Toxicology of Mycotoxins: Experimental Forward

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 2680

Special Issue Editors

Department of Food Technology, University of North, 48000 Koprivnica, Croatia
Interests: food safety; food contaminants and residues; mycotoxins; food analytics; liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry; method validation; measurement uncertainty
Department of Applied Chemistry and Ecology, Faculty of Food Technology, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Interests: fungi; mycotoxins; nanoparticles; food safety
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed represents a serious threat to public welfare, posing a health concern regarding consumption. This global food safety issue requires appropriate and objective scientific evidence for decision-making regarding food contaminants, emphasizing the need for proper health risk assessments, including accurate occurrence data and reliable overall food toxicology investigations, in order to protect both public health and global economic trade.

The toxicology of a large number of mycotoxins is still unknown, and understanding the mechanisms of action of mycotoxins at a comprehensive level from a holistic perspective is crucial. The impact of food processing, the discovery of modified and emerging mycotoxins, and mycotoxin co-occurrence represent research challenges in the food toxicology field.

Accordingly, the aim of this Special Issue is to gather both original research papers and review articles addressing the health effects induced by individual and combined mycotoxins, exploring the underlying mechanisms and modes of action, providing new analytical solutions for multiple mycotoxins’ determination, proposing innovative methodological works, and revealing new insights in the research area. We invite you to submit a manuscript to this Special Issue.

Dr. Marija Kovač
Dr. Tihomir Kovač
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food safety
  • mycotoxins
  • risk assessment
  • occurrence data
  • food toxicology
  • mechanisms of action
  • mycotoxin determination

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 4439 KiB  
Article
Patulin Stimulates Progenitor Leydig Cell Proliferation but Delays Its Differentiation in Male Rats during Prepuberty
Toxins 2023, 15(9), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15090581 - 20 Sep 2023
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Abstract
Patulin is a mycotoxin with potential reproductive toxicity. We explored the impact of patulin on Leydig cell (LC) development in male rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (21 days postpartum) were gavaged patulin at doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg/day for 7 days. [...] Read more.
Patulin is a mycotoxin with potential reproductive toxicity. We explored the impact of patulin on Leydig cell (LC) development in male rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (21 days postpartum) were gavaged patulin at doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg/day for 7 days. Patulin markedly lowered serum testosterone at ≥0.5 mg/kg and progesterone at 1 and 2 mg/kg, while increasing LH levels at 2 mg/kg. Patulin increased the CYP11A1+ (cholesterol side-chain cleavage, a progenitor LC biomarker) cell number and their proliferation at 1 and 2 mg/kg. Additionally, patulin downregulated Lhcgr (luteinizing hormone receptor), Scarb1 (high-density lipoprotein receptor), and Cyp17a1 (17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) at 1 and 2 mg/kg. It increased the activation of pAKT1 (protein kinase B), pERK1/2 (extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2), pCREB (cyclic AMP response binding protein), and CCND1 (cyclin D1), associated with cell cycle regulation, in vivo. Patulin increased EdU incorporation into R2C LC and stimulated cell cycle progression in vitro. Furthermore, patulin showed a direct inhibitory effect on 11β-HSD2 (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2) activity, which eliminates the adverse effects of glucocorticoids. This study provides insights into the potential mechanisms via which patulin affects progenitor LC development in young male rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicology of Mycotoxins: Experimental Forward)
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16 pages, 2869 KiB  
Article
Zearalenone Does Not Show Genotoxic Effects in the Drosophila melanogaster Wing Spot Test, but It Induces Oxidative Imbalance, Development, and Fecundity Alterations
Toxins 2023, 15(6), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15060358 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal mycoestrogen produced by the Fusarium genus. ZEN and its metabolites compete with 17-beta estradiol for cytosolic estrogen receptors, causing reproductive alterations in vertebrates. ZEN has also been associated with toxic and genotoxic effects, as well as an increased [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal mycoestrogen produced by the Fusarium genus. ZEN and its metabolites compete with 17-beta estradiol for cytosolic estrogen receptors, causing reproductive alterations in vertebrates. ZEN has also been associated with toxic and genotoxic effects, as well as an increased risk for endometrial adenocarcinomas or hyperplasia, breast cancer, and oxidative damage, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies have monitored cellular processes through levels of transcripts associated with Phase I Xenobiotic Metabolism (Cyp6g1 and Cyp6a2), oxidative stress (hsp60 and hsp70), apoptosis (hid, grim, and reaper), and DNA damage genes (Dmp53). In this study, we evaluated the survival and genotoxicity of ZEN, as well as its effects on emergence rate and fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster. Additionally, we determined levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using the D. melanogaster flare and Oregon R(R)-flare strains, which differ in levels of Cyp450 gene expression. Our results showed that ZEN toxicity did not increase mortality by more than 30%. We tested three ZEN concentrations (100, 200, and 400 μM) and found that none of the concentrations were genotoxic but were cytotoxic. Taking into account that it has previously been demonstrated that ZEN administration increased hsp60 expression levels and apoptosis gene transcripts in both strains, the data agree with an increase in ROS and development and fecundity alterations. Since Drosophila lacks homologous genes for mammalian estrogen receptors alpha and beta, the effects of this mycotoxin can be explained by a mechanism different from estrogenic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicology of Mycotoxins: Experimental Forward)
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