Hydrodynamics and Thermodynamics in High Energy Physics

A special issue of Universe (ISSN 2218-1997). This special issue belongs to the section "High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 August 2022) | Viewed by 5998

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
Interests: statistics in high energy heavy ion physics; multiparticle production and collective phenomena; properties of chemical and kinetic freeze-outs; electron-positron collisions
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Guest Editor
Department of Atomic Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary
Interests: hydrodynamics in high-energy heavy ion physics; Bose–Einstein correlations; femtoscopy; forward (small-x) processes in particle physics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In collisions of relativistic heavy ions, a new form of matter, the strongly interacting Quark–Gluon Plasma (sQGP) or quark matter is formed due to the extremely high temperature, density, and pressure. Ordinary hadrons, leptons, and photons then emerge from the sQGP and can be measured after the collisions. It is believed that the sQGP is similar to the form of matter that filled the Universe in the first few microseconds. The sQGP becomes locally thermalized early, and equations of hydro- and thermodynamics can be utilized to describe its time evolution. Perfect hydrodynamics is a theory without dissipation and internal scale, and many successful predictions about the sQGP have emerged from models based on it. Analytic solutions and numerical simulations are both useful in understanding space–time evolution of the system between its initial and final state. Today, dissipative hydrodynamics is also successfully applied to describe the sQGP, and there are interesting developments about the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics at various orders of dissipation. Meanwhile, thermodynamical properties at different stages of this evolution are important for understanding the sQGP. In this Special Issue, we invite papers that investigate analytic and numerical aspects of hydrodynamics and thermodynamics in high energy collisions and utilize these to describe the sQGP and its observables.

Prof. Fu-Hu Liu
Dr. Máté Csanád
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • hydrodynamics in high-energy heavy ion physics
  • Bose–Einstein correlations
  • femtoscopy
  • forward (small-x) processes in particle physics
  • statistics in high energy heavy ion physics
  • multiparticle production and collective phenomena
  • properties of chemical and kinetic freeze-outs
  • electron–positron collisions

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 938 KiB  
Article
Excitation Function of Kinetic Freeze-Out Parameters at 6.3, 17.3, 31, 900 and 7000 GeV
by Muhammad Waqas, Abd Al Karim Haj Ismail, Muhammad Ajaz and Atef AbdelKader
Universe 2022, 8(2), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8020138 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1931
Abstract
The transverse momentum spectra of π+ (π)(π++π) at 6.3, 17.3, 31, 900 and 7000 GeV are analyzed by the blast-wave model with Tsallis statistics (TBW) in proton-proton collisions. We took the value of [...] Read more.
The transverse momentum spectra of π+ (π)(π++π) at 6.3, 17.3, 31, 900 and 7000 GeV are analyzed by the blast-wave model with Tsallis statistics (TBW) in proton-proton collisions. We took the value of flow profile n0 = 1 and 2 in order to see the difference in the results of the extracted parameters in the two cases. Different rapidity slices at 31 GeV are also analyzed, and the values of the related parameters, such as kinetic freeze-out temperature, transverse flow velocity and kinetic freeze-out volume, are obtained. The above parameters rise with the increase of collision energy, while at 31 GeV, they decrease with increasing rapidity, except for the kinetic freeze-out volume, which increases. We also extracted the parameter q, which is an entropy-based parameter, and its rising trend is noticed with increasing collision energy, while at 31 GeV, no specific dependence of q is observed on rapidity. In addition, the multiplicity parameter N0 and mean transverse momentum are extracted, which increase with increasing collision energy and decrease with increasing rapidity. We notice that the kinetic freeze-out temperature and mean transverse momentum are slightly larger with n0 = 2, while the transverse flow velocity is larger in the case of n0 = 1, but the difference is very small and hence insignificant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrodynamics and Thermodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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9 pages, 380 KiB  
Article
Statistical Thermal Model for Particle Production in pp Collisions at RHIC and LHC Energies
by Jiayu Chen, Baochun Li, Xinjian Wen and Hongwei Dong
Universe 2022, 8(2), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8020124 - 13 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
In this paper, an improved multi-source thermal model is used to analyze the transverse momentum spectra in pp collisions at high energies, ranging from sNN = 62.4 GeV to 7 TeV. Via a detailed comparison between the model results and experimental [...] Read more.
In this paper, an improved multi-source thermal model is used to analyze the transverse momentum spectra in pp collisions at high energies, ranging from sNN = 62.4 GeV to 7 TeV. Via a detailed comparison between the model results and experimental data at RHIC and LHC energies, the thermodynamic properties of particle production are decided. It is shown that the excitation factors of emission sources depend linearly on lnsNN in the framework. Based on the variation regularity of the source excitation factors, transverse momentum spectra are predicted in pp collisions at higher energies; potential future pp colliders operating at sNN = 33 and 100 TeV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrodynamics and Thermodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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15 pages, 511 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Transverse Momentum Spectra by a New Method in High-Energy Collisions
by Li-Li Li, Fu-Hu Liu, Muhammad Waqas and Muhammad Ajaz
Universe 2022, 8(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8010031 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1415
Abstract
We analyzed the transverse momentum spectra of positively and negatively charged pions (π+ and π), positively and negatively charged kaons (K+ and K), protons and antiprotons (p and p¯), as well as [...] Read more.
We analyzed the transverse momentum spectra of positively and negatively charged pions (π+ and π), positively and negatively charged kaons (K+ and K), protons and antiprotons (p and p¯), as well as ϕ produced in mid-(pseudo)rapidity region in central nucleus–nucleus (AA) collisions over a center-of-mass energy range from 2.16 to 2760 GeV per nucleon pair. The transverse momentum of the considered particle is regarded as the joint contribution of two participant partons which obey the modified Tsallis-like transverse momentum distribution and have random azimuths in superposition. The calculation of transverse momentum distribution of particles is performed by the Monte Carlo method and compared with the experimental data measured by international collaborations. The excitation functions of effective temperature and other parameters are obtained in the considered energy range. With the increase of collision energy, the effective temperature parameter increases quickly and then slowly. The boundary appears at around 5 GeV, which means the change of reaction mechanism and/or generated matter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrodynamics and Thermodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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