
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7 pages, 815 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Impact of Approved but Unfunded Vaccine Status on Parental Acceptance of an Adjuvanted Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for Infants: Results from the Pediatric Influenza Vaccination Optimization Trial (PIVOT)–III
by William A. Fisher, Vladimir Gilca, Michelle Murti, Alison Orth, Hartley Garfield, Paul Roumeliotis, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Vivien Brown, John Yaremko, Paul Van Buynder, Constantina Boikos and James A. Mansi
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101769 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1257
Abstract
The adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (aTIV) provides enhanced protection against influenza for infants but is not publicly funded (NPF). The objective of this prospective cohort study of parents with children 6 through 23 months of age was to understand how NPF status influences [...] Read more.
The adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (aTIV) provides enhanced protection against influenza for infants but is not publicly funded (NPF). The objective of this prospective cohort study of parents with children 6 through 23 months of age was to understand how NPF status influences parental perceptions of approved but unfunded vaccines and their intentions to vaccinate. At healthy baby visits, clinicians provided parents with information about influenza and vaccination. Before and after these interactions, a research nurse assessed parents’ intentions to vaccinate their children and their beliefs about the safety, efficacy, and necessity of vaccinating their children with aTIV in both publicly funded (PF) and NPF settings. Overall, 15 community practice clinics (n = 15 physicians) and nine public health clinics (n = 9 nurses) recruited 207 parents. The percentage of parents intending to immunize their children with aTIV decreased from 72% (vaccine PF, free of charge), to 42% (NPF, $25 per dose), to 27% (NPF, $50 per dose). Funding status strongly influenced whether parents perceived immunization with aTIV to be necessary, safe, and effective. Information on influenza and influenza vaccines should be provided to parents routinely to allow for well-informed decisions on the suitability of specific influenza vaccines for their child. Full article
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13 pages, 2208 KiB  
Article
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Cell Versus Egg-Based Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in Children and Adults in Argentina
by Analía Urueña, Paula Micone, María Cecilia Magneres, Ian McGovern, Joaquin Mould-Quevedo, Túlio Tadeu Rocha Sarmento and Norberto Giglio
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1627; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101627 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2449
Abstract
Background: Quadrivalent cell-based influenza vaccines (QIVc) avoid egg-adaptive mutations and can be more effective than traditional quadrivalent egg-based influenza vaccines (QIVe). This analysis compared the cost-effectiveness of QIVc and QIVe in Argentinian populations < 65 years old from the payer and societal perspectives. [...] Read more.
Background: Quadrivalent cell-based influenza vaccines (QIVc) avoid egg-adaptive mutations and can be more effective than traditional quadrivalent egg-based influenza vaccines (QIVe). This analysis compared the cost-effectiveness of QIVc and QIVe in Argentinian populations < 65 years old from the payer and societal perspectives. Methods: A static decision tree model compared the costs and health benefits of vaccination with QIVc vs. QIVe using a one-year time horizon. The relative vaccine effectiveness of QIVc vs. QIVe was assumed to be 8.1% for children and 11.4% for adults. An alternative high egg-adaptation scenario was also assessed. Model inputs were sourced from Argentina or the international literature. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: Compared to QIVe, QIVc would prevent 17,857 general practitioner visits, 2418 complications, 816 hospitalizations, and 12 deaths per year. From the payers’ perspective, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per quality-adjusted life years gained was USD12,214 in the base case and USD2311 in the high egg-adaptation scenario. QIVc was cost-saving from the societal perspective in both scenarios. Conclusions: QIVc in Argentina would be cost-effective relative to QIVe. The potential health benefits and savings would be even higher in high egg-adaptation seasons. Full article
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Review

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31 pages, 1763 KiB  
Review
An Insight into Current Treatment Strategies, Their Limitations, and Ongoing Developments in Vaccine Technologies against Herpes Simplex Infections
by Divya Sharma, Supriya Sharma, Natasha Akojwar, Ayusha Dondulkar, Nikhil Yenorkar, Deepti Pandita, Satyendra K. Prasad and Mahaveer Dhobi
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020206 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 7760
Abstract
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, the most prevalent viral infection that typically lasts for a lifetime, is associated with frequent outbreaks of oral and genital lesions. Oral herpes infection is mainly associated with HSV-1 through oral contact, while genital herpes originates due to [...] Read more.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, the most prevalent viral infection that typically lasts for a lifetime, is associated with frequent outbreaks of oral and genital lesions. Oral herpes infection is mainly associated with HSV-1 through oral contact, while genital herpes originates due to HSV-2 and is categorized under sexually transmitted diseases. Immunocompromised patients and children are more prone to HSV infection. Over the years, various attempts have been made to find potential targets for the prevention of HSV infection. Despite the global distress caused by HSV infections, there are no licensed prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines available on the market against HSV. Nevertheless, there are numerous promising candidates in the pre-clinical and clinical stages of study. The present review gives an overview of two herpes viruses, their history, and life cycle, and different treatments adopted presently against HSV infections and their associated limitations. Majorly, the review covers the recent investigations being carried out globally regarding various vaccine strategies against oral and genital herpes virus infections, together with the recent and advanced nanotechnological approaches for vaccine development. Consequently, it gives an insight to researchers as well as people from the health sector about the challenges and upcoming solutions associated with treatment and vaccine development against HSV infections. Full article
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