Immunological Pathogenesis and Treatment in Acute Medicine and Critical Care

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 6773

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Ospedale Alba-Bra Onlus, Department of Emergency Medicine, Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Michele and Pietro Ferrero Hospital, 12060 Verduno (CN), Italy
Interests: anesthesiology; emergency medicine; intensive care; COVID-19
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, AON SS. Antonio and Biagio and Cesare Arrigo University Hospital, Alessandria, Italy
Interests: anesthesia; critical care; internal medicine; emergency medicine

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Guest Editor
Department of Emergency Medicine, Foundation Policlinico San Matteo University Hospital, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Interests: ED management; triage; hospital and ED crowding; maxi-emergency
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Acute illnesses usually affect a specific part of the body and respond to treatment. Chronic diseases often involve multiple parts of the body, do not fully respond to treatment, and symptoms persist for an extended period of time.

In the process of disease occurrence and treatment, the human immune system plays an important role. It recognizes invaders and protects the body from disease. Thus, immune system dysfunction can cause autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Immune deficiency occurs when immune system activity falls below normal levels, leading to relapses and life-threatening infections.

This Special Issue encourages contributors to explore the relationship between acute and chronic human diseases and immunology. Understanding these mechanisms can aid in the discovery, prevention and treatment of diseases from an immunological perspective. We welcome original research papers, as well as critiques and opinion papers. Special clinical cases may also be included.

Dr. Christian Zanza
Dr. Yaroslava Longhitano
Dr. Gabriele Savioli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • acute illnesses
  • chronic diseases
  • immune system
  • inflammation

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

10 pages, 874 KiB  
Review
Probiotics, the Immune Response and Acute Appendicitis: A Review
by Carmine Petruzziello, Angela Saviano and Veronica Ojetti
Vaccines 2023, 11(7), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11071170 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3007
Abstract
Acute appendicitis is a common reason for admission to the Emergency Department (ED). It affects almost 70% of people under 30 years of age and 10% over 60 years of age. Its diagnosis includes the combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests and imaging. [...] Read more.
Acute appendicitis is a common reason for admission to the Emergency Department (ED). It affects almost 70% of people under 30 years of age and 10% over 60 years of age. Its diagnosis includes the combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests and imaging. For years, surgical appendectomy has been the first-line therapy for acute appendicitis, but currently the management has shown some changes, in particular in patients with uncomplicated appendicitis. Recent studies have investigated the use of probiotics as an adjunctive therapy with promising results in conferring health benefits to patients with acute appendicitis. The aim of our review is to summarize the results of clinical studies about probiotics and the immunological response in acute appendicitis, discussing the limitations and future directions of this research. Full article
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16 pages, 330 KiB  
Review
Role of Magnesium in the Intensive Care Unit and Immunomodulation: A Literature Review
by Francesco Saglietti, Alessandro Girombelli, Stefano Marelli, Francesco Vetrone, Mario G. Balzanelli and Payam Tabaee Damavandi
Vaccines 2023, 11(6), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11061122 - 20 Jun 2023
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Abstract
Both the role and the importance of magnesium in clinical practice have grown considerably in recent years. Emerging evidence suggests an association between loss of magnesium homeostasis and increased mortality in the critical care setting. The underlying mechanism is still unclear, but an [...] Read more.
Both the role and the importance of magnesium in clinical practice have grown considerably in recent years. Emerging evidence suggests an association between loss of magnesium homeostasis and increased mortality in the critical care setting. The underlying mechanism is still unclear, but an increasing number of in vivo and in vitro studies on magnesium’s immunomodulating capabilities may shed some light on the matter. This review aims to discuss the evidence behind magnesium homeostasis in critically ill patients, and its link with intensive care unit mortality via a likely magnesium-induced dysregulation of the immune response. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms, and their implications for clinical outcomes, are discussed. The available evidence strongly supports the crucial role of magnesium in immune system regulation and inflammatory response. The loss of magnesium homeostasis has been associated with an elevated risk of bacterial infections, exacerbated sepsis progression, and detrimental effects on the cardiac, respiratory, neurological, and renal systems, ultimately leading to increased mortality. However, magnesium supplementation has been shown to be beneficial in these conditions, highlighting the importance of maintaining adequate magnesium levels in the intensive care setting. Full article
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