Emerging and Reemerging Viral Infection, Immunopathogenesis and Diagnosis of Viral Infection, and Development of the Novel Antiviral Strategies

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Vaccines against (re)emerging and Tropical Infections Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 July 2023) | Viewed by 14010

Special Issue Editors

1. Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
2. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Interests: emerging infectious diseases; COVID-19; monkeypox virus
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Grupo de Investigación Biomedicina, Faculty of Medicine, Fundación Universitaria Autónoma de las Américas, 660003 Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia
2. Latin American networks on Monkeypox Virus research (LAMOVI), Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia
3. Institución Universitaria Visión de las Américas, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia
4. Master of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima 4861, Peru
Interests: emerging infectious diseases; COVID-19; monkeypox virus
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Medical Research Unit, School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
2. Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
3. Tropical Diseases Centre, School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
Interests: infectious diseases; dengue; COVID-19; arbovirus; viral disease; epidemiology; monkeypox; chikungunya; Indonesia; emerging infectious disease; Zika; public health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are launching Special Issue on Emerging and re-emerging viral infections, immunopathogenesis and diagnosis of viral infections, and the development of novel antiviral strategies. In recent years, we have seen many emerging viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, and re-emerging viruses, such as the monkeypox virus. Many virus outbreaks are ongoing in different parts of the world, causing morbidity and mortality: the COVID-19 pandemic, the monkeypox outbreak in nonendemic countries, the Dengue outbreak in Southeast Asia, CCHF, and the West Nile virus in Europe and America. Langya virus was detected in China, H1N1 and Nipha virus in India, a measles outbreak in Zimbabwe, and many more. Viral infection in any part of the world is a threat to global health and has the potential to cause epidemics and pandemics. Therefore, the diagnosis, detection, and management of viruses should be performed at their origin.

With these issues in mind, in this Special Issue, we welcome original articles, review articles, perspectives, and interesting case series of emerging and reemerging viruses.

  1. Perspectives and reviews on emerging and re-emerging viruses and their immunopathogenesis
  2. Original articles on emerging and re-emerging viral infections
  3. Perspectives and reviews on the development of novel anti-viral strategies against emerging and re-emerging viruses
  4. Interesting case reports and series on emerging and re-emerging viruses
  5. Development of new molecular tools for the diagnosis of viral infections and comparisons with the point-of-care screening test
  6. Sequencing data for emerging and re-emerging viruses
  7. Increase human–animal interference causing different outbreaks
  8. Primary studies conducted on major emerging and re-emerging viral infections of public health importance. 

Dr. Ranjit Sah
Dr. Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
Dr. Harapan Harapan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • emerging diseases
  • re-emerging diseases
  • viral diseases
  • zoonotic diseases
  • epidemiology
  • diagnostics
  • control and prevention
  • host–pathogen interaction

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 3180 KiB  
Article
Usp22 Deficiency Leads to Downregulation of PD-L1 and Pathological Activation of CD8+ T Cells and Causes Immunopathology in Response to Acute LCMV Infection
by Justa Friebus-Kardash, Theresa Charlotte Christ, Nikolaus Dietlein, Abdelrahman Elwy, Hossam Abdelrahman, Lisa Holnsteiner, Zhongwen Hu, Hans-Reimer Rodewald and Karl Sebastian Lang
Vaccines 2023, 11(10), 1563; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11101563 - 5 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 22 (Usp22) cleaves ubiquitin moieties from numerous proteins, including histone H2B and transcription factors. Recently, it was reported that Usp22 acts as a negative regulator of interferon-dependent responses. In the current study, we investigated the role of Usp22 deficiency in acute [...] Read more.
Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 22 (Usp22) cleaves ubiquitin moieties from numerous proteins, including histone H2B and transcription factors. Recently, it was reported that Usp22 acts as a negative regulator of interferon-dependent responses. In the current study, we investigated the role of Usp22 deficiency in acute viral infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We found that the lack of Usp22 on bone marrow-derived cells (Usp22fl/fl Vav1-Cre mice) reduced the induction of type I and II interferons. A limited type I interferon response did not influence virus replication. However, restricted expression of PD-L1 led to increased frequencies of functional virus-specific CD8+ T cells and rapid death of Usp22-deficient mice. CD8+ T cell depletion experiments revealed that accelerated CD8+ T cells were responsible for enhanced lethality in Usp22 deficient mice. In conclusion, we found that the lack of Usp22 generated a pathological CD8+ T cell response, which gave rise to severe disease in mice. Full article
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14 pages, 1349 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Sawsan Mustafa Abdalla, Elsadig Yousif Mohamed, Hala Mostafa Elsabagh, Mohammad Shakil Ahmad, Riyaz Ahamed Shaik, Vini Mehta, Ankita Mathur and Sharad Balasaheb Ghatge
Vaccines 2023, 11(6), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11061125 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Hesitancy about receiving vaccines has been deemed a global danger to public health by WHO. The sociocultural backgrounds of the people have an impact on vaccine acceptance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sociodemographic factors on COVID-19 vaccination [...] Read more.
Hesitancy about receiving vaccines has been deemed a global danger to public health by WHO. The sociocultural backgrounds of the people have an impact on vaccine acceptance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sociodemographic factors on COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy as well as to identify the factors that contributed to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the primary variables causing COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy among residents of Pune. The general population was sampled through simple random sampling. The minimum sample size was determined to be 1246. The questionnaire inquired about the individuals’ sociodemographic information, vaccination status, and reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Results: In total, there were 5381 subjects, 1669 of whom were unvaccinated and 3712 of whom were partially vaccinated. Fear of adverse effects (51.71%), fear of losing a few days of work (43.02%), and inability to secure a vaccine slot online (33.01%) were the most frequently cited reasons. An older population (>60 years, p = 0.004), males (p = 0.032), those who were literate (p = 0.011), those of lower middle socioeconomic status (p = 0.001), and smokers were significantly associated with fear and mistrust of the COVID-19 vaccine, while mistrust of the vaccine was greatest among individuals from the upper and lower middle classes (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Vaccine hesitancy due to concerns about the side effects and long-term complications was prevalent among the elderly, males, those from the lower middle class, and smokers. This study emphasizes the importance of communicating effectively about the vaccine’s efficacy, its distribution, and vaccination sites. Full article
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13 pages, 1480 KiB  
Article
Genomic Analysis of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Nigeria: Identification of Unique Mutations of Yet Unknown Biological Functions in Both Segments A and B
by Ijeoma Nwagbo, Adelaide Milani, Annalisa Salviato, Gianpiero Zamperin, Lanre Sulaiman, Nanven Maurice, Clement Meseko, Alice Fusaro and Ismaila Shittu
Vaccines 2023, 11(4), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11040867 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a viral poultry disease known worldwide for impacting the economy and food security. The disease is endemic in Nigeria, with reported outbreaks in vaccinated poultry flocks. To gain insight into the dynamics of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) [...] Read more.
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a viral poultry disease known worldwide for impacting the economy and food security. The disease is endemic in Nigeria, with reported outbreaks in vaccinated poultry flocks. To gain insight into the dynamics of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) evolution in Nigeria, near-complete genomes of four IBDVs were evaluated. Amino acid sequences in the hypervariable region of the VP2 revealed conserved markers (222A, 242I, 256I, 294I and 299S) associated with very virulent (vv) IBDV, including the serine-rich heptapeptide motif (SWSASGS). Based on the newly proposed classification for segments A and B, the IBDVs clustered in the A3B5 group (where A3 are IBDVs with vvIBDV-like segment A, and where B5 are from non-vvIBDV-like segment B) form a monophyletic subcluster. Unique amino acid mutations with yet-to-be-determined biological functions have been observed in both segments. Amino acid sequences of the Nigerian IBDVs showed that they are reassortant viruses. Circulation of reassortant IBDVs may be responsible for the vaccination failures observed in the Nigerian poultry population. Close monitoring of changes in the IBDV genome is recommended to nip deleterious changes in the bud through the identification and introduction of the most appropriate vaccine candidates and advocacy/extension programs for properly implementing disease control. Full article
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12 pages, 715 KiB  
Article
A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess mRNA-COVID-19 Vaccine Safety among Indian Children (5–17 Years) Living in Saudi Arabia
by Marya Ahsan, Riyaz Ahamed Shaik, Ayaz K. Mallick, Saeed S. Banawas, Thamer A. M. Alruwaili, Yousef Abud Alanazi, Hayat Saleh Alzahrani, Ritu Kumar Ahmad, Mohammad Shakil Ahmad, Faisal Holil AlAnazi, Fahad Alfhaid, Mohammed Zaid Aljulifi, Vini Mehta, Abdalah Emad Almhmd, Abdulaziz S. D. Al Daham and Mutlaq M. M. Alruwaili
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020207 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
The objective of this study is to assess the frequency and severity of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in Indian children aged 5–17 years who received the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, as well as to investigate for predictors of AEFI. To examine AEFI [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to assess the frequency and severity of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in Indian children aged 5–17 years who received the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, as well as to investigate for predictors of AEFI. To examine AEFI following the first and second doses of Pfizer’s vaccine, semi-structured questionnaires were distributed as Google forms at Indian schools in Saudi Arabia. The 385 responses included 48.1% male and 51.9% female children, with 136 responses of children aged 5–11 years (group A) and 249 responses from children aged 12–17 years (group B). Overall, 84.4% of children had two shots. The frequency of AEFI was reported to be higher after the first dose than after the second (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.57–2.86). The reported AEFIs included myalgia, rhinitis, local reaction with fever, a temperature of 102 °F or higher, and mild to moderate injection site reactions. While group B frequently reported multiple AEFIs, group A typically reported just one. Local reaction with low grade fever was more frequently reported in group B after the first dose (24.1%) and second dose (15.4%), while local reaction without low grade fever was most frequently observed in group A after the first (36.8%) and second dose (30%). Only prior COVID-19 infection (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.44–6.2) was associated with AEFI after the second dose in the study sample, whereas male gender (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.13–2.6) and prior COVID-19 infection (OR = 2.95, 95% CI = 1.38–6.3) were predictors of AEFI after the first dose. Non-serious myocarditis was reported by only one child. According to the analysis conducted, the Pfizer’s mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was found to be safe in Indian children. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 1271 KiB  
Review
Ebola Virus Disease Vaccines: Development, Current Perspectives & Challenges
by Sumira Malik, Shristi Kishore, Sagnik Nag, Archna Dhasmana, Subham Preetam, Oishi Mitra, Darwin A. León-Figueroa, Aroop Mohanty, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Marjan Assefi, Bijaya K. Padhi and Ranjit Sah
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020268 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6012
Abstract
The global outgoing outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in different regions of Sudan, Uganda, and Western Africa have brought into focus the inadequacies and restrictions of pre-designed vaccines for use in the battle against EVD, which has affirmed the urgent need for [...] Read more.
The global outgoing outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in different regions of Sudan, Uganda, and Western Africa have brought into focus the inadequacies and restrictions of pre-designed vaccines for use in the battle against EVD, which has affirmed the urgent need for the development of a systematic protocol to produce Ebola vaccines prior to an outbreak. There are several vaccines available being developed by preclinical trials and human-based clinical trials. The group of vaccines includes virus-like particle-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, whole virus recombinant vaccines, incompetent replication originated vaccines, and competent replication vaccines. The limitations and challenges faced in the development of Ebola vaccines are the selection of immunogenic, rapid-responsive, cross-protective immunity-based vaccinations with assurances of prolonged protection. Another issue for the manufacturing and distribution of vaccines involves post authorization, licensing, and surveillance to ensure a vaccine’s efficacy towards combating the Ebola outbreak. The current review focuses on the development process, the current perspective on the development of an Ebola vaccine, and future challenges for combatting future emerging Ebola infectious disease. Full article
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