Gauge Theory, Strings and Supergravity

A special issue of Universe (ISSN 2218-1997). This special issue belongs to the section "Gravitation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2022) | Viewed by 9010

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Dear Colleagues,

Supersymmetric quantum field theories stemming from strings and other extended objects aim at the unification of gravity with the other fundamental interactions. Special attention is deserved by supergravity, i.e., the gauge theory of supersymmetry extending Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, which plays the role of a low-energy effective field theory for string and brane models. Some of the predictions connected to such a theroy can yield indications about how to interpret the results of astrophysical and cosmological experiments, as well as those in experiments carried out at high-energy particle accelerators. Dynamical aspects of gauge theories, both in perturbative and the nonperturbative regimes, have been investigated, within the framework of AdS/CFT correspondence, along with dualities and conformal invariance topics, with the help of supergravity theories. Black-hole solutions of the latter, as well as models of the early universe based on such theories, are of particular interests for this Special Issue.

From the more formal standpoint, the geometric and the algebraic structures of spacetime and moduli spaces, along with noncommutativity, supermanifolds, higher-spin gauge theories, and topological models, will be included in the landscape of this volume.

Prof. Stefano Bellucci
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Supersymmetry
  • String Theory
  • AdS/CFT Correspondence
  • Higher-Spin Gauge Theories
  • Supergravity
  • Conformal Invariance

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
On the Vacuum Structure of the N=4 Conformal Supergravity
by Ioannis Dalianis, Alex Kehagias, Ioannis Taskas and George Tringas
Universe 2021, 7(11), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7110409 - 28 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1345
Abstract
We consider N=4 conformal supergravity with an arbitrary holomorphic function of the complex scalar S which parametrizes the SU(1,1)/U(1) coset. Assuming non-vanishings vevs for S and the scalars in a [...] Read more.
We consider N=4 conformal supergravity with an arbitrary holomorphic function of the complex scalar S which parametrizes the SU(1,1)/U(1) coset. Assuming non-vanishings vevs for S and the scalars in a symmetric matrix Eij of the 10¯ of SU(4) R-symmetry group, we determine the vacuum structure of the theory. We find that the possible vacua are classified by the number of zero eigenvalues of the scalar matrix and the spacetime is either Minkowski, de Sitter, or anti-de Sitter. We determine the spectrum of the scalar fluctuations and we find that it contains tachyonic states which, however, can be removed by appropriate choice of the unspecified at the supergravity level holomorphic function. Finally, we also establish that S-supersymmetry is always broken whereas Q-supersymmetry exists only on flat Minkowski spacetime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gauge Theory, Strings and Supergravity)
20 pages, 379 KiB  
Article
Higher Regularity, Inverse and Polyadic Semigroups
by Steven Duplij
Universe 2021, 7(10), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7100379 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1409
Abstract
We generalize the regularity concept for semigroups in two ways simultaneously: to higher regularity and to higher arity. We show that the one-relational and multi-relational formulations of higher regularity do not coincide, and each element has several inverses. The higher idempotents are introduced, [...] Read more.
We generalize the regularity concept for semigroups in two ways simultaneously: to higher regularity and to higher arity. We show that the one-relational and multi-relational formulations of higher regularity do not coincide, and each element has several inverses. The higher idempotents are introduced, and their commutation leads to unique inverses in the multi-relational formulation, and then further to the higher inverse semigroups. For polyadic semigroups we introduce several types of higher regularity which satisfy the arity invariance principle as introduced: the expressions should not depend of the numerical arity values, which allows us to provide natural and correct binary limits. In the first definition no idempotents can be defined, analogously to the binary semigroups, and therefore the uniqueness of inverses can be governed by shifts. In the second definition called sandwich higher regularity, we are able to introduce the higher polyadic idempotents, but their commutation does not provide uniqueness of inverses, because of the middle terms in the higher polyadic regularity conditions. Finally, we introduce the sandwich higher polyadic regularity with generalized idempotents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gauge Theory, Strings and Supergravity)
18 pages, 378 KiB  
Article
SU(5) × U(1)′ Models with a Vector-like Fermion Family
by A. Karozas, G. K. Leontaris and I. Tavellaris
Universe 2021, 7(10), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7100356 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Motivated by experimental measurements indicating deviations from the Standard Model predictions, we discuss F-theory-inspired models, which, in addition to the three chiral generations, contain a vector-like complete fermion family. The analysis takes place in the context of [...] Read more.
Motivated by experimental measurements indicating deviations from the Standard Model predictions, we discuss F-theory-inspired models, which, in addition to the three chiral generations, contain a vector-like complete fermion family. The analysis takes place in the context of SU(5)×U(1) GUT embedded in an E8 covering group, which is associated with the (highest) geometric singularity of the elliptic fibration. In this context, the U(1) is a linear combination of four abelian factors subjected to the appropriate anomaly cancellation conditions. Furthermore, we require universal U(1) charges for the three chiral families and different ones for the corresponding fields of the vector-like representations. Under the aforementioned assumptions, we find 192 models that can be classified into five distinct categories with respect to their specific GUT properties. We exhibit representative examples for each such class and construct the superpotential couplings and the fermion mass matrices. We explore the implications of the vector-like states in low-energy phenomenology, including the predictions regarding the B-meson anomalies. The rôle of R-parity violating terms appearing in some particular models of the above construction is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gauge Theory, Strings and Supergravity)
21 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Conformal Symmetry and Supersymmetry in Rindler Space
by Jan-Willem van Holten
Universe 2020, 6(9), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6090144 - 4 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2160
Abstract
This paper addresses the fate of extended space-time symmetries, in particular conformal symmetry and supersymmetry, in two-dimensional Rindler space-time appropriate to a uniformly accelerated non-inertial frame in flat 1+1-dimensional space-time. Generically, in addition to a conformal co-ordinate transformation, the transformation of fields from [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the fate of extended space-time symmetries, in particular conformal symmetry and supersymmetry, in two-dimensional Rindler space-time appropriate to a uniformly accelerated non-inertial frame in flat 1+1-dimensional space-time. Generically, in addition to a conformal co-ordinate transformation, the transformation of fields from Minkowski to Rindler space is accompanied by local conformal and Lorentz transformations of the components, which also affect the Bogoliubov transformations between the associated Fock spaces. I construct these transformations for massless scalars and spinors, as well as for the ghost and super-ghost fields necessary in theories with local conformal and supersymmetries, as arising from coupling to two-dimensional (2-D) gravity or supergravity. Cancellation of the anomalies in Minkowski and in Rindler space requires theories with the well-known critical spectrum of particles that arise in string theory in the limit of infinite strings, and it is relevant for the equivalence of Minkowski and Rindler frame theories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gauge Theory, Strings and Supergravity)

Review

Jump to: Research

51 pages, 565 KiB  
Review
BRST and Superfield Formalism—A Review
by Loriano Bonora and Rudra Prakash Malik
Universe 2021, 7(8), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7080280 - 1 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
This article, which is a review with substantial original material, is meant to offer a comprehensive description of the superfield representations of BRST and anti-BRST algebras and their applications to some field-theoretic topics. After a review of the superfield formalism for gauge theories, [...] Read more.
This article, which is a review with substantial original material, is meant to offer a comprehensive description of the superfield representations of BRST and anti-BRST algebras and their applications to some field-theoretic topics. After a review of the superfield formalism for gauge theories, we present the same formalism for gerbes and diffeomorphism invariant theories. The application to diffeomorphisms leads, in particular, to a horizontal Riemannian geometry in the superspace. We then illustrate the application to the description of consistent gauge anomalies and Wess–Zumino terms for which the formalism seems to be particularly tailor-made. The next subject covered is the higher spin YM-like theories and their anomalies. Finally, we show that the BRST superfield formalism applies as well to the N=1 super-YM theories formulated in the supersymmetric superspace, for the two formalisms go along with each other very well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gauge Theory, Strings and Supergravity)
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