Recent Scientific Advances in Vaccination against Ebola and Marburg Virus Diseases

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Vaccines against (re)emerging and Tropical Infections Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 3527

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
Interests: epidemiology; vaccines; infectious diseases; emerging infections; clinical trials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ebola and Marburg virus diseases are severe infections in people and non-human primates (NHPs) with a high case-fatality rate.

Ebola disease is caused by an infection with one of four viruses within the genus Ebolavirus: Ebola virus (species Zaire ebolavirus), Sudan virus (species Sudan ebolavirus), Taï Forest virus (species Taï Forest ebolavirus) and Bundibugyo virus (species Bundibugyo ebolavirus). Marburg virus disease is caused by the Marburg virus, a member of the same family (Filoviridae) that includes the ebolaviruses. Marburg virus and ebolaviruses circulate in wildlife. The reservoir host of Marburg virus is the African fruit bat, but the virus has also been isolated in other bat species. Bats are also likely to be the host reservoir of ebolaviruses, although this has not been confirmed.

Both diseases are rare but can cause deadly outbreaks, which in particular settings, such as countries with weak health infrastructure or areas of conflict, can remain uncontrolled for months or years, claiming many lives. The largest outbreak of Ebola disease was caused by Zaire ebolavirus and occurred in West Africa between 2014 and 2016, with over 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths. The largest outbreak of Marburg virus disease occurred in Angola in 2004–2005 and resulted in more than 350 cases and 300 deaths. An Ebola disease outbreak due to Sudan ebolavirus occurred recently in Uganda and caused 164 cases and 55 deaths.

Large outbreaks have devastating consequences on the affected populations, which go beyond the lives lost due to the disease itself and include the lives lost to other diseases that are neglected during outbreaks and the substantial socio-economic costs.

Due to climate and environmental changes with the increasing interactions between humans and wildlife hosts, Ebola and Marburg outbreaks could become more frequent. It is, therefore, extremely important to develop and reinforce prevention and control strategies in at-risk countries in order to limit the extent of future outbreaks.

Vaccines play a key role in responses to epidemic threats and have been an important part of the response to Ebola disease outbreaks due to Zaire ebolavirus since the 2014–16 West African outbreak. However, there remain questions about the use of vaccines during and outside outbreaks. There are also no licensed vaccines against the Sudan and Marburg viruses, although several candidates are under development.

This Special Issue aims to collect recent scientific knowledge and advances in vaccination against the Ebola and Marburg virus diseases. We are interested in a broad area of research, including clinical trials, vaccine roll-out strategies, mathematical modelling, NHP studies and literature reviews that can inform future vaccination strategies against these diseases.

Dr. Daniela Manno
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Ebola virus
  • Marburg virus
  • vaccines
  • clinical trials
  • mathematical modelling
  • literature reviews
  • epidemiological studies
  • animal studies

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 979 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Previous Exposure to Malaria Infection and Clinical Malaria Episodes on the Immune Response to the Two-Dose Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo Ebola Vaccine Regimen
by Daniela Manno, Catriona Patterson, Abdoulie Drammeh, Kevin Tetteh, Mattu Tehtor Kroma, Godfrey Tuda Otieno, Bolarinde Joseph Lawal, Seyi Soremekun, Philip Ayieko, Auguste Gaddah, Abu Bakarr Kamara, Frank Baiden, Muhammed Olanrewaju Afolabi, Daniel Tindanbil, Kwabena Owusu-Kyei, David Ishola, Gibrilla Fadlu Deen, Babajide Keshinro, Yusupha Njie, Mohamed Samai, Brett Lowe, Cynthia Robinson, Bailah Leigh, Chris Drakeley, Brian Greenwood and Deborah Watson-Jonesadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Vaccines 2023, 11(8), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11081317 - 02 Aug 2023
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Abstract
We assessed whether the immunogenicity of the two-dose Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo Ebola vaccine regimen with a 56-day interval between doses was affected by exposure to malaria before dose 1 vaccination and by clinical episodes of malaria in the period immediately after dose 1 and [...] Read more.
We assessed whether the immunogenicity of the two-dose Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo Ebola vaccine regimen with a 56-day interval between doses was affected by exposure to malaria before dose 1 vaccination and by clinical episodes of malaria in the period immediately after dose 1 and after dose 2 vaccinations. Previous malaria exposure in participants in an Ebola vaccine trial in Sierra Leone (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02509494) was classified as low, intermediate, and high according to their antibody responses to a panel of Plasmodium falciparum antigens detected using a Luminex MAGPIX platform. Clinical malaria episodes after vaccinations were recorded as part of the trial safety monitoring. Binding antibody responses against the Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) were measured 57 days post dose 1 and 21 days post dose 2 by ELISA and summarized as Geometric Mean Concentrations (GMCs). Geometric Mean Ratios (GMRs) were used to compare groups with different levels of exposure to malaria. Overall, 587 participants, comprising 188 (32%) adults (aged ≥ 18 years) and 399 (68%) children (aged 1–3, 4–11, and 12–17 years), were included in the analysis. There was no evidence that the anti-EBOV-GP antibody GMCs post dose 1 and post dose 2 differed between categories of previous malaria exposure. There was weak evidence that the GMC at 57 days post dose 1 was lower in participants who had had at least one episode of clinical malaria post dose 1 compared to participants with no diagnosed clinical malaria in the same period (GMR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.69–0.98, p-value = 0.02). However, GMC post dose 2 was not reduced in participants who experienced clinical malaria post-dose 1 and/or post-dose 2 vaccinations. In conclusion, the Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo Ebola vaccine regimen is immunogenic in individuals with previous exposure to malaria and in those who experience clinical malaria after vaccination. This vaccine regimen is suitable for prophylaxis against Ebola virus disease in malaria-endemic regions. Full article
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Review
Developing Vaccines to Improve Preparedness for Filovirus Outbreaks: The Perspective of the USA Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA)
by Lindsay A. Parish, Eric J. Stavale, Christopher R. Houchens and Daniel N. Wolfe
Vaccines 2023, 11(6), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11061120 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1637
Abstract
Outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by filoviruses have become more prevalent in recent years, with outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), and Marburg virus (MARV) all occurring in 2022 and 2023. While licensed vaccines are now available for EBOV, vaccine [...] Read more.
Outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by filoviruses have become more prevalent in recent years, with outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), and Marburg virus (MARV) all occurring in 2022 and 2023. While licensed vaccines are now available for EBOV, vaccine candidates for SUDV and MARV are all in preclinical or early clinical development phases. During the recent outbreak of SUDV virus disease, the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), as part of the Administration for Strategic Preparedness and Response within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, implemented key actions with our existing partners to advance preparedness and enable rapid response to the outbreak, while also aligning with global partners involved in the implementation of clinical trials in an outbreak setting. Beyond pre-existing plans prior to the outbreak, BARDA worked with product sponsors to expedite manufacturing of vaccine doses that could be utilized in clinical trials. While the SUDV outbreak has since ended, a new outbreak of MARV disease has emerged. It remains critical that we continue to advance a portfolio of vaccines against SUDV and MARV while also expediting manufacturing activities ahead of, or in parallel if needed, outbreaks. Full article
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