Nuclear Physics and Multimessenger Astrophysics

A special issue of Universe (ISSN 2218-1997). This special issue belongs to the section "High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 11377

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, 50-204 Wroclaw, Poland
2. Center for Advanced Systems Understanding (CASUS), D-02826 Görlitz, Germany
3. Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), D-01328 Dresden, Germany
Interests: quantum field theory at finite temperature; dense hadronic matter and QCD phase transitions; quark matter in heavy-ion collisions, in compact stars, their mergers and in supernova explosions; pair production in strong fields
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Guest Editor
Bogoliubov Laboratory for Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Street 6, 141980 Dubna, Russia
Interests: neutron stars; strongly interacting matter

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Guest Editor
Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5252, USA
Interests: relativistic nuclear many-body problem; quantum field theory; nuclear astrophysics

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Guest Editor
1. Matej Bel University, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia
2. Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna, Russia
Interests: hadron structure; hadron resonances; particle production in heavy-ion collisions; In-medium effects; nuclear equation of state; neutron star physics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is based on selected contributions to the International Workshop "Infinite and Finite Nuclear Matter" (INFINUM-2020). However, it is also open to other contributions on this topic. The goal of INFINUM-2020 is to bring together researchers studying various aspects of the physics of atomic nuclei and neutron star physics, stimulating the interaction between the two communities. In the new era of multimessenger astronomy opened by the detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary neutron star merger and its electromagnetic counterpart, the gamma-ray burst and the associated kilonova, it is extremely important to understand the interplay between the strong interaction in the dense medium and GW observables.

Nuclear matter, as an extrapolation of finite nuclei to an infinite particle number, is a product of the same strong interaction, but free of the surface effects that play an essential role in atomic nuclei. Understanding nuclear matter in its various phases, including deconfined quark matter phases, is crucial for the description of neutron stars. The neutron star interiors, spanning over a wide range of densities, represent an excellent playground for studying the fundamental forces of nature under extreme conditions, which cannot be reproduced on Earth.

Studies of atomic nuclei play a central role in our understanding of the fundamental forces of nature and the emergent phenomena occurring at various physical scales. Nuclear experiments can test the standard model of particle physics via weak interaction processes, search for new physics, and study fundamental symmetries. Nuclear structure, decays, and nuclear reactions determine the origin of elements produced in neutron star mergers and star evolution.

Prof. Dr. David Blaschke
Dr. Konstantin Maslov
Prof. Dr. Elena Litvinova
Dr. Evgeni Kolomeitsev
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • neutron stars
  • gravitational waves
  • strongly interacting matter
  • equation of state of nuclear matter
  • nuclear physics
  • properties of atomic nuclei

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 719 KiB  
Article
Equations of State for Hadronic Matter and Mass-Radius Relations of Neutron Stars with Strong Magnetic Fields
by Chinatsu Watanabe, Naotaka Yoshinaga and Shuichiro Ebata
Universe 2022, 8(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8010048 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
Neutron star is an important object for us to verify the equation of state of hadronic matter. For a specific choice of equations of state, mass and radius of a neutron star are determined, for which there are constraints from observations. According to [...] Read more.
Neutron star is an important object for us to verify the equation of state of hadronic matter. For a specific choice of equations of state, mass and radius of a neutron star are determined, for which there are constraints from observations. According to some previous studies, since the strong magnetic field acts as a repulsive force, there is a possibility that neutron stars with strong magnetic fields may have relatively heavier masses than other non-magnetized neutron stars. In this paper, the structure of a neutron star with a strong internal magnetic field is investigated by changing its internal functional form to see how much the neutron star can be massive and also how radius of a neutron star can be within a certain range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Physics and Multimessenger Astrophysics)
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15 pages, 868 KiB  
Article
Statistical Hauser-Feshbach Model Description of (n,α) Reaction Cross Sections for the Weak s-Process
by Sema Küçüksucu, Mustafa Yiğit and Nils Paar
Universe 2022, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8010025 - 01 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1579
Abstract
The (n,α) reaction contributes in many processes of energy generation and nucleosynthesis in stellar environment. Since experimental data are available for a limited number of nuclei and in restricted energy ranges, at present only theoretical studies can provide predictions [...] Read more.
The (n,α) reaction contributes in many processes of energy generation and nucleosynthesis in stellar environment. Since experimental data are available for a limited number of nuclei and in restricted energy ranges, at present only theoretical studies can provide predictions for all astrophysically relevant (n,α) reaction cross sections. The purpose of this work is to study (n,α) reaction cross sections for a set of nuclei contributing in the weak s-process nucleosynthesis. Theory framework is based on the statistical Hauser-Feshbach model implemented in TALYS code with nuclear masses and level densities based on Skyrme energy density functional. In addition to the analysis of the properties of calculated (n,α) cross sections, the Maxwellian averaged cross sections are described and analyzed for the range of temperatures in stellar environment. Model calculations determined astrophysically relevant energy windows in which (n,α) reactions occur in stars. In order to reduce the uncertainties in modeling (n,α) reaction cross sections for the s-process, novel experimental studies are called for. Presented results on the effective energy windows for (n,α) reaction in weak s-process provide a guidance for the priority energy ranges in the future experimental studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Physics and Multimessenger Astrophysics)
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13 pages, 436 KiB  
Article
Origin of Low- and High-Energy Monopole Collectivity in 132Sn
by Nikolay N. Arsenyev and Alexey P. Severyukhin
Universe 2021, 7(5), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7050145 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Beginning with the Skyrme interaction, we study the properties of the isoscalar giant monopole resonances (ISGMR) of 132Sn. Using the finite-rank separable approximation for the particle-hole interaction, the coupling between one- and two-phonon terms in the wave functions of excited states is [...] Read more.
Beginning with the Skyrme interaction, we study the properties of the isoscalar giant monopole resonances (ISGMR) of 132Sn. Using the finite-rank separable approximation for the particle-hole interaction, the coupling between one- and two-phonon terms in the wave functions of excited states is taken into account in very large configurational spaces. The inclusion of the phonon–phonon coupling (PPC) results in the formation of a low-energy 0+ state. The PPC inclusion leads to a fragmentation of the ISGMR strength to lower energy states and also to a higher energy tail. Using the same set of parameters, we describe the available experimental data for the ISGMR characteristics of 118,120,122,124Sn and give a prediction for 126,128,130,132Sn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Physics and Multimessenger Astrophysics)
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20 pages, 618 KiB  
Article
Nuclear Equation of State in the Relativistic Point-Coupling Model Constrained by Excitations in Finite Nuclei
by Esra Yüksel, Tomohiro Oishi and Nils Paar
Universe 2021, 7(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7030071 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1937
Abstract
Nuclear equation of state is often described in the framework of energy density functional. However, the isovector channel in most functionals has been poorly constrained, mainly due to rather limited available experimental data to probe it. Only recently, the relativistic nuclear energy density [...] Read more.
Nuclear equation of state is often described in the framework of energy density functional. However, the isovector channel in most functionals has been poorly constrained, mainly due to rather limited available experimental data to probe it. Only recently, the relativistic nuclear energy density functional with an effective point-coupling interaction was constrained by supplementing the ground-state properties of nuclei with the experimental data on dipole polarizability and isoscalar monopole resonance energy in 208Pb, resulting in DD-PCX parameterization. In this work, we pursue a complementary approach by introducing a family of 8 relativistic point-coupling functionals that reproduce the same nuclear ground-state properties, including binding energies and charge radii, but in addition have a constrained value of symmetry energy at saturation density in the range J = 29, 30, …, 36 MeV. In the next step, this family of functionals is employed in studies of excitation properties such as dipole polarizability and magnetic dipole transitions, and the respective experimental data are used to validate the optimal choice of functional as well as to assess reliable values of the symmetry energy and slope of the symmetry energy at saturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Physics and Multimessenger Astrophysics)
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Review

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24 pages, 602 KiB  
Review
Hyperons in Finite and Infinite Nuclear Systems
by Isaac Vidaña
Universe 2021, 7(10), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7100376 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
In this work, we shortly review the role and properties of hyperons in finite and infinite nuclear systems such as hypernuclei and neutron stars. Particularly, we describe different production mechanisms of hypernuclei, discuss some aspects of their γ-ray spectroscopy and their weak [...] Read more.
In this work, we shortly review the role and properties of hyperons in finite and infinite nuclear systems such as hypernuclei and neutron stars. Particularly, we describe different production mechanisms of hypernuclei, discuss some aspects of their γ-ray spectroscopy and their weak decay modes, and give a few strokes on their theoretical description. We reexamine also the role played by hyperons on the properties of neutron and proto-neutron stars with a special emphasis on the well-known “hyperon puzzle”, of which we discuss some of the solutions that have been proposed to tackle this problem. Finally, we review the role of hyperons on the cooling properties of newly born neutron stars and on the so-called r-mode instability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Physics and Multimessenger Astrophysics)
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31 pages, 1502 KiB  
Review
Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics Constraints on the High Density Matter Equation of State
by Jirina R. Stone
Universe 2021, 7(8), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7080257 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2663
Abstract
(1) This review has been written in memory of Steven Moszkowski who unexpectedly passed away in December 2020. It has been inspired by our many years of discussions. Steven’s enthusiasm, drive and determination to understand atomic nuclei in simple terms of basic laws [...] Read more.
(1) This review has been written in memory of Steven Moszkowski who unexpectedly passed away in December 2020. It has been inspired by our many years of discussions. Steven’s enthusiasm, drive and determination to understand atomic nuclei in simple terms of basic laws of physics was infectious. He sought the fundamental origin of nuclear forces in free space, and their saturation and modification in nuclear medium. His untimely departure left our job unfinished but his legacy lives on. (2) Focusing on the nuclear force acting in nuclear matter of astrophysical interest and its equation of state (EoS), we take several typical snapshots of evolution of the theory of nuclear forces. We start from original ideas in the 1930s moving through to its overwhelming diversity today. The development is supported by modern observational and terrestrial data and their inference in the multimessenger era, as well as by novel mathematical techniques and computer power. (3) We find that, despite the admirable effort both in theory and measurement, we are facing multiple models dependent on a large number of variable correlated parameters which cannot be constrained by data, which are not yet accurate, nor sensitive enough, to identify the theory closest to reality. The role of microphysics in the theories is severely limited or neglected, mostly deemed to be too difficult to tackle. (4) Taking the EoS of high-density matter as an example, we propose to develop models, based, as much as currently possible, on the microphysics of the nuclear force, with a minimal set of parameters, chosen under clear physical guidance. Still somewhat phenomenological, such models could pave the way to realistic predictions, not tracing the measurement, but leading it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Physics and Multimessenger Astrophysics)
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