Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health 2.0

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2024) | Viewed by 10571

Special Issue Editor

Department of Animal Health and Physiology, Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE), Kaposvár, Hungary
Interests: phospholipids; liver; rat; kidney; fusariotoxins; multitoxic effects
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Feed crops worldwide are very frequently infected with mycotoxin-producing molds. Though we know some basic characteristic symptoms of these mycotoxins already, we are still far from a deep understanding—especially concerning cellular events and their modes of action.

This Special Issue of Toxins is intended to focus on the cellular-level effects of feedborne mycotoxins, mostly in monogastric animals (in vivo) and their cells (in vitro). Though it is known that fusarial toxins like DON and some other trichothecenes provoke gastrointestinal symptoms and are immune suppressive, whereas zearalenone creates estrogen-like disturbances and fumonisins manifest different cell-function disorders, we also only partly understand their multitoxic, interaction-driven effects. As a further important addition, over the basic effects, some secondary (or primary?) ones may also be present—the most widely investigated being oxidative stress.

For this Special Issue we look forward to receiving researchers’ contributions in the form of original research, case studies, or review papers, giving new aspects and results to the understanding of the single or combined effects of various mycotoxins in feed, and their implications for disease development in farm and laboratory animals under both experimental, and preferably under realistic conditions.

Prof. Dr. András Szabó
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • feedborne mycotoxins and nutrition
  • toxic effects and animal health
  • in vivo and in vitro studies
  • cellular and molecular mechanisms
  • multitoxic effects and mycotoxin interactions
  • lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 680 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Mycotoxins and Their Mixtures on Bovine Spermatozoa Characteristics
Toxins 2023, 15(9), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15090556 - 06 Sep 2023
Viewed by 890
Abstract
There is growing concern about the effects of mycotoxins on mammalian reproduction. Although the effects of single mycotoxins have been well documented, the impact of their mixtures on spermatozoon quality is less known. Here, frozen-thawed semen (n = 6 bulls) was in-vitro-cultured [...] Read more.
There is growing concern about the effects of mycotoxins on mammalian reproduction. Although the effects of single mycotoxins have been well documented, the impact of their mixtures on spermatozoon quality is less known. Here, frozen-thawed semen (n = 6 bulls) was in-vitro-cultured (2 h) without (control) or with (i) a single mycotoxin [zearalenone (ZEN), ochratoxin A (OTA), toxin 2 (T2), and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS)] in a dose-response manner; (ii) binary mixtures (OTA + T2, OTA + ZEN, OTA + DAS, ZEN + T2, DAS + T2 and ZEN + DAS); or (iii) ternary mixtures (OTA + DAS + T2, OTA + ZEN + T2, and ZEN + DAS + T2). Then, the spermatozoa quality was characterized according to its plasma- and acrosome-membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and oxidation status by a flow cytometer. Exposure to single mycotoxins or binary mixtures did not affect the spermatozoa characteristics. However, exposure to the ternary mixtures, OTA + DAS + T2 and OTA + ZEN + T2, reduced (p < 0.05) the mitochondrial membrane potential relative to the control. In addition, OTA + ZEN + T2 increased (p < 0.05) the proportion of spermatozoa with reactive oxygen species relative to the control. The most suggested interaction effect between the mycotoxins was found to be an additive one. A synergistic interaction, mainly regarding the oxidation status of the spermatozoa, was also found between the mycotoxins. The current study sheds light on the potential risk of exposing spermatozoa to a mycotoxin mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health 2.0)
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18 pages, 2023 KiB  
Article
Gut-Faecal Microbial and Health-Marker Response to Dietary Fumonisins in Weaned Pigs
Toxins 2023, 15(5), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15050328 - 11 May 2023
Viewed by 1637
Abstract
This study investigated effects of dietary fumonisins (FBs) on gut and faecal microbiota of weaned pigs. In total, 18 7-week-old male pigs were fed either 0, 15 or 30 mg FBs (FB1 + FB2 + FB3)/kg diet for 21 [...] Read more.
This study investigated effects of dietary fumonisins (FBs) on gut and faecal microbiota of weaned pigs. In total, 18 7-week-old male pigs were fed either 0, 15 or 30 mg FBs (FB1 + FB2 + FB3)/kg diet for 21 days. The microbiota was analysed with amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 regions (Illumina MiSeq). Results showed no treatment effect (p > 0.05) on growth performance, serum reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde. FBs increased serum aspartate transaminase, gamma glutamyl-transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities. A 30 mg/kg FBs treatment shifted microbial population in the duodenum and ileum to lower levels (compared to control (p < 0.05)) of the families Campylobacteraceae and Clostridiaceae, respectively, as well as the genera Alloprevotella, Campylobacter and Lachnospiraceae Incertae Sedis (duodenum), Turicibacter (jejunum), and Clostridium sensu stricto 1 (ileum). Faecal microbiota had higher levels of the Erysipelotrichaceae and Ruminococcaceae families and Solobacterium, Faecalibacterium, Anaerofilum, Ruminococcus, Subdoligranulum, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Coprococcus and Roseburia genera in the 30 mg/kg FBs compared to control and/or to the 15 mg/kg FBs diets. Lactobacillus was more abundant in the duodenum compared to faeces in all treatment groups (p < 0.01). Overall, the 30 mg/kg FBs diet altered the pig gut microbiota without suppressing animal growth performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health 2.0)
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10 pages, 1381 KiB  
Communication
Practical Application of a Urinary Zearalenone Monitoring System for Feed Hygiene Management of a Japanese Black Cattle Breeding Herd—Relevance to Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Serum Amyloid A Clarified from a Two-Year Survey
Toxins 2023, 15(5), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15050317 - 30 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1279
Abstract
In this study, a herd of Japanese Black (JB) breeding cattle with sporadic reproductive disorders was continuously monitored for an additional year to assess the effects of the urinary zearalenone (ZEN) concentration and changes in parameters (AMH and SAA) with time-lag variables and [...] Read more.
In this study, a herd of Japanese Black (JB) breeding cattle with sporadic reproductive disorders was continuously monitored for an additional year to assess the effects of the urinary zearalenone (ZEN) concentration and changes in parameters (AMH and SAA) with time-lag variables and herd fertility (reproductive performance). This herd had high (exceeded the Japanese dietary feed regulations) urinary ZEN and rice straw ZEN concentrations (1.34 mg/kg). Long-term data of the herd with positive ZEN exposure revealed a decreasing ZEN concentration in urine and a gradual decrease in the AMH level with age. The AMH level was significantly affected by the ZEN value 2 months earlier and the AMH level in the previous month. The changes in ZEN and SAA values were significantly affected by the ZEN and SAA values in the previous month. Additionally, calving interval data between pre-monitoring and post-monitoring showed a significantly different pattern. Furthermore, the calving interval became significantly shorter between the time of contamination (2019) and the end of the monitoring period (2022). In conclusion, the urinary ZEN monitoring system may be a valuable practical tool for screening and detecting herd contamination in the field, and acute and/or chronic ZEN contamination in dietary feeds may affect herd productivity and the fertility of breeding cows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health 2.0)
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16 pages, 2796 KiB  
Article
Ochratoxin A and Citrinin Differentially Modulate Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cell Permeability and Innate Immune Function
Toxins 2022, 14(9), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14090640 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1956
Abstract
Frequent detection of mycotoxins ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) in ruminant feed and feedstuff can be a potential threat to feed safety, animal performance and health. Ineffective biodegradation of these mycotoxins by rumen microflora following ingestion of contaminated feeds can lead to [...] Read more.
Frequent detection of mycotoxins ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) in ruminant feed and feedstuff can be a potential threat to feed safety, animal performance and health. Ineffective biodegradation of these mycotoxins by rumen microflora following ingestion of contaminated feeds can lead to their circulatory transport to tissues such as mammary gland as the result of their biodistribution throughout the body. The bovine mammary epithelium plays a pivotal role in maintaining milk yield and composition and contributes to innate immune defense of the udder. The present study is the first to investigate individual effects of OTA and CIT on barrier and innate immune functions of the bovine mammary epithelium using a bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T). Results indicated that OTA and CIT exposure for 48 h significantly decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.05). A decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance and increase in paracellular flux of FITC-40 kDa dextran was significantly induced by OTA treatment (p < 0.05), but not by CIT after 48 h exposure. qPCR was performed for assessment of expression of tight-junction proteins, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and cytokines after 4, 24 and 48 h of exposure. Both OTA and CIT markedly downregulated expression of claudin 3 and occludin (p < 0.05), whereas CIT did not affect zonula occludens-1 expression. Expression of TLR4 was significantly upregulated by OTA (p < 0.001) but downregulated by CIT (p < 0.05) at 48 h. Expression of IL-6, TNF-a and TGF-β was significantly upregulated by OTA (p < 0.05), whereas IL-6 and TGF-β expression was downregulated by CIT (p < 0.01). These results suggest that OTA and CIT could potentially differentially modulate barrier and innate immune functions of mammary epithelium. The present study not only throws light on the individual toxicity of each mycotoxin on bovine mammary epithelium but also lays the foundation for future studies on the combined effects of the two mycotoxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health 2.0)
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14 pages, 2994 KiB  
Article
Role of Nrf2 Nucleus Translocation in Beauvericin-Induced Cell Damage in Rat Hepatocytes
Toxins 2022, 14(6), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14060367 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
Beauvericin (BEA), a food-borne mycotoxin metabolite derived from the fungus Beauveria Bassiana, is proven to exhibit high hepatotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying BEA-induced liver damage is not fully understood. Herein, the effect of Nrf2 nuclear translocation-induced by BEA in hepatocytes was [...] Read more.
Beauvericin (BEA), a food-borne mycotoxin metabolite derived from the fungus Beauveria Bassiana, is proven to exhibit high hepatotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying BEA-induced liver damage is not fully understood. Herein, the effect of Nrf2 nuclear translocation-induced by BEA in hepatocytes was investigated. CCK8 solution was used to determine the appropriate concentrations of BEA (0, 1, 1.5 and 2 μmol/L), and BRL3A cells were then exposed to different concentrations of BEA for 12 h. Our results reveal that BEA exposure is associated with high cytotoxicity, lowered cell viability, damaged cellular morphology, and increased apoptosis rate. BEA could lead to oxidative damage through the overproduction of ROS and unbalanced redox, trigger the activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway and Nrf2 nuclear translocation for transcriptional activation of downstream antioxidative genes. Additionally, BEA treatment upregulated the expression of autophagy-related proteins (LC3, p62, Beclin1, and ATG5) indicating a correlation between Nrf2 activation and autophagy, which warrants further studies. Furthermore, ML385, an Nrf2 inhibitor, partially ameliorated BEA-induced cell injury while CDDO, an Nrf2 activator, aggravated liver damage. The present study emphasizes the role of Nrf2 nuclear translocation in BEA-induced oxidative stress associated with the hepatotoxic nature of BEA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health 2.0)
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14 pages, 3026 KiB  
Article
Protective Effects of Taraxasterol against Deoxynivalenol-Induced Damage to Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells
Toxins 2022, 14(3), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14030211 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2174
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most prevalent contaminants in livestock feed and causes very large losses to animal husbandry every year. Taraxasterol, isolated from Taraxacum officinale, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidative stress, and antitumor effects. In [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most prevalent contaminants in livestock feed and causes very large losses to animal husbandry every year. Taraxasterol, isolated from Taraxacum officinale, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidative stress, and antitumor effects. In the present study, bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T) were used as a model, and different concentrations of taraxasterol (0, 1, 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL) were used to protect against DON-induced cell damage. The results showed that taraxasterol at a concentration of 10 μg/mL significantly increased cell viability. Analysis of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels indicated that taraxasterol substantially decreased LDH release caused by DON. Taraxasterol effectively alleviated the depletion of glutathione (GSH), the increase in the lipid peroxidation of malondialdehyde (MDA), the reduction in total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity, and the decrease in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) induced by DON. The results further showed that taraxasterol reduced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taraxasterol was found to relieve endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by suppressing the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and the transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and reducing cell apoptosis by suppressing the expression of caspase-3 and Bcl2-associated X (BAX) and upregulating the expression of the antiapoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Our research results indicate that taraxasterol could alleviate DON-induced damage to MAC-T cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health 2.0)
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