Detoxification, Control, and Toxicological Studies on Mycotoxins through Biotechnological Approaches

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 July 2024 | Viewed by 11897

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
2. School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
Interests: control and detection studies on mycotoxins; food biotechnology

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Guest Editor
College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China
Interests: biodegradation and detection of mycotoxins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Institute of Food Safety and Nutrition, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China
Interests: analytical toxicology; degradation and dietary intervention with mycotoxins

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins are naturally occurring toxic substances that can contaminate food and feed stuffs, posing serious threats to global human health. Existing methods to reduce mycotoxins’ effects and studies on the toxicity of their degradation products are still limited. Fortunately, the development of microbiology, biotechnology and nutrition has led to novel strategies for exploring various types of mycotoxins, either microbially/enzymatically or by dietary and nutritional interventions. These developments are crucial, especially in the post-pandemic era.

This Special Issue of Toxins focuses on the novel and emerging biotechnologies/nutritional approaches that have been studied and developed for detoxification, degradation and control of multiple mycotoxins, both in food/feed stuffs and environmental materials. Papers presenting new toxicological/mechanical findings on mycotoxins and their degradation products based on biological research are especially encouraged. Original research articles, reviews and methodologies are welcome, while papers only including data analysis results, policy prediction and macroscopic analysis without detailed experiments are not within the scope of this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Yu Xia
Prof. Dr. Guimin Zhang
Dr. You Zhou
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • mycotoxicosis
  • microbial detoxification
  • enzymatic detoxification
  • toxicology research
  • detection of mycotoxins
  • dietary intervention

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 2529 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Impact of Humic Acids on Intestinal Microbiota, Gut Integrity, Ileum Morphometry, and Cellular Immunity of Turkey Poults Fed an Aflatoxin B1-Contaminated Diet
by Jesús A. Maguey-González, Jing Liu, Guolong Zhang, Juan D. Latorre, Juan O. Hernández-Ramírez, María de Jesús Nava-Ramírez, Roberto Senas-Cuesta, Sergio Gómez-Rosales, María de Lourdes Ángeles, Andressa Stein, Bruno Solís-Cruz, Daniel Hernández-Patlán, Rubén Merino-Guzmán, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Inkar Castellanos-Huerta, Santiago Uribe-Diaz, Alma Vázquez-Durán, Abraham Méndez-Albores, Victor M. Petrone-Garcia, Guillermo Tellez Jr., Billy M. Hargis and Guillermo Téllez-Isaíasadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Toxins 2024, 16(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins16030122 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1140
Abstract
A recent study published data on the growth performance, relative weights of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, liver histology, serum biochemistry, and hematological parameters for turkey poults fed an experimental diet contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and humic acids [...] Read more.
A recent study published data on the growth performance, relative weights of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, liver histology, serum biochemistry, and hematological parameters for turkey poults fed an experimental diet contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and humic acids (HA) extracted from vermicompost. The negative effects of AFB1 (250 ng AFB1/g of feed) were significantly reduced by HA supplementation (0.25% w/w), suggesting that HA might be utilized to ameliorate the negative impact of AFB1 from contaminated diets. The present study shows the results of the remaining variables, as an extension of a previously published work which aimed to evaluate the impact of HA on the intestinal microbiota, gut integrity, ileum morphometry, and cellular immunity of turkey poults fed an AFB1-contaminated diet. For this objective, five equal groups of 1-day-old female Nicholas-700 turkey poults were randomly assigned to the following treatments: negative control (basal diet), positive control (basal diet + 250 ng AFB1/g), HA (basal diet + 0.25% HA), HA + AFB1 (basal diet + 0.25% HA + 250 ng AFB1/g), and Zeolite (basal diet + 0.25% zeolite + 250 ng AFB1/g). In the experiment, seven replicates of ten poults each were used per treatment (n = 70). In general, HA supplementation with or without the presence of AFB1 showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the number of beneficial butyric acid producers, ileum villi height, and ileum total area, and a significant reduction in serum levels of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran (FITC-d), a marker of intestinal integrity. In contrast, poults fed with AFB1 showed a significant increase in Proteobacteria and lower numbers of beneficial bacteria, clearly suggesting gut dysbacteriosis. Moreover, poults supplemented with AFB1 displayed the lowest morphometric parameters and the highest intestinal permeability. Furthermore, poults in the negative and positive control treatments had the lowest cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response. These findings suggest that HA supplementation enhanced intestinal integrity (shape and permeability), cellular immune response, and healthier gut microbiota composition, even in the presence of dietary exposure to AFB1. These results complement those of the previously published study, suggesting that HA may be a viable dietary intervention to improve gut health and immunity in turkey poults during aflatoxicosis. Full article
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15 pages, 7049 KiB  
Article
Alleviative Effect of Rutin on Zearalenone-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Mice by Preventing Spermatogenic Cell Apoptosis and Modulating Gene Expression in the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis
by Hira Sayed, Qiongqiong Zhang, Yu Tang, Yanan Wang, Yongpeng Guo, Jianyun Zhang, Cheng Ji, Qiugang Ma and Lihong Zhao
Toxins 2024, 16(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins16030121 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 931
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin found in many agricultural products and can cause reproductive disorders, mainly affecting spermatogenesis in male animals. Rutin (RUT) is a natural flavonoid compound recognized for its significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic properties. The present study aimed [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin found in many agricultural products and can cause reproductive disorders, mainly affecting spermatogenesis in male animals. Rutin (RUT) is a natural flavonoid compound recognized for its significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic properties. The present study aimed to determine the protective role of RUT against ZEN-induced reproductive toxicity in male mice. Twenty-four adult Kunming male mice were divided into four groups: control, RUT (500 mg/kg RUT), ZEN (10 mg/kg ZEN), ZEN + RUT (500 mg/kg RUT + 10 mg/kg ZEN), with six replicates per treatment. The results indicated that RUT mitigated ZEN-induced disruption in spermatogenic cell arrangement, decreased spermatozoa count, and increased sperm mortality in the testes. RUT significantly restored ZEN-induced reduction in T, FSH, LH, and E2 serum levels. Moreover, RUT mitigated ZEN-induced apoptosis by increasing the mRNA expression level of bcl-2, decreasing the mRNA expression level of kiss1-r, and decreasing the protein expression level of caspase 8 in reproductive tissues. These findings indicate the protective role of RUT against ZEN-induced reproductive toxicity in male mice by regulating gonadotropin and testosterone secretions to maintain normal spermatogenesis via the HPG axis, which may provide a new application direction for RUT as a therapeutic agent to mitigate ZEN-induced reproductive toxicity. Full article
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19 pages, 3322 KiB  
Article
A Probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D-1 Strain Is Responsible for Zearalenone Detoxifying in Coix Semen
by Tao Deng, Yefei Chen, Jinqiang Zhang, Yanping Gao, Changgui Yang, Weike Jiang, Xiaohong Ou, Yanhong Wang, Lanping Guo, Tao Zhou and Qing-Song Yuan
Toxins 2023, 15(12), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15120674 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1306
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp., which commonly and severely contaminate food/feed. ZEN severely affects food/feed safety and reduces economic losses owing to its carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, endocrine effects, and immunotoxicity. To explore efficient methods to detoxify ZEN, we [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp., which commonly and severely contaminate food/feed. ZEN severely affects food/feed safety and reduces economic losses owing to its carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, endocrine effects, and immunotoxicity. To explore efficient methods to detoxify ZEN, we identified and characterized an efficient ZEN-detoxifying microbiota from the culturable microbiome of Pseudostellaria heterophylla rhizosphere soil, designated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D-1. Its highest ZEN degradation rate reached 96.13% under the optimal condition. And, D-1 can almost completely remove ZEN (90 μg·g−1) from coix semen in 24 h. Then, the D-1 strain can detoxify ZEN to ZEM, which is a new structural metabolite, through hydrolyzation and decarboxylation at the ester group in the lactone ring and amino acid esterification at C2 and C4 hydroxy. Notably, ZEM has reduced the impact on viability, and the damage of cell membrane and nucleus DNA and can significantly decrease the cell apoptosis in the HepG2 cell and TM4 cell. In addition, it was found that the D-1 strain has no adverse effect on the HepG2 and TM4 cells. Our findings can provide an efficient microbial resource and a reliable reference strategy for the biological detoxification of ZEN. Full article
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12 pages, 3197 KiB  
Article
Screening Biocontrol Agents for Cash Crop Fusarium Wilt Based on Fusaric Acid Tolerance and Antagonistic Activity against Fusarium oxysporum
by Qinggang Guo, Shixin Li, Lihong Dong, Zhenhe Su, Peipei Wang, Xiaomeng Liu and Ping Ma
Toxins 2023, 15(6), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15060381 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1525
Abstract
Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum, is one of the most notorious diseases of cash crops. The use of microbial fungicides is an effective measure for controlling Fusarium wilt, and the genus Bacillus is an important resource for the development of microbial [...] Read more.
Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum, is one of the most notorious diseases of cash crops. The use of microbial fungicides is an effective measure for controlling Fusarium wilt, and the genus Bacillus is an important resource for the development of microbial fungicides. Fusaric acid (FA) produced by F. oxysporum can inhibit the growth of Bacillus, thus affecting the control efficacy of microbial fungicides. Therefore, screening FA-tolerant biocontrol Bacillus may help to improve the biocontrol effect on Fusarium wilt. In this study, a method for screening biocontrol agents against Fusarium wilt was established based on tolerance to FA and antagonism against F. oxysporum. Three promising biocontrol bacteria, named B31, F68, and 30833, were obtained to successfully control tomato, watermelon, and cucumber Fusarium wilt. Strains B31, F68, and 30833 were identified as B. velezensis by phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA, gyrB, rpoB, and rpoC gene sequences. Coculture assays revealed that strains B31, F68, and 30833 showed increased tolerance to F. oxysporum and its metabolites compared with B. velezensis strain FZB42. Further experiments confirmed that 10 µg/mL FA completely inhibited the growth of strain FZB42, while strains B31, F68, and 30833 maintained normal growth at 20 µg/mL FA and partial growth at 40 µg/mL FA. Compared with strain FZB42, strains B31, F68, and 30833 exhibited significantly greater tolerance to FA. Full article
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18 pages, 8807 KiB  
Article
Comparative Assessment of Different Yeast Cell Wall-Based Mycotoxin Adsorbents Using a Model- and Bioassay-Based In Vitro Approach
by Ran Xu, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Umesh K. Shandilya and Niel A. Karrow
Toxins 2023, 15(2), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15020104 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2010
Abstract
Frequently reported occurrences of deoxynivalenol (DON), beauvericin (BEA), and, to a lesser extent, ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) in ruminant feed or feedstuff could represent a significant concern regarding feed safety, animal health, and productivity. Inclusion of yeast cell wall-based mycotoxin adsorbents [...] Read more.
Frequently reported occurrences of deoxynivalenol (DON), beauvericin (BEA), and, to a lesser extent, ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) in ruminant feed or feedstuff could represent a significant concern regarding feed safety, animal health, and productivity. Inclusion of yeast cell wall-based mycotoxin adsorbents in animal feeds has been a common strategy to mitigate adverse effects of mycotoxins. In the present study, an in vitro approach combining adsorption isotherm models and bioassays was designed to assess the efficacy of yeast cell wall (YCW), yeast cell wall extract (YCWE), and a postbiotic yeast cell wall-based blend (PYCW) products at the inclusion rate of 0.5% (w/v) (ratio of adsorbent mass to buffer solution volume). The Hill’s adsorption isotherm model was found to best describe the adsorption processes of DON, BEA, and CIT. Calculated binding potential for YCW and YCWE using the Hill’s model exhibited the same ranking for mycotoxin adsorption, indicating that BEA had the highest adsorption rate, followed by DON and CIT, which was the least adsorbed. PYCW had the highest binding potential for BEA compared with YCW and YCWE. In contrast, the Freundlich isotherm model presented a good fit for OTA adsorption by all adsorbents and CIT adsorption by PYCW. Results indicated that YCW was the most efficacious for sequestering OTA, whereas YCWE was the least efficacious. PYCW showed greater efficacy at adsorbing OTA than CIT. All adsorbents exhibited high adsorption efficacy for BEA, with an overall percentage average of bound mycotoxin exceeding 60%, whereas moderate efficacies for the other mycotoxins were observed (up to 37%). Differences in adsorbent efficacy of each adsorbent significantly varied according to experimental concentrations tested for each given mycotoxin (p < 0.05). The cell viability results from the bioassay using a bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T) indicated that all tested adsorbents could potentially mitigate mycotoxin-related damage to bovine mammary epithelium. Results from our studies suggested that all tested adsorbents had the capacity to adsorb selected mycotoxins in vitro, which could support their use to mitigate their effects in vivo. Full article
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16 pages, 4105 KiB  
Article
Volatiles from Pseudomonas palleroniana Strain B-BH16-1 Suppress Aflatoxin Production and Growth of Aspergillus flavus on Coix lacryma-jobi during Storage
by Shihua Zhou, Qing-Song Yuan, Xiaoai Wang, Weike Jiang, Xiaohong Ou, Changgui Yang, Yanping Gao, Yanhong Wang, Lanping Guo, Luqi Huang and Tao Zhou
Toxins 2023, 15(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15010077 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Semen coicis is not only a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), but also a typical food in China, with significant medical and healthcare value. Because semen coicis is rich in starch and oil, it can be easily contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and its aflatoxins [...] Read more.
Semen coicis is not only a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), but also a typical food in China, with significant medical and healthcare value. Because semen coicis is rich in starch and oil, it can be easily contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and its aflatoxins (AFs). Preventing and controlling the contamination of semen coicis with Aspergillus flavus and its aflatoxins is vital to ensuring its safety as a drug and as a food. In this study, the endosphere bacteria Pseudomonas palleroniana strain B-BH16-1 produced volatiles that strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore formation activity of A. flavus. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiling revealed three volatiles emitted from B-BH16-1, of which 1-undecene was the most abundant. We obtained authentic reference standards for these three volatiles; these significantly reduced mycelial growth and sporulation in Aspergillus, with dimethyl disulfide showing the most robust inhibitory activity. Strain B-BH16-1 was able to completely inhibit the biosynthesis of aflatoxins in semen coicis samples during storage by emitting volatile bioactive components. The microscope revealed severely damaged mycelia and a complete lack of sporulation. This newly identified plant endophyte bacterium was able to strongly inhibit the sporulation and growth of Aspergillus and the synthesis of associated mycotoxins, thus not only providing valuable information regarding an efficient potential strategy for the prevention of A. flavus contamination in TCM and food, but potentially also serving as a reference in the control of toxic fungi. Full article
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16 pages, 4002 KiB  
Article
Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XJ-BV2007 on Growth of Alternaria alternata and Production of Tenuazonic Acid
by Qinlan Jia, Yingying Fan, Shuaishuai Duan, Qiaomei Qin, Yu Ding, Min Yang, Yan Wang, Fengjuan Liu and Cheng Wang
Toxins 2023, 15(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15010053 - 07 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2277
Abstract
Large amounts of processing tomato are grown in Xinjiang, China. Tomato black spot disease, caused by Alternaria spp., and the produced alternaria toxins in tomato products are posing risks to human health. In this study, we isolated a rhizospheric bacterium, XJ-BV2007, from tomato [...] Read more.
Large amounts of processing tomato are grown in Xinjiang, China. Tomato black spot disease, caused by Alternaria spp., and the produced alternaria toxins in tomato products are posing risks to human health. In this study, we isolated a rhizospheric bacterium, XJ-BV2007, from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fields, which we identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. We found that this bacterium has a strong antagonistic effect against Alternaria alternata and reduces the accumulation of alternaria toxins in tomatoes. According to the antifungal activity of the bacteria-free filtrate, we revealed that B. amyloliquefaciens XJ-BV2007 suppresses A. alternata by the production of antifungal metabolites. Combining semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, we employed UPLC-QTOF-MS analysis and the Oxford cup experiment to find that fengycin plays an important role in inhibiting A. alternata. This paper firstly reported that B. amyloliquefaciens efficiently controls tomato black spot disease and mycotoxins caused by A. alternata. B. amyloliquefaciens XJ-BV2007 may provide an alternative biocontrol strain for the prevention of tomato black spot disease. Full article
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