Poultry Infectious Diseases: Immunity and Microbiota

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Vaccines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2023) | Viewed by 8614

Special Issue Editors

Institute of Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
Interests: poultry; infectious diseases; immunity; microbiota; immune responses; gut microbiota; gut health

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Guest Editor
USDA ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
Interests: poultry; infectious diseases; immunity; microbiota; immune responses; gut microbiota; gut health

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Guest Editor
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Health Science Campus, University of Toledo, 3100 Transverse Dr, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
Interests: Salmonella; poultry; vaccines; Immunology; microbiology; Klebsiella; urinary tract infections

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite the difficult circumstances with COVID-19, global population growth is driving up the demand for food and poultry species are being bred to satisfy the global demand. Infectious diseases in poultry caused by pathgens including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi continue to pose a threat to the sustainability, productivity, and growth of the poultry industry worldwide. Among the many aspects of infectious diseases, such as etiology, pathogenesis, immunology, epidemiology, pathology, control, etc., this Special Issue aims to focus on the role of immunity and the microbiota in poultry infectious diseases. Immunity refers to the response of the host to pathogens and the microbiota, which are a community of micro-organisms believed to be closely related to combating diseases. Like other species, including humans, many infectious diseases in poultry still need to be studied in order to establish strategies for controlling them. This Special Issue will cover many aspects of various infectious diseases in poultry in the context of immune responses as well as the microbiota, not limited to chickens but including other species such as turkeys and ducks. Both original research and review articles are welcomed.

Dr. Woo H. Kim
Dr. Hyun Lillehoj
Dr. Keila Acevedo-Villanueva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • poultry, infectious diseases
  • immunity
  • microbiota
  • immune responses
  • gut microbiota
  • gut health

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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24 pages, 4535 KiB  
Article
Influence of Live Attenuated Salmonella Vaccines on Cecal Microbiome Composition and Microbiota Abundances in Young Broiler Chickens
by Wilfred Michael Lyimu, Samson Leta, Nadia Everaert and Jan Paeshuyse
Vaccines 2023, 11(6), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11061116 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
Salmonellosis is a global food safety challenge caused by Salmonella, a gram-negative bacterium of zoonotic importance. Poultry is considered a major reservoir for the pathogen, and humans are exposed through consumption of raw or undercooked products derived from them. Prophylaxis of Salmonella [...] Read more.
Salmonellosis is a global food safety challenge caused by Salmonella, a gram-negative bacterium of zoonotic importance. Poultry is considered a major reservoir for the pathogen, and humans are exposed through consumption of raw or undercooked products derived from them. Prophylaxis of Salmonella in poultry farms generally mainly involves biosecurity measures, flock testing and culling, use of antibiotics, and vaccination programs. For decades, the use of antibiotics has been a common practice to limit poultry contamination with important pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella at the farm level. However, due to an increasing prevalence of resistance, non-therapeutic use of antibiotics in animal production has been banned in many parts of the world. This has prompted the search for non-antimicrobial alternatives. Live vaccines are among the developed and currently used methods for Salmonella control. However, their mechanism of action, particularly the effect they might have on commensal gut microbiota, is not well understood. In this study, three different commercial live attenuated Salmonella vaccines (AviPro® Salmonella Vac T, AviPro® Salmonella DUO, and AviPro® Salmonella Vac E) were used to orally vaccinate broiler chickens, and cecal contents were collected for microbiomes analysis by 16S rRNA next generation sequencing. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to study the cecal immune-related genes expression in the treatment groups, while Salmonella-specific antibodies were analyzed from sera and cecal extracts by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We show that vaccination with live attenuated Salmonella vaccines had a significant influence on the variability of the broiler cecal microbiota (p = 0.016). Furthermore, the vaccines AviPro® Salmonella Vac T and AviPro® Salmonella DUO, but not AviPro® Salmonella Vac E, had a significant effect (p = 0.024) on microbiota composition. This suggests that the live vaccine type used can differently alter the microbiota profiles, driving the gut colonization resistance and immune responses to pathogenic bacteria, and might impact the overall chicken health and productivity. Further investigation is, however, required to confirm this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Infectious Diseases: Immunity and Microbiota)
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19 pages, 3344 KiB  
Article
Interactions of Microbiota and Mucosal Immunity in the Ceca of Broiler Chickens Infected with Eimeria tenella
by Janghan Choi and Wookyun Kim
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1941; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111941 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2077
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of Eimeria tenella infection on the cecal microbiome, the protein concentration of cecal content, cecal mucosal immunity, and serum endotoxin levels in broilers. Three hundred sixty 14-day-old broilers were allocated to five infection [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of Eimeria tenella infection on the cecal microbiome, the protein concentration of cecal content, cecal mucosal immunity, and serum endotoxin levels in broilers. Three hundred sixty 14-day-old broilers were allocated to five infection doses with six replicates. The five infection doses were: ID0: 0, ID1: 6250, ID2: 12,500, ID3: 25,000, and ID4: 50,000 Eimeria tenella oocysts. Eimeria tenella infection significantly increased the relative abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria, which includes diverse pathogenic bacteria, and significantly decreased the relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes. Protein concentration of the cecal content was linearly increased (p < 0.05), and the concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in the cecal content was linearly decreased by Eimeria tenella infection (p < 0.05). Goblet cell density was linearly reduced in the ceca by Eimeria tenella infection (p < 0.05). Eimeria tenella infection tended to linearly decrease the relative mRNA expression of antimicrobial peptide genes such as avian beta-defensin 9 (AvBD9; p = 0.10) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2; p = 0.08) in the cecal tissue. Therefore, Eimeria tenella infection negatively modulated cecal microbiota via impairing cecal mucosal immunity and increasing protein concentration in the cecal content in broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Infectious Diseases: Immunity and Microbiota)
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Review

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17 pages, 1431 KiB  
Review
The Development of Gut Microbiota and Its Changes Following C. jejuni Infection in Broilers
by Walid Ghazi Al Hakeem, Keila Y. Acevedo Villanueva and Ramesh K. Selvaraj
Vaccines 2023, 11(3), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11030595 - 05 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3935
Abstract
The gut is home to more than millions of bacterial species. The gut bacteria coexist with the host in a symbiotic relationship that can influence the host’s metabolism, nutrition, and physiology and even module various immune functions. The commensal gut microbiota plays a [...] Read more.
The gut is home to more than millions of bacterial species. The gut bacteria coexist with the host in a symbiotic relationship that can influence the host’s metabolism, nutrition, and physiology and even module various immune functions. The commensal gut microbiota plays a crucial role in shaping the immune response and provides a continuous stimulus to maintain an activated immune system. The recent advancements in high throughput omics technologies have improved our understanding of the role of commensal bacteria in developing the immune system in chickens. Chicken meat continues to be one of the most consumed sources of protein worldwide, with the demand expected to increase significantly by the year 2050. Yet, chickens are a significant reservoir for human foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter jejuni. Understanding the interaction between the commensal bacteria and C. jejuni is essential in developing novel technologies to decrease C. jejuni load in broilers. This review aims to provide current knowledge of gut microbiota development and its interaction with the immune system in broilers. Additionally, the effect of C. jejuni infection on the gut microbiota is addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Infectious Diseases: Immunity and Microbiota)
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