Elimination of Dog-Mediated Rabies through Vaccination—Target 2030

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Vaccines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 15055

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Guest Editor
KVAFSU-CVA Rabies Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary College, KVAFSU, Bengaluru 560024, India
Interests: rabies in animals; brain sampling; immunological diagnosis; molecular characterization; vaccinal immunity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Rabies, a viral zoonotic disease, is a 100% vaccine-preventable disease. Approximately 99% of rabies infections are acquired by the bite of an infected dog. Africa and Asia contribute to over 99% of human rabies deaths that occur in the world, and the vast majority (about 60%) of these are in Asia, with dogs being the major vectors in the transmission of rabies. The burden of rabies is primarily on human health and, of late, on livestock as well. The disease control must be focused on the animal source. In view of this, dog-mediated human rabies can be eliminated by tackling the disease at its source: “the infected dogs”.

Considering the seriousness of the disease and its endemicity, especially in the African and Asian continents, the Tripartite Alliance which includes the FAO, OIE, and WHO under the “United Against Rabies” (UAR) initiative, along with the GARC, has launched “Zero by 30: the global strategic plan to end human deaths from dog mediated rabies by 2030”. This goal can be achieved by focusing on areas such as human pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, mass dog vaccination, surveillance and monitoring, laboratory diagnostic capability, capacity building, network development, coordination between rabies diagnostic and serology laboratories, identification of knowledge gaps, public awareness, risk communication, and legislation. 

Dog-mediated rabies can be eliminated through mass vaccination of the dog population, as advocated by the UAR. In this regard, many countries in which dog rabies is endemic are exploring strategies to access dogs for vaccination, the structure of campaigns including the human effort, and approaches for the mobilization of resources.

In this Special Issue, articles covering the implementation, strategies, outcomes, impacts, hurdles, and experiences of anti-rabies (pre- and post-)vaccination programs in both human and animal sectors globally are invited. Furthermore, this Special Issue may review the processes that support the scale-up of intervention strategies, put forth the views on pragmatic considerations with special reference to the duration of campaigns and the size of the work force, and finally provide examples of hypothetical resource requirements for implementing successful mass dog vaccination.

Dr. Shrikrishna Isloor
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1920 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Immune Responses to Rabies Vaccination in Free-Ranging Dogs in Bengaluru, India
by Vinay Chavan Prakash Rao, Sharada Ramakrishnaiah, Shrikrishna Isloor, Rathnamma Doddamane, Dilip Lakshman, Manjunath Shinde Sundar Rao Maralavadi, Avinash Bhat, Balaji Chandrashekar, Krithiga Natesan, Ganesh Kondabattula and Nagendra R. Hegde
Vaccines 2023, 11(5), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11050888 - 24 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1594
Abstract
Rabies is a fatal encephalomyelitis mainly transmitted to humans and other animals by rabid dog bites. Hence, vaccination programs are being instituted for the control of rabies in dogs. Though stray dogs have been vaccinated for years under various programs initiated for control [...] Read more.
Rabies is a fatal encephalomyelitis mainly transmitted to humans and other animals by rabid dog bites. Hence, vaccination programs are being instituted for the control of rabies in dogs. Though stray dogs have been vaccinated for years under various programs initiated for control of the disease, the effectiveness of these programs can be ascertained only by assessing the immunity of these dogs. With this in view, a study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the ongoing mass dog vaccination (MDV) program by the Bengaluru City Municipal Corporation, Bengaluru, India. Whole blood and serum samples (n = 260) from vaccinated stray dogs in 26 wards of 8 corporation zones were tested by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) as well as an in-house quantitative indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) for a humoral response and by interferon-gamma (IFN–γ) ELISA for a cellular response. As determined by the cut-off value of 0.5 IU/mL of serum, 71% and 87% of the samples from vaccinated dogs revealed adequate levels of antibodies presumed to confer protection by RFFIT and iELISA, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the iELISA were 100% and 63.3%, respectively. The IFN–γ ELISA revealed adequate cellular response in 50% of the samples. The quantitative iELISA was found to be useful in large-scale seromonitoring of MDV programs to aid in the elimination of dog-mediated rabies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elimination of Dog-Mediated Rabies through Vaccination—Target 2030)
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11 pages, 2160 KiB  
Article
Comparative Evaluation of Intradermal vis-à-vis Intramuscular Pre-Exposure Prophylactic Vaccination against Rabies in Cattle
by Swathi Gopalaiah, Kshama M. Appaiah, Shrikrishna Isloor, Dilip Lakshman, Ramesh P. Thimmaiah, Suguna Rao, Mahadevappa Gouri, Naveen Kumar, Kavitha Govindaiah, Avinash Bhat and Simmi Tiwari
Vaccines 2023, 11(5), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11050885 - 23 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1950
Abstract
Rabies is a progressively fatal viral disease affecting a wide variety of warm-blooded animals and human beings. With cattle being major part of Indian livestock population, rabies can result in significant financial losses. Immunization of livestock vulnerable to exposure is the best way [...] Read more.
Rabies is a progressively fatal viral disease affecting a wide variety of warm-blooded animals and human beings. With cattle being major part of Indian livestock population, rabies can result in significant financial losses. Immunization of livestock vulnerable to exposure is the best way to control rabies. The present study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of a rabies pre-exposure prophylactic vaccine administered through different routes and to sequentially monitor the levels of rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers in cattle. Thirty cattle were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group I and III animals were immunized with 1 mL and 0.2 mL of rabies vaccine through intramuscular (IM) and intradermal (ID) routes, respectively, on day 0, with a booster dose on day 21; Group II and IV animals were immunized with 1 mL and 0.2 mL of rabies vaccine, respectively, without the booster dose; unvaccinated animals served as a control (Group V). Serum samples were collected on days 0, 14, 28, and 90 to estimate RVNA titers using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). The titers were above an adequate level (≥0.5 IU/mL) on day 14 and maintained up to 90 days in all animals administered the rabies vaccine through the IM and ID route with or without a booster dose. The study indicated that both routes of vaccination are safe and effective in providing protection against rabies. Hence, both routes can be considered for pre-exposure prophylaxis. However, the ID route proved to be more economical due to its dose-sparing effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elimination of Dog-Mediated Rabies through Vaccination—Target 2030)
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11 pages, 259 KiB  
Article
Epidemiological Associations between Rabies Vaccination and Dog Owner Characteristics
by Yuri Amemiya, Satoshi Inoue, Ken Maeda and Hiroshi Nishiura
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020352 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Background: The annual rabies vaccination coverage in dogs among 47 prefectures in Japan has been reported to range from 42.3% to 92.4%, and the overall coverage has been steadily declining. Given the presence of unregistered dogs and the small number of stray dogs, [...] Read more.
Background: The annual rabies vaccination coverage in dogs among 47 prefectures in Japan has been reported to range from 42.3% to 92.4%, and the overall coverage has been steadily declining. Given the presence of unregistered dogs and the small number of stray dogs, the true vaccination coverage is likely to be even lower. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of dog owners to identify the owner characteristics associated with dog rabies vaccination. People in Japan who currently own dogs were recruited and answered a questionnaire consisting of four sections: (i) demographic characteristics, (ii) education history associated with medicine, (iii) factors related to veterinary services, and (iv) dog characteristics. Results: A total of 534 dog owners covering 629 dogs were surveyed. Vaccination within the prior 12 months was the major outcome (56.1%). The associated variables were (a) owner education level, (b) knowledge about mandatory vaccination, (c) having a family veterinary clinic, (d) frequency of visiting a veterinary clinic, and (e) having ever been advised to vaccinate their dog. Conclusions: Although causality cannot be implied, our findings indicate improving owners’ knowledge about mandatory vaccination, facilitating attachment to a veterinary clinic, and veterinarians providing vaccination advice might increase the uptake of dog rabies vaccination. The finding in Japan did not deviate from Asian and African countries with rabies, and the sample estimate of annual vaccination coverage was lower than the reported estimate among registered dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elimination of Dog-Mediated Rabies through Vaccination—Target 2030)
21 pages, 3478 KiB  
Article
Performance Comparison of Recombinant Baculovirus and Rabies Virus-like Particles production Using Two Culture Platforms
by Luis Giovani Oliveira Guardalini, Paulo Eduardo da Silva Cavalcante, Jaci Leme, Renata Gois de Mello, Thaissa Consoni Bernardino, Simone Gonçalves Silva Jared, Marta Maria Antoniazzi, Renato Mancini Astray, Aldo Tonso, Eutimio Gustavo Fernández Núñez and Soraia Attie Calil Jorge
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010039 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1582
Abstract
This work aimed to assess, following upstream optimization in Schott flasks, the scalability from this culture platform to a stirred-tank bioreactor in order to yield rabies-recombinant baculovirus, bearing genes of G (BVG) and M (BVM) proteins, and to obtain rabies virus-like particles (VLP) [...] Read more.
This work aimed to assess, following upstream optimization in Schott flasks, the scalability from this culture platform to a stirred-tank bioreactor in order to yield rabies-recombinant baculovirus, bearing genes of G (BVG) and M (BVM) proteins, and to obtain rabies virus-like particles (VLP) from them, using Sf9 insect cells as a host. Equivalent assays in Schott flasks and a bioreactor were performed to compare both systems and a multivariate statistical approach was also carried out to maximize VLP production as a function of BVG and BVM’s multiplicity of infection (MOI) and harvest time (HT). Viable cell density, cell viability, virus titer, BVG and BVM quantification by dot-blot, and BVG quantification by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) were monitored throughout the assays. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize rabies VLP. The optimal combination for maximum VLP expression was BVG and BVM MOI of 2.3 pfu/cell and 5.1 pfu/cell, respectively, and 108 h of harvest time. The current study confirmed that the utilization of Schott flasks and a benchtop bioreactor under the conditions applied herein are equivalent regarding the cell death kinetics corresponding to the recombinant baculovirus infection process in Sf9 cells. According to the results, the hydrodynamic and chemical differences in both systems seem to greatly affect the virus and VLP integrity after release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elimination of Dog-Mediated Rabies through Vaccination—Target 2030)
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Review

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28 pages, 422 KiB  
Review
Developments in Rabies Vaccines: The Path Traversed from Pasteur to the Modern Era of Immunization
by Krithiga Natesan, Shrikrishna Isloor, Balamurugan Vinayagamurthy, Sharada Ramakrishnaiah, Rathnamma Doddamane and Anthony R. Fooks
Vaccines 2023, 11(4), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11040756 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 7229
Abstract
Rabies is a disease of antiquity and has a history spanning millennia ever since the first interactions between humans and dogs. The alarming fatalities caused by this disease have triggered rabies prevention strategies since the first century BC. There have been numerous attempts [...] Read more.
Rabies is a disease of antiquity and has a history spanning millennia ever since the first interactions between humans and dogs. The alarming fatalities caused by this disease have triggered rabies prevention strategies since the first century BC. There have been numerous attempts over the past 100 years to develop rabies vaccineswith the goal of preventing rabies in both humans and animals. Thepre-Pasteurian vaccinologists, paved the way for the actual history of rabies vaccines with the development of first generation vaccines. Further improvements for less reactive and more immunogenic vaccines have led to the expansion of embryo vaccines, tissue culture vaccines, cell culture vaccines, modified live vaccines, inactivated vaccines, and adjuvanted vaccines. The adventof recombinant technology and reverse genetics have given insight into the rabies viral genome and facilitated genome manipulations, which in turn led to the emergence of next-generation rabies vaccines, such as recombinant vaccines, viral vector vaccines, genetically modified vaccines, and nucleic acid vaccines. These vaccines were very helpful in overcoming the drawbacks of conventional rabies vaccines with increased immunogenicity and clinical efficacies. The path traversed in the development of rabies vaccines from Pasteur to the modern era vaccines, though, faced numerous challenges;these pioneering works have formed the cornerstone for the generation of thecurrent successful vaccines to prevent rabies. In the future, advancements in the scientific technologies and research focus will definitely lay the path for much more sophisticated vaccine candidates for rabies elimination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elimination of Dog-Mediated Rabies through Vaccination—Target 2030)
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