Special Issue "Vaccination and Public Health"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2022) | Viewed by 25328

Special Issue Editors

Department of Pediatrics and Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles and University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA
Interests: epidemiology of vaccine preventable diseases; maternal immunizations; herd immunity; microbiome
1. St. George’s, University of London, London SW17 0RE, UK
2. MRC/UVRI@LSHTM Uganda Resaerch Unit, Entebbe PO Box 49, Uganda
Interests: maternal and neonatal immunization; clinical vaccine trials; neonatal immunity to vaccines; human challenge models
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Epidemiology Department Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutierrez, Buenos Aires Ciudad, Argentina
Interests: vaccines safety; vaccine confidence; pharmacoeconomics studies and real world data related to vaccines; effectiveness

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Now more than ever, vaccines are the central focus of public health efforts to control a pandemic while maintaining routine immunization efforts. Vaccine-preventable disease continue to cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic burden around the world.  Strategies for rolling out vaccination programs, improving routine immunization rates, and increasing vaccine acceptance are in constant need of research and optimization during both pandemic and non-pandemic times.

We are pleased to invite you to submit an article to this Special Issue on Vaccination and Public Health. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following: (1) vaccination strategies and herd immunity; (2) vaccination of special populations including those with impaired immunity, pregnant women, breastfeeding women, and children;  (3) vaccine safety assessment; (4) vaccines cost effectiveness and impact studies;  (5) assessment and interventions to promote vaccine acceptance; (6) strategies to improve vaccine access and equality; and (7) novel vaccine platforms.  The Special Issue will include studies on both COVID-19, routine vaccinations and experimental vaccines and vaccine preventable diseases. Original research articles and reviews are welcome.

We look forward to receiving your contributions. 

Prof. Dr. Pia S. Pannaraj
Prof. Dr. Kirsty Le Doare
Prof. Dr. Norberto Giglio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • vaccines
  • vaccine-preventable diseases
  • public health
  • herd immunity
  • vaccination strategy
  • cost-effectiveness
  • vaccine safety

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Article
Exploring the Association between Negative Emotions and COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Unvaccinated Adults in Sweden
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101695 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on individuals’ mental health. This study aimed to investigate how negative emotions toward the COVID-19 pandemic, including feeling anxious, depressed, upset, and stressed, were associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Sweden. The [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on individuals’ mental health. This study aimed to investigate how negative emotions toward the COVID-19 pandemic, including feeling anxious, depressed, upset, and stressed, were associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Sweden. The study is a cross-sectional online survey conducted between 21–28 May 2021, using three nested hierarchical logistic regression models to assess the association. The study included 965 unvaccinated individuals, 51.2% (n = 494) of whom reported their intention to get vaccinated. We observed graded positive associations between reported negative emotions and vaccine acceptance. Individuals who experienced economic stress had lower odds of vaccine acceptance while having a positive opinion of the government’s response to COVID-19 was associated with higher odds of being vaccine-acceptant. In conclusion, unvaccinated individuals experiencing negative emotions about the pandemic were more willing to get the vaccine. On the contrary, those with a negative opinion about the government’s response, and those that had experienced economic stress were less likely to accept the immunization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Public Health)
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Article
Cross-National Vaccine Concerns and Predictors of Vaccine Hesitancy in Not-Fully Vaccinated Individuals: Findings from USA, Canada, Sweden, and Italy
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1652; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101652 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1536
Abstract
Vaccine hesitancy is a key contributor to reduced COVID-19 vaccine uptake and remains a threat to COVID-19 mitigation strategies as many countries are rolling out the campaign for booster shots. The goal of our study is to identify and compare the top vaccine [...] Read more.
Vaccine hesitancy is a key contributor to reduced COVID-19 vaccine uptake and remains a threat to COVID-19 mitigation strategies as many countries are rolling out the campaign for booster shots. The goal of our study is to identify and compare the top vaccine concerns in four countries: Canada, Italy, Sweden, and the USA and how these concerns relate to vaccine hesitancy. While most individuals in these countries are now vaccinated, we expect our results to be helpful in guiding vaccination efforts for additional doses, and more in general for other vaccines in the future. We sought to empirically test whether vaccine related concerns followed similar thematic issues in the four countries included in this study, and then to see how these themes related to vaccine hesitancy using data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in May 2021. We applied CFA and created vaccine concern scales for analysis. We then utilized these results in regression-based modeling to determine how concerns related to vaccine hesitancy and whether there were similar or different concerns by country. The results quantitatively highlight that the same vaccine related concerns permeated multiple countries at the same point in time. This implies that COVID-19 vaccination communications could benefit from global collaboration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Public Health)
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Article
Outcomes in Pregnant Persons Immunized with a Cell-Based Quadrivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101600 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate pregnancy and infant outcomes among persons immunized with a cell-based quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4c) during routine pregnancy care. Design: Prospective observational cohort. Setting: US-based obstetrics/gynecology clinics. Population: Pregnant persons. This US-based, prospective observational cohort study evaluated the [...] Read more.
Objective: To evaluate pregnancy and infant outcomes among persons immunized with a cell-based quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4c) during routine pregnancy care. Design: Prospective observational cohort. Setting: US-based obstetrics/gynecology clinics. Population: Pregnant persons. This US-based, prospective observational cohort study evaluated the safety of quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4c; Flucelvax® Quad) in pregnant persons immunized over 3 influenza seasons between 2017 and 2020. Pregnant persons were immunized with IIV4c as part of routine care, after which their health care provides HCPs with all observational data to a single coordinating center. Follow-up data were collected at the end of the second trimester and/or at the time of pregnancy outcome. A scientific advisory committee reviewed the data. Prevalence point estimates were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pregnancy outcomes included: live birth, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, elective termination, and maternal death. Infant outcomes included: preterm birth (<37 weeks gestational age), low birth weight (<2500 g), or major congenital malformations (MCMs). Of the 665 evaluable participants, 659 (99.1%) had a live birth. No stillbirths (0% [95% CI 0.0–0.6]), 4 spontaneous abortions (1.9% [0.5–4.8]), and 1 elective termination (0.5% [0.0–2.6]) were reported. Among 673 infants, 9.2% (upper 95% CI 11.5%) were born prematurely, 5.8% (upper 95% CI 7.6%) had low birth weight, and 1.9% (upper 95% CI 3.1%) were reported to have an MCM. No maternal deaths were reported. Of the 2 infants who died shortly after birth, one was adjudicated as not related to the vaccine; the other’s cause could not be determined due to maternal loss to follow-up. The prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes or preterm birth, low birth weight, or MCMs in newborns was similar in persons vaccinated with IIV4c compared to the rates observed in US surveillance systems. The safety profile of IIV4c in pregnant persons is consistent with previously studied influenza vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Public Health)
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Article
A Prospective Cohort Study on Pregnancy Outcomes of Persons Immunized with a Seasonal Quadrivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine during Pregnancy
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1577; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101577 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
This US-based, prospective observational cohort study evaluated the safety of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4; Afluria Quadrivalent) in pregnant persons immunized over four influenza seasons between 2017 and 2021. Pregnancy outcomes included live birth, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, and elective termination. Infant events [...] Read more.
This US-based, prospective observational cohort study evaluated the safety of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4; Afluria Quadrivalent) in pregnant persons immunized over four influenza seasons between 2017 and 2021. Pregnancy outcomes included live birth, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, and elective termination. Infant events of interest were major congenital malformations (MCMs), preterm birth (<37 weeks gestational age), and low birth weight (LBW). Data were descriptive; prevalence point estimates were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 483 pregnant persons were given IIV4 and evaluated; 477 (98.8%) reported a live birth, and there were 2 stillbirths, 4 spontaneous abortions, and no elective terminations or maternal deaths. The prevalence rates of infant events were as follows: preterm birth, 7.2% (upper 95% CI, 9.6%); LBW, 5.4% (upper 95% CI, 7.4%); and MCMs, 0.8% (upper 95% CI, 1.9%). Point estimates and upper 95% CIs of the observed prevalence rates were lower than or similar to background prevalence in the general US population. Our findings suggest no evidence of a safety concern with vaccinating this group at high risk of influenza complications and are consistent with published data from databases and surveillance systems that monitor the safety of influenza vaccines in pregnant persons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Public Health)
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Article
Influenza Vaccination Coverage among Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Evolution over Time and Associated Factors
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071154 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1160
Abstract
Our objective was to determine the influenza vaccination rate in a Spanish cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A retrospective cohort study was carried out. Patients who attended the MS unit of the Lozano Blesa Hospital of Zaragoza between January 2015 and 2020 [...] Read more.
Our objective was to determine the influenza vaccination rate in a Spanish cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A retrospective cohort study was carried out. Patients who attended the MS unit of the Lozano Blesa Hospital of Zaragoza between January 2015 and 2020 were included. The variables were obtained by reviewing the specialized and primary care records. Associations between receiving the vaccine in each flu season and the other variables were analyzed using bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression models. A total of 260 patients were studied, with a median age of 31 years at the time of diagnosis. A total of 62.3% (162/260) were women. Vaccination coverage ranged from 20.4% in the 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 seasons to 41.5% in the 2019–2020 season (p = 0.000). Having been vaccinated in the previous season (ORa: 16.47–390.22; p = 0.000) and receiving a vaccination recommendation from the hospital vaccination unit (ORa: 2.44–3.96; p < 0.009) were associated with being vaccinated. The coverage is in an intermediate position compared to other countries. It is necessary to improve the referral system of these patients to the hospital vaccination unit because the information obtained by this service contributed to higher vaccination rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Public Health)
Article
The Protective Effects of Influenza Vaccination in Elderly Patients with Breast Cancer in Taiwan: A Real-World Evidence-Based Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071144 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
In elderly patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer, clarity is lacking regarding the effects of influenza vaccines, particularly on clinical outcomes. This study conducted two nationwide, population-based, and propensity score-matched cohorts to estimate and compare the protective effects of influenza vaccine in elderly [...] Read more.
In elderly patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer, clarity is lacking regarding the effects of influenza vaccines, particularly on clinical outcomes. This study conducted two nationwide, population-based, and propensity score-matched cohorts to estimate and compare the protective effects of influenza vaccine in elderly women and elderly patients with breast cancer. Data were derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database and Cancer Registry Database. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to compare outcomes between the vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were used to estimate the relative risks, and stratified analyses in the breast cancer cohort were performed to further evaluate elderly breast cancer patients undergoing a variety of adjuvant therapies. The GEE analysis showed that the aORs of death and hospitalization, including for influenza and pneumonia, respiratory diseases, respiratory failure, and heart disease, did not significantly decrease in vaccinated elderly patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Conversely, the aORs of all influenza-related clinical outcomes were significantly decreased in elderly women. No protective effects of influenza vaccination were found in the elderly patients with a newly diagnosed breast cancer. More studies focusing on identifying strategies to improve the real-world effectiveness of influenza vaccination to the immunocompromised are needed. Our clinical outcomes will be valuable for future public health policy establishment and shared decision making for influenza vaccine use in elderly patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. According to our findings, regular influenza vaccine administration for elderly patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer may be reconsidered, with potential contraindications for vaccination. On the other hand, implementing the vaccination of close contacts of patients with breast cancer may be a more important strategy for enhancing protection of those fragile patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Public Health)
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Article
Factors Associated with Decisions of Arab Minority Parents in Israel to Vaccinate Their Children against COVID-19
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060870 - 29 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
The Arab ethnic community in Israel is characterized by low social economic status and is at risk due to the typically crowded households. Understanding parents’ level of awareness is important to avoid new outbreaks. Objectives: This study seeks to identify predicting factors associated [...] Read more.
The Arab ethnic community in Israel is characterized by low social economic status and is at risk due to the typically crowded households. Understanding parents’ level of awareness is important to avoid new outbreaks. Objectives: This study seeks to identify predicting factors associated with perceived susceptibility to COVID-19, and barriers to COVID-19 vaccination. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted through social media, using snowball sampling via social networks. Additionally, t-tests, Chi-square tests, and Z tests were used to evaluate differences between independent proportions. Pearson correlations were calculated for the study variables. Multiple logistic regression examined the extent to which the background variables were related to the intention to vaccinate the child. Results: A total of 2843 Arab parents participated in the study. Older parents, higher socioeconomic status, higher trust in the authorities, vaccinated parents, and low psychological and physical barriers were positively correlated with willingness to vaccinate children. Pandemic fatigue was associated with less positive attitudes and reduced perceived effectiveness toward vaccination. Conclusion: Addressing minorities’ poor standards of living and physical and psychological barriers posed by the authorities to minorities’ access to vaccination may increase compliance with COVID-19 vaccination and protect the health of the entire population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Public Health)
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Article
Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Hesitancy Highly Evident among Caregivers of Girls Attending South African Private Schools
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040503 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
The viral spread of social media misinformation and disinformation regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination safety has resulted in widespread vaccine hesitancy and suboptimal HPV vaccination uptake. We previously reported that only 19.4% of age-eligible private school girls in South Africa in 2018 had [...] Read more.
The viral spread of social media misinformation and disinformation regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination safety has resulted in widespread vaccine hesitancy and suboptimal HPV vaccination uptake. We previously reported that only 19.4% of age-eligible private school girls in South Africa in 2018 had received ≥1 HPV vaccine dose. Here, we report on reasons given by caregivers for why their daughters were unvaccinated. An online survey targeting caregivers of girls in grades 4–7 attending South African private schools was conducted. Caregivers of unvaccinated girls provided the most important reason for their daughter not being vaccinated by either selecting from a list of coded reasons or providing a free text reason. Free text reasons were analysed, coded and added to the list of coded reasons, which were categorised according to broad themes. Frequency distributions of reasons and categories were calculated. Most reasons were related to vaccine hesitancy (61.4%), followed by lack of access to the vaccine (21.3%) and lack of information (15.7%). HPV vaccination coverage among age-eligible girls can be improved by including private-sector schools in the South African HPV vaccination programme, training healthcare providers to advocate for HPV vaccination and extending HPV vaccination advocacy campaigns to include private-sector educators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Public Health)
Article
The Italian Version of the Adult Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (aVHS) for the Working-Age Population: Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Reliability, and Validity
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020224 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2019
Abstract
The adult Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (aVHS) is valid and reliable for evaluating attitudes toward vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity of the Italian version of the aVHS. After cross-cultural adaptation [...] Read more.
The adult Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (aVHS) is valid and reliable for evaluating attitudes toward vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity of the Italian version of the aVHS. After cross-cultural adaptation of the aVHS, internal consistency (IC), intra-class correlation (ICC), and content validity (S-CVI) were evaluated through a survey on 160 workers. Results of the ICC were analyzed on questionnaires administered twice at a distance of two months and revealed a satisfactory reproducibility (0.87). The IC of the aVHS was assessed by the Cronbach alpha coefficient test, with a result of 0.94, demonstrating an excellent IC reliability. The S-CVI calculated for the total scale was 0.97. The aVHS is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating vaccine hesitancy toward adult vaccinations. We suggest the use of this scale in upcoming surveys on opinions and perceptions of adult vaccinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Public Health)
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Article
Inclusive Education for Health: Analysis of the Mandatory Nature of Vaccination and Its Regulation by Administrations, and Implications and Considerations for Vaccination against COVID
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010073 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
In the process of vaccination against COVID-19, the problem of parents who do not want to vaccinate their school-age children has been evident. A conflict arises between two fundamental rights: the right to ideological freedom, privacy, and physical integrity of parents and minors [...] Read more.
In the process of vaccination against COVID-19, the problem of parents who do not want to vaccinate their school-age children has been evident. A conflict arises between two fundamental rights: the right to ideological freedom, privacy, and physical integrity of parents and minors who do not opt for vaccination; and the right to health of the rest of the children who attend the same school, provoking a social debate on the need to introduce regulatory changes that favor the mandatory imposition of vaccination in certain cases. This research offers an observational study through a cross-sectional design of a quantitative nature, in which one thousand people belonging to the education, health, and economy sectors from seventy-six countries of five continents have participated. The instrument used was a previously validated questionnaire: VACUNASEDUCA. It was considered essential to know the awareness of vaccination processes of professionals from essential social sectors. Therefore, the objectives were: to reflect on the measures of mandatory vaccination, to know the importance of teachers being able to demand a regulated vaccination card from students, to study the need for regulation by administrations of compliance with vaccines, and to analyze the importance of health education. It has been shown that women and those under thirty years of age are the least in favor of compulsory vaccination, with the health sector being the most defending of their demand, and with Europe with the lowest means. It is concluded that mandatory vaccination could be an acceptable tactical option to prevent high-risk situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Public Health)
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Article
Association between Adult Vaccine Hesitancy and Parental Acceptance of Childhood COVID-19 Vaccines: A Web-Based Survey in a Northwestern Region in China
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101088 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2676
Abstract
China has initiated the COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 15–17 years since late July 2020. This study aimed to determine the association between adult vaccine hesitancy and parental acceptance of childhood COVID-19 vaccines in a multi-ethnicity area of northwestern China. A web-based investigation [...] Read more.
China has initiated the COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 15–17 years since late July 2020. This study aimed to determine the association between adult vaccine hesitancy and parental acceptance of childhood COVID-19 vaccines in a multi-ethnicity area of northwestern China. A web-based investigation was performed with a convenience sampling strategy to recruit the parents aged 20–49 years. In a total of 13,451 valid respondents, 66.1% had received the COVID-19 vaccination, 26.6% were intent to receive, while 7.3% were not intent, with an increasing vaccine hesitancy (p < 0.001). Moreover, vaccination uptake of four common vaccines in their children remained low (29.0% for influenza vaccine, 17.9% for pneumonia vaccine, 10.9% for rotavirus vaccine, 8.0% for Enterovirus-71 vaccine), while overall parental acceptance of childhood COVID-19 vaccines was 50.0% (32.7% for those aged 0–5, 46.6% for 6–10, 73.3% for 11–18; p < 0.001). Vaccination uptake of these four vaccines and parental acceptance of childhood COVID-19 vaccine were negatively associated with adult vaccine hesitancy. In addition, respondents mostly preferred childhood COVID-19 vaccines with weak mild common adverse events (β = 1.993) and no severe adverse events (β = 1.731), demonstrating a positive association with adult vaccine hesitancy. Thus, it warrants specific countermeasures to reduce adult vaccine hesitancy and improve strategies for childhood vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Public Health)
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Review

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Review
Mapping Potential Vaccine Candidates Predicted by VaxiJen for Different Viral Pathogens between 2017–2021—A Scoping Review
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111785 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2339
Abstract
Reverse vaccinology (RV) is a promising alternative to traditional vaccinology. RV focuses on in silico methods to identify antigens or potential vaccine candidates (PVCs) from a pathogen’s proteome. Researchers use VaxiJen, the most well-known RV tool, to predict PVCs for various pathogens. The [...] Read more.
Reverse vaccinology (RV) is a promising alternative to traditional vaccinology. RV focuses on in silico methods to identify antigens or potential vaccine candidates (PVCs) from a pathogen’s proteome. Researchers use VaxiJen, the most well-known RV tool, to predict PVCs for various pathogens. The purpose of this scoping review is to provide an overview of PVCs predicted by VaxiJen for different viruses between 2017 and 2021 using Arksey and O’Malley’s framework and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. We used the term ‘vaxijen’ to search PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCOhost, and ProQuest One Academic. The protocol was registered at the Open Science Framework (OSF). We identified articles on this topic, charted them, and discussed the key findings. The database searches yielded 1033 articles, of which 275 were eligible. Most studies focused on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), published between 2020 and 2021. Only a few articles (8/275; 2.9%) conducted experimental validations to confirm the predictions as vaccine candidates, with 2.2% (6/275) articles mentioning recombinant protein expression. Researchers commonly targeted parts of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, with the frequently predicted epitopes as PVCs being major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I T cell epitopes WTAGAAAYY, RQIAPGQTG, IAIVMVTIM, and B cell epitope IAPGQTGKIADY, among others. The findings of this review are promising for the development of novel vaccines. We recommend that vaccinologists use these findings as a guide to performing experimental validation for various viruses, with SARS-CoV-2 as a priority, because better vaccines are needed, especially to stay ahead of the emergence of new variants. If successful, these vaccines could provide broader protection than traditional vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Public Health)
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Other

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Brief Report
Influenza Vaccination among Multiple Sclerosis Patients during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1766; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101766 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 856
Abstract
In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the co-circulation of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses may have severe complications for vulnerable populations. For this reason, the World Health Organization pointed to the 2020–2021 anti-influenza campaign as being of special relevance. Our aim was to [...] Read more.
In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the co-circulation of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses may have severe complications for vulnerable populations. For this reason, the World Health Organization pointed to the 2020–2021 anti-influenza campaign as being of special relevance. Our aim was to assess the 2020–2021 influenza vaccination coverage, and its associated factors, among patients in a Spanish multiple sclerosis (MS) unit. A cross–sectional study was conducted. People attending the MS unit of the Clinical Hospital of Zaragoza during 2020 were included. Variables were obtained by reviewing records. Associations with 2020–2021 influenza vaccination were analyzed using bivariate analysis and a multiple logistic regression model. A total of 302 patients were studied; 62.6% were women, whose mean age (standard deviation) was 47.3 (11.5) years. The 2020–2021 influenza vaccination coverage was 55.3% (59.8% in women and 47.8% in men). A total of 89.7% had at least one other indication for vaccination (e.g., immunosuppressive treatment in 225 patients). The variables associated with getting vaccinated were being female (adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) (aOR (95%CI) = 2.12 (1.12–3.99)), having received the 2019–2020 influenza vaccine (aOR (95%CI) = 31.82 (14.71–68.86)) and being born in Spain (aOR (95%CI) = 12.91 (1.07–156.28)). Coverage is moderate compared to other countries. It is necessary to develop strategies to improve it, especially in men and those born outside Spain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Public Health)
Brief Report
COVID-19 Vaccine Refusal among Nurses Worldwide: Review of Trends and Predictors
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020230 - 02 Feb 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3874
Abstract
COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy has become a major concern around the world. Recent reports have also highlighted COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in healthcare workers. Despite media reports and scientific publications, little is known about the extent and predictors of COVID-19 vaccination refusal among nurses. Thus, [...] Read more.
COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy has become a major concern around the world. Recent reports have also highlighted COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in healthcare workers. Despite media reports and scientific publications, little is known about the extent and predictors of COVID-19 vaccination refusal among nurses. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess COVID-19 vaccine refusal rates among nurses globally and to explore the reasons for refusal and factors associated with the uptake of the vaccines. A scoping review of the published literature was conducted, and a final pool of 51 studies (n = 41,098 nurses) from 36 countries was included in this review. The overall pooled prevalence rate of COVID-19 vaccine refusal among 41,098 nurses worldwide was 20.7% (95% CI = 16.5–27%). The rates of vaccination refusal were higher from March 2020–December 2020 compared to the rates from January 2021–May 2021. The major reasons for COVID-19 vaccine refusal were concerns about vaccine safety, side effects, and efficacy; misinformation and lack of knowledge; and mistrust in experts, authorities, or pharmaceutical companies. The major factors associated with acceptance of the vaccines were: male sex, older age, and flu vaccination history. Evidence-based strategies should be implemented in healthcare systems worldwide to increase the uptake of COVID-19 vaccines among nurses to ensure their safety and the safety of their patients and community members. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Public Health)
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