Age-Specific Immune Response to Vaccination

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2015) | Viewed by 6353

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Academic Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK
2. Vaccinology Theme, Medical Research Council Unit-The Gambia, Fajara, The Gambia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Neonatal and early infant morbidity and mortality remain the highest in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource limited settings, and this is where novel preventative strategies are likely to have the greatest potential to benefit pregnant women and their infants.

Birth is accompanied by the transition from the sterile in utero environment to a pathogen-and antigen-loaden world. Adaptation and maturation of immune responses to this new environment are therefore a necessity for the newborn’s immune system.

Vaccination in early infancy already forms part of the strategy to protect young infants against certain infectious diseases. (BCG, polio, HepB)

More recently, the concept of maternal immunisation has gained momentum and its role has already been established to prevent neonatal tetanus and more lately pertussis in some countries.

Our understanding of the effect of vaccines on the maturation of immune function more generally and on interactions of vaccines between themselves more specifically is rudimentary to date, but lately, the concept of trained innate immunity has started to evolve.

Over the last few years, a number of clinical trials have enrolled mothers and infants into vaccine studies. We are now in a position to assess the lessons learned from these and other ongoing international trials, to discuss current scientific progress in maternal and neonatal immunology, infections and immunizations, in the broader context of infectious disease epidemiology and public health. The review will provide an update on key areas in maternal and neonatal immunisation including the development and utilization of vaccines for pathogens that affect maternal and child health, such as pertussis, influenza, group B streptococcus, respiratory syncytial virus, meningococcus and pneumococcus.

The new tools of Systems Vaccinology now provide an opportunity to unravel in much more detail the interactions of vaccines, the changes in immune responses associated with age, environment and type of vaccine given.

We will invite contributions from authors able to discuss mechanisms of adaptation and maturation of immunity in the first few months of life.

We will invite contributions from leading authors on maternal immunization.

We will invite contributions from groups that have conducted clinical trials and observational studies of maternal immunization.

These articles will cover the effects of maternal immunity on infant vaccine responses and the role of breast milk in early immunity.

We will invite contributions from research groups leading the area of research in “Trained Innate Immunity” and epigenetics/gene-environment interactions.

Research groups with data gathered through systems vaccinology and novel “omics” approaches for future discovery, barriers and opportunities will also be discussed.

Where available, data from animal models could be included by soliciting relevant researchers/groups to contribute to the review.

Prof. Dr. Beate Kampmann
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • age and immunity
  • vaccine responses
  • maternal immunization
  • systems vaccinology

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Review

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Review
Application of Oral Fluid Assays in Support of Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Control Programs
by Peter A. C. Maple
Vaccines 2015, 3(4), 988-1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines3040988 - 9 Dec 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6008
Abstract
Detection of specific viral antibody or nucleic acid produced by infection or immunization, using oral fluid samples, offers increased potential for wider population uptake compared to blood sampling. This methodology is well established for the control of HIV and measles infections, but can [...] Read more.
Detection of specific viral antibody or nucleic acid produced by infection or immunization, using oral fluid samples, offers increased potential for wider population uptake compared to blood sampling. This methodology is well established for the control of HIV and measles infections, but can also be applied to the control of other vaccine preventable infections, and this review describes the application of oral fluid assays in support of mumps, rubella and varicella national immunization programs. In England and Wales individuals with suspected mumps or rubella, based on clinical presentation, can have an oral fluid swab sample taken for case confirmation. Universal varicella immunization of children has led to a drastic reduction of chickenpox in those countries where it is used; however, in England and Wales such a policy has not been instigated. Consequently, in England and Wales most children have had chickenpox by age 10 years; however, small, but significant, numbers of adults remain susceptible. Targeted varicella zoster virus (VZV) immunization of susceptible adolescents offers the potential to reduce the pool of susceptible adults and oral fluid determination of VZV immunity in adolescents is a potential means of identifying susceptible individuals in need of VZV vaccination. The main application of oral fluid testing is in those circumstances where blood sampling is deemed not necessary, or is undesirable, and when the documented sensitivity and specificity of the oral fluid assay methodology to be used is considered sufficient for the purpose intended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Age-Specific Immune Response to Vaccination)
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