Special Issue "Advances in Immunogenetics: From Genetics to Immune Responses"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Vaccination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2023 | Viewed by 4305

Special Issue Editors

IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system®, Institute of Human Genetics, University of Montpellier, 34000 Montpellier, France
Interests: immunogenetics; immunoinformatics; immune repertoire; therapeutic antibodies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system®, Institute of Human Genetics, University of Montpellier, 34000 Montpellier, France
Interests: immunogenetics; immunoinformatics; immune repertoire; therapeutic antibodies
Dr. Nika Abdollahi
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Guest Editor
IMGT®, the International ImMunoGeneTics Information System®, Institute of Human Genetics, University of Montpellier, 34000 Montpellier, France
Interests: immunogenetics; immunoinformatics; immune repertoire; data visualization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The innate and adaptive immune responses have been highly scrutinized because of their crucial theoretical and clinical relevance. One of the significant applications of these studies is developing effective vaccines that protect the receiver against challenging pathogens.

The immune response mechanisms can be analyzed at different levels:

  1. the genome level: identifying and characterizing immune genes and their genomic organization
  2. the expressed immune repertoires level: providing the possibility for statistical and comparative analysis on a person or multiple people. Investigating a person's immune repertoire at different time points can be particularly useful for studying the effects of a vaccine. Comparing different people's repertoires can facilitate the meta-analysis of a population's immune repertoire.
  3. the immune protein's structural level: providing valuable insights for engineered antibody used in diagnostic, therapeutic, and clinical indications.

The importance of enhancing these sets of knowledge, especially in the context of controlling the coronavirus disease 2019, can hardly be overstated.

In this Special Issue entitled "Advances in Immunogenetics: From Genetics to Immune Responses," we welcome all papers, reviews, methodologies, and novel softwares that help elucidate the immunogenetics field.

Prof. Dr. Sofia Kossida
Dr. Taciana Manso
Dr. Nika Abdollahi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • immunogenetics
  • immunoinformatics
  • immune repertoire
  • immunoglobulins
  • T-cell receptors

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 3310 KiB  
Article
CCL28 Enhances HSV-2 gB-Specific Th1-Polarized Immune Responses against Lethal Vaginal Challenge in Mice
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081291 - 10 Aug 2022
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Abstract
Plasmid DNA (pDNA) represents a promising “genetic vaccine platform” capable of overcoming major histocompatibility complex barriers. We previously demonstrated that low-to-moderate doses of mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC or CCL28) as an immunomodulatory adjuvant can trigger effective and long-lasting systemic and mucosal HSV-2 gD-specific [...] Read more.
Plasmid DNA (pDNA) represents a promising “genetic vaccine platform” capable of overcoming major histocompatibility complex barriers. We previously demonstrated that low-to-moderate doses of mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC or CCL28) as an immunomodulatory adjuvant can trigger effective and long-lasting systemic and mucosal HSV-2 gD-specific immune responses, whereas mice immunized with gD in combination with high-dose CCL28 showed toxicity and lost their immunoprotective effects after lethal HSV-2 challenge. The exact causes underlying high-dose, CCL28-induced lesions remain unknown. In an intramuscularly immunized mouse model, we investigated the immune-enhancement mechanisms of low-dose CCL28 as a molecular adjuvant combined with the relatively weak immunogen HSV-2 gB. Compared with the plasmid gB antigen group, we found that a low-dose of plasmid CCL28 (pCCL28) codelivered with pgB induced increased levels of gB-specific serum IgG and vaginal fluid IgA, serum neutralizing antibodies (NAb), Th1-polarized IgG2a, and cytokine IL-2 (>5-fold). Furthermore, low-dose pCCL28 codelivery with pgB enhanced CCL28/CCR10-axis responsive CCR10 plus CCR10+ B-cell (~1.2-fold) and DC pools (~4-fold) in the spleen, CCR10 plus CCR10+ T-cell pools (~2-fold) in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and the levels of IgA-ASCs in colorectal mucosal tissues, leading to an improved protective effect against a lethal dose of HSV-2 challenge. Findings in this study provide a basis for the development of CCL28-adjuvant vaccines against viral mucosal infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Immunogenetics: From Genetics to Immune Responses)
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25 pages, 6785 KiB  
Article
Design of a Multi-Epitopes Based Chimeric Vaccine against Enterobacter cloacae Using Pan-Genome and Reverse Vaccinology Approaches
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060886 - 01 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
Enterobacter cloacae (EC) is a significant emerging pathogen that is occasionally associated with lung infection, surgical site infection, urinary infection, sepsis, and outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units. In light of the fact that there is currently no approved vaccine or therapeutic option [...] Read more.
Enterobacter cloacae (EC) is a significant emerging pathogen that is occasionally associated with lung infection, surgical site infection, urinary infection, sepsis, and outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units. In light of the fact that there is currently no approved vaccine or therapeutic option for the treatment of EC, the current study was developed to concentrate on applications based on modern computational approaches to design a multi-epitope-based E. cloacae peptide vaccine (MEBEPV) expressing the antigenic determinants prioritized from the EC genome. Integrated computational analyses identified two potential protein targets (phosphoporin protein-PhoE and putative outer-membrane porin protein) for further exploration on the basis of pangenome subtractive proteomics and immunoinformatic in-depth examination of the core proteomes. Then, a multi-epitope peptide vaccine was designed, which comprised shortlisted epitopes that were capable of eliciting both innate and adaptive immunity, as well as the cholera toxin’s B-subunit, which was used as an adjuvant in the vaccine formulation. To ensure maximum expression, the vaccine’s 3D structure was developed and the loop was refined, improving the stability by disulfide engineering, and the physicochemical characteristics of the recombinant vaccine sequence were found to be ideal for both in vitro and in vivo experimentation. Blind docking was then used for the prediction of the MEBEPV predominant blinding mode with MHCI, MHCII, and TLR3 innate immune receptors, with lowest global energy of −18.64 kJ/mol, −48.25 kJ/mol, and −5.20 kJ/mol for MHC-I, MHC-II, and TLR-4, respectively, with docked complexes considered for simulation. In MD and MMGBSA investigations, the docked models of MEBEPV-TLR3, MEBEPV-MHCI, and MEBEPV-MHCII were found to be stable during the course of the simulation. MM-GBSA analysis calculated −122.17 total net binding free energies for the TLR3-vaccine complex, −125.4 for the MHC I-vaccine complex, and −187.94 for the MHC II-vaccine complex. Next, MM-PBSA analysis calculated −115.63 binding free energy for the TLR3-vaccine complex, −118.19 for the MHC I-vaccine complex, and −184.61 for the MHC II-vaccine complex. When the vaccine was tested in silico, researchers discovered that it was capable of inducing both types of immune responses (cell mediated and humoral) at the same time. Even though the suggested MEBEPV has the potential to be a powerful contender against E. cloacae-associated illnesses, further testing in the laboratory will be required before it can be declared safe and immunogenic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Immunogenetics: From Genetics to Immune Responses)
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Review

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21 pages, 3972 KiB  
Review
Delving into Molecular Pathways: Analyzing the Mechanisms of Action of Monoclonal Antibodies Integrated in IMGT/mAb-DB for Myasthenia Gravis
Vaccines 2023, 11(12), 1756; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11121756 - 26 Nov 2023
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Background: Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a rare autoimmune disease presenting with auto-antibodies that affect the neuromuscular junction. In addition to symptomatic treatment options, novel therapeutics include monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system®, extends the characterization of [...] Read more.
Background: Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a rare autoimmune disease presenting with auto-antibodies that affect the neuromuscular junction. In addition to symptomatic treatment options, novel therapeutics include monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system®, extends the characterization of therapeutic antibodies with a systematic description of their mechanisms of action (MOA) and makes them available through its database for mAbs and fusion proteins, IMGT/mAb-DB. Methods: Using available literature data combined with amino acid sequence analyses from mAbs managed in IMGT/2Dstructure-DB, the IMGT® protein database, biocuration allowed us to define in a standardized way descriptions of MOAs of mAbs that target molecules towards MG treatment. Results: New therapeutic targets include FcRn and molecules such as CD38, CD40, CD19, MS4A1, and interleukin-6 receptor. A standardized graphical representation of the MOAs of selected mAbs was created and integrated within IMGT/mAb-DB. The main mechanisms involved in these mAbs are either blocking or neutralizing. Therapies directed to B cell depletion and plasma cells have a blocking MOA with an immunosuppressant effect along with Fc-effector function (MS4A1, CD38) or FcγRIIb engager effect (CD19). Monoclonal antibodies targeting the complement also have a blocking MOA with a complement inhibitor effect, and treatments targeting T cells have a blocking MOA with an immunosuppressant effect (CD40) and Fc-effector function (IL6R). On the other hand, FcRn antagonists present a neutralizing MOA with an FcRn inhibitor effect. Conclusion: The MOA of each new mAb needs to be considered in association with the immunopathogenesis of each of the subtypes of MG in order to integrate the new mAbs as a viable and safe option in the therapy decision process. In IMGT/mAb-DB, mAbs for MG are characterized by their sequence, domains, and chains, and their MOA is described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Immunogenetics: From Genetics to Immune Responses)
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