Mycotoxins and Fungal Toxins: Current Status and Future Perspectives

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 21759

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute for Agro-Food Standards and Testing Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1000 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403, China
Interests: mycotoxins; mycotoxin biosynthesis; food safety; fungi disease; fusarium and fusarium disease; fusarium mycotoxins; microbiology; fungal genetics; fungal population genetics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Sciences, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Laboratory of Toxicology, University of Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia, Spain
Interests: mycotoxin determination by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; alternative methods for toxicity assessment; in silico methods for predict mycotoxin toxicity; QSAR models for mycotoxin toxicity assessment; mycotoxin occurrence in foodstuffs; mycotoxin mitigation by thermal and non-thermal treatments
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi under specific conditions. Up to now, more than 400 mycotoxins have been identified which are mainly produced by several common fungal genera, such as Fuarium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, and Penicillium. These toxic compounds are frequently found as contaminants in grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, representing a major threat to food/feed safety. Besides, some toxic mushrooms from genera of Amanita etc., are also of concern.

This research topic aims to highlight current research and future perspectives on all aspects of mycotoxins. Experts specifically from the fields of mycotoxigenic fungi biology, identification and detection of mycotoxins, and toxicology of mycotoxins are invited to contribute their newest findings in the form of research articles, or review articles.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Identification of novel mycotoxins and their nature occurrence;
  • New insights into accurate and rapid detections of mycotoxins;
  • Evolution, genetic, and epigenetic regulation of mycotoxigenic fungi;
  • Studies on single and combined toxicity of various mycotoxins on different organisms;
  • Identification and characterization of genes associated with mycotoxin biosynthesis and their molecular regulation mechanism.

Dr. Jianhua Wang
Dr. Josefa Tolosa
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • fungal toxins
  • mycotoxigenic fungi
  • mycotoxin detection
  • mycotoxin toxicology

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 5132 KiB  
Article
Potential Toxicity and Mechanisms of T-2 and HT-2 Individually or in Combination on the Intestinal Barrier Function of Porcine Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells
by Weihua He, Jianhua Wang, Mengyi Han, Lihua Wang, Ling Li, Jiahui Zhang, Siqi Chen, Jiayi Guo, Xiaohu Zhai and Junhua Yang
Toxins 2023, 15(12), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15120682 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Under natural conditions, T-2 toxin can be easily metabolized to HT-2 toxin by deacetylation, and T-2 and HT-2 are usually co-contaminated in grain and feed at a high detected rate. Our previous information indicated that T-2 toxin could injure the function of the [...] Read more.
Under natural conditions, T-2 toxin can be easily metabolized to HT-2 toxin by deacetylation, and T-2 and HT-2 are usually co-contaminated in grain and feed at a high detected rate. Our previous information indicated that T-2 toxin could injure the function of the intestinal barrier, but the combined toxicity and mechanism of T-2 and HT-2 on the intestinal cells of porcines are still unknown. Therefore, we aimed to explore T-2 and HT-2 individually and combined on cellular viability, cell membrane integrity, the expression of tight junction-related proteins, and the generation of inflammatory factors in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). The results showed that T-2 and HT-2, individually or in combination, could induce a decrease in cell viability, an increase in LDH release and IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α generation, and a decrease in the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. Based on the analysis of immunofluorescence staining, real-time PCR, and western blotting, the tight junction protein expressions of Claudin-1, Occludin, and ZO-1 were significantly decreased in the T-2 and HT-2 individual or combination treated groups compared with the control. Furthermore, all the parameter changes in the T-2 + HT-2 combination group were much more serious than those in the individual dose groups. These results suggest that T-2 and HT-2, individually and in combination, could induce an intestinal function injury related to an inflammatory response and damage to the intestinal barrier function in porcine intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, T-2 and HT-2 in combination showed a synergistic toxic effect, which will provide a theoretical basis to assess the risk of T-2 + HT-2 co-contamination in porcine feed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Fungal Toxins: Current Status and Future Perspectives)
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34 pages, 3313 KiB  
Article
MicotoXilico: An Interactive Database to Predict Mutagenicity, Genotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity of Mycotoxins
by Josefa Tolosa, Eva Serrano Candelas, José Luis Vallés Pardo, Addel Goya, Salvador Moncho, Rafael Gozalbes and Martina Palomino Schätzlein
Toxins 2023, 15(6), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15060355 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain filamentous fungi. They are common contaminants found in a wide variety of food matrices, thus representing a threat to public health, as they can be carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic, among other toxic effects. Several hundreds of [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain filamentous fungi. They are common contaminants found in a wide variety of food matrices, thus representing a threat to public health, as they can be carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic, among other toxic effects. Several hundreds of mycotoxins have been reported, but only a few of them are regulated, due to the lack of data regarding their toxicity and mechanisms of action. Thus, a more comprehensive evaluation of the toxicity of mycotoxins found in foodstuffs is required. In silico toxicology approaches, such as Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship (QSAR) models, can be used to rapidly assess chemical hazards by predicting different toxicological endpoints. In this work, for the first time, a comprehensive database containing 4360 mycotoxins classified in 170 categories was constructed. Then, specific robust QSAR models for the prediction of mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity were generated, showing good accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. It must be highlighted that the developed QSAR models are compliant with the OECD regulatory criteria, and they can be used for regulatory purposes. Finally, all data were integrated into a web server that allows the exploration of the mycotoxin database and toxicity prediction. In conclusion, the developed tool is a valuable resource for scientists, industry, and regulatory agencies to screen the mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of non-regulated mycotoxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Fungal Toxins: Current Status and Future Perspectives)
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23 pages, 12017 KiB  
Article
Effect of Abiotic Conditions on Growth, Mycotoxin Production, and Gene Expression by Fusarium fujikuroi Species Complex Strains from Maize
by Ting Dong, Shouning Qiao, Jianhong Xu, Jianrong Shi, Jianbo Qiu and Guizhen Ma
Toxins 2023, 15(4), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15040260 - 01 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2236
Abstract
Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) strains are a major concern for food quantity and quality due to their strong ability to synthesize mycotoxins. The effects of interacting conditions of water activity, temperature, and incubation time on the growth rate, toxin production, and expression [...] Read more.
Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) strains are a major concern for food quantity and quality due to their strong ability to synthesize mycotoxins. The effects of interacting conditions of water activity, temperature, and incubation time on the growth rate, toxin production, and expression level of biosynthetic genes were examined. High temperature and water availability increased fungal growth. Higher water activity was in favor of toxin accumulation. The maximum amounts of fusaric acid (FA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) were usually observed at 20–25 °C. F. andiyazi could produce a higher content of moniliformin (MON) in the cool environment than F. fujikuroi. The expression profile of biosynthetic genes under environmental conditions varied wildly; it was suggested that these genes might be expressed in a strain-dependent manner. FB1 concentration was positively related to the expression of FUM1, while a similar correlation of FUB8 and FUB12 with FA production could be observed in F. andiyazi, F. fujikuroi, and F. subglutinans. This study provides useful information in the monitoring and prevention of such toxins entering the maize production chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Fungal Toxins: Current Status and Future Perspectives)
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13 pages, 2193 KiB  
Article
Development of Acid Hydrolysis-Based UPLC–MS/MS Method for Determination of Alternaria Toxins and Its Application in the Occurrence Assessment in Solanaceous Vegetables and Their Products
by Hongxia Tang, Wei Han, Shaoxiang Fei, Yubo Li, Jiaqing Huang, Maofeng Dong, Lei Wang, Weimin Wang and Ying Zhang
Toxins 2023, 15(3), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15030201 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1234
Abstract
In this work, we proposed an acid hydrolysis-based analytical method for the detection of Alternaria toxins (ATs) in solanaceous vegetables and their products with solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS). This study was the first to reveal that some [...] Read more.
In this work, we proposed an acid hydrolysis-based analytical method for the detection of Alternaria toxins (ATs) in solanaceous vegetables and their products with solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS). This study was the first to reveal that some compounds in the eggplant matrix bind to altenusin (ALS). Validation under optimal sample preparation conditions showed that the method met the EU criteria, exhibiting good linearity (R2 > 0.99), matrix effects (−66.6–−20.5%), satisfying recovery (72.0–107.4%), acceptable precision (1.5–15.5%), and satisfactory sensitivity (0.05–2 µg/kg for limit of detection, 2–5 µg/kg for limit of quantification). Out of 393 marketed samples, only 47 samples were detected, ranging from 0.54–806 μg/kg. Though the occurrence ratio (2.72%) in solanaceous vegetables could be negligible, the pollution status in solanaceous vegetable products was much more serious, and the incidences were 41.1%. In the 47 contaminated samples, the incidences were 4.26% for alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), 6.38% for alternariol (AOH) and altenuene (ALT), 42.6% for tentoxin (TEN), and 55.3% for tenuazonic acid (TeA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Fungal Toxins: Current Status and Future Perspectives)
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15 pages, 7139 KiB  
Article
Fe3O4@COF(TAPT–DHTA) Nanocomposites as Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction Adsorbents for Simultaneous Determination of 9 Mycotoxins in Fruits by UHPLC–MS/MS
by Jie Wang, Qingwen Huang, Wenbo Guo, Dakai Guo, Zheng Han and Dongxia Nie
Toxins 2023, 15(2), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15020117 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1949
Abstract
In this study, a simple and efficient magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) strategy was developed to simultaneously purify and enrich nine mycotoxins in fruits, with the magnetic covalent organic framework nanomaterial Fe3O4@COF(TAPT–DHTA) as an adsorbent. The Fe3O4 [...] Read more.
In this study, a simple and efficient magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) strategy was developed to simultaneously purify and enrich nine mycotoxins in fruits, with the magnetic covalent organic framework nanomaterial Fe3O4@COF(TAPT–DHTA) as an adsorbent. The Fe3O4@COF(TAPT–DHTA) was prepared by a simple template precipitation polymerization method, using Fe3O4 as magnetic core, and 1,3,5-tris-(4-aminophenyl) triazine (TAPT) and 2,5-dihydroxy terephthalaldehyde (DHTA) as two building units. Fe3O4@COF(TAPT–DHTA) could effectively capture the targeted mycotoxins by virtue of its abundant hydroxyl groups and aromatic rings. Several key parameters affecting the performance of the MSPE method were studied, including the adsorption solution, adsorption time, elution solvent, volume and time, and the amount of Fe3O4@COF(TAPT–DHTA) nanomaterial. Under optimized MSPE conditions, followed by analysis with UHPLC–MS/MS, a wide linear range (0.05–200 μg kg−1), low limits of detection (0.01–0.5 μg kg−1) and satisfactory recovery (74.25–111.75%) were achieved for the nine targeted mycotoxins. The established method was further successfully validated in different kinds of fruit samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Fungal Toxins: Current Status and Future Perspectives)
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12 pages, 1538 KiB  
Article
Origanum vulgare Essential Oil Modulates the AFB1-Induced Oxidative Damages, Nephropathy, and Altered Inflammatory Responses in Growing Rabbits
by Mona A. Hassan, Azza M. A. Abo-Elmaaty, Asmaa W. Zaglool, Sally A. M. Mohamed, Shimaa M. Abou-Zeid, Mayada R. Farag, Mahmoud Alagawany, Alessandro Di Cerbo, Mahmoud M. Azzam, Rashed Alhotan and Enas EL-Hady
Toxins 2023, 15(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15010069 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
The current study was performed to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) through the evaluation of kidney function tests and histopathological examination of renal tissues, targeting the therapeutic role of Marjoram (Origanum vulgare essential oil-OEO) in improving health status. Forty-eight [...] Read more.
The current study was performed to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) through the evaluation of kidney function tests and histopathological examination of renal tissues, targeting the therapeutic role of Marjoram (Origanum vulgare essential oil-OEO) in improving health status. Forty-eight New Zealand Whites growing rabbits (four weeks old) weighing on average 660.5 ± 2.33 g were randomly and equally distributed into four groups, each of which had four replicas of three animals as the following: Control group (only basal diet), AFB1 group (0.3 mg AFB1/kg diet), OEO group (1 g OEO/kg diet) and co-exposed group (1 g OEO/kg + 0.3 mg AF/kg diet). Our study lasted eight weeks and was completed at 12 weeks of age. The results revealed that OEO decreased the toxic effects of AFB1 in rabbit kidneys by substantially reducing the cystatin C levels in the AFB1 group. Additionally, OEO decreased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation levels in the co-exposed group. Moreover, OEO reduced DNA damage and inflammatory response in addition to the down-regulation of stress and inflammatory cytokines-encoding genes. Besides, OEO preserved the cytoarchitecture of rabbits’ kidneys treated with AFB1. In conclusion, O. vulgare essential oil supplementation ameliorated the deleterious effects of AFB1 on the rabbits’ kidneys by raising antioxidant levels, decreasing inflammation, and reversing oxidative DNA damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Fungal Toxins: Current Status and Future Perspectives)
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13 pages, 4180 KiB  
Article
The Inhibitory Effect of Pseudomonas stutzeri YM6 on Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxins Production by the Production of Volatile Dimethyl Trisulfide
by An-Dong Gong, Yin-Yu Lei, Wei-Jie He, Yu-Cai Liao, Ling Ma, Tian-Tian Zhang and Jing-Bo Zhang
Toxins 2022, 14(11), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14110788 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
Aspergillus flavus and the produced aflatoxins cause great hazards to food security and human health across all countries. The control of A. flavus and aflatoxins in grains during storage is of great significance to humans. In the current study, bacteria strain YM6 isolated [...] Read more.
Aspergillus flavus and the produced aflatoxins cause great hazards to food security and human health across all countries. The control of A. flavus and aflatoxins in grains during storage is of great significance to humans. In the current study, bacteria strain YM6 isolated from sea sediment was demonstrated effective in controlling A. flavus by the production of anti-fungal volatiles. According to morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, strain YM6 was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri. YM6 can produce abundant volatile compounds which could inhibit mycelial growth and conidial germination of A. flavus. Moreover, it greatly prevented fungal infection and aflatoxin production on maize and peanuts during storage. The inhibition rate was 100%. Scanning electron microscopy further supported that the volatiles could destroy the cell structure of A. flavus and prevent conidia germination on the grain surface. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) with a relative abundance of 13% is the most abundant fraction in the volatiles from strain YM6. The minimal inhibitory concentration of DMTS to A. flavus conidia is 200 µL/L (compound volume/airspace volume). Thus, we concluded that Pseudomonas stutzeri YM6 and the produced DMTS showed great inhibition to A. flavus, which could be considered as effective biocontrol agents in further application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Fungal Toxins: Current Status and Future Perspectives)
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20 pages, 2625 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of a Novel Synthetic Peptide Derived from Cytolytic Mycotoxin Candidalysin
by Pedro Henrique de Oliveira Cardoso, Ana Paula de Araújo Boleti, Patrícia Souza e Silva, Lincoln Takashi Hota Mukoyama, Alexya Sandim Guindo, Luiz Filipe Ramalho Nunes de Moraes, Caio Fernando Ramalho de Oliveira, Maria Ligia Rodrigues Macedo, Cristiano Marcelo Espínola Carvalho, Alinne Pereira de Castro and Ludovico Migliolo
Toxins 2022, 14(10), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14100696 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2316
Abstract
The importance of neuroinflammation in neurology is becoming increasingly apparent. In addition to neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis, the role of neuroinflammation has been identified in many non-inflammatory neurological disorders such as stroke, epilepsy, and cancer. The immune response within the brain [...] Read more.
The importance of neuroinflammation in neurology is becoming increasingly apparent. In addition to neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis, the role of neuroinflammation has been identified in many non-inflammatory neurological disorders such as stroke, epilepsy, and cancer. The immune response within the brain involves the presence of CNS resident cells; mainly glial cells, such as microglia, the CNS resident macrophages. We evaluated the peptide Ca-MAP1 bioinspired on the C. albicans immature cytolytic toxin candidalysin to develop a less hemolytic peptide with anti-neuroinflammatory, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. In silico and in vitro studies were performed at various concentrations. Ca-MAP1 exhibits low hemolytic activity at lower concentrations and was not cytotoxic to MRC-5 and BV-2 cells. Ca-MAP1 showed activity against Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli ATCC, E. coli KPC, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC. Furthermore, Ca-MAP1 exhibits anti-neuroinflammatory activity in the BV-2 microglia model, with 93.78% inhibition of nitrate production at 18.1 µM. Ca-MAP1 presents cytotoxic activity against tumor cell line NCI-H292 at 36.3 μM, with an IC50 of 38.4 µM. Ca-MAP1 demonstrates results that qualify it to be evaluated in the next steps to promote the control of infections and provide an alternative antitumor therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Fungal Toxins: Current Status and Future Perspectives)
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14 pages, 2431 KiB  
Article
Resveratrol Protects against Zearalenone-Induced Mitochondrial Defects during Porcine Oocyte Maturation via PINK1/Parkin-Mediated Mitophagy
by Jiehuan Xu, Lingwei Sun, Mengqian He, Shushan Zhang, Jun Gao, Caifeng Wu, Defu Zhang and Jianjun Dai
Toxins 2022, 14(9), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14090641 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3564
Abstract
Mitochondria hold redox homeostasis and energy metabolism as a crucial factor during oocyte maturation, while the exposure of estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone causes developmental incapacity in porcine oocyte. This study aimed to reveal a potential resistance of phytoalexin resveratrol against zearalenone during porcine oocyte [...] Read more.
Mitochondria hold redox homeostasis and energy metabolism as a crucial factor during oocyte maturation, while the exposure of estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone causes developmental incapacity in porcine oocyte. This study aimed to reveal a potential resistance of phytoalexin resveratrol against zearalenone during porcine oocyte maturation and whether its mechanism was related with PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Porcine oocytes were exposed to 20 μM zearalenone with or without 2 μM resveratrol during in vitro maturation. As for the results, zearalenone impaired ultrastructure of mitochondria, causing mitochondrial depolarization, oxidative stress, apoptosis and embryonic developmental incapacity, in which mitophagy was induced in response to mitochondrial dysfunction. Phytoalexin resveratrol enhanced mitophagy through PINK1/Parkin in zearalenone-exposed oocytes, manifesting as enhanced mitophagy flux, upregulated PINK1, Parkin, microtubule-associated protein light-chain 3 beta-II (LC3B-II) and downregulated substrates mitofusin 2 (MFN2), voltage-dependent anion channels 1 (VDAC1) and p62 expressions. Resveratrol redressed zearalenone-induced mitochondrial depolarization, oxidative stress and apoptosis, and accelerated mitochondrial DNA copy during maturation, which improved embryonic development. This study offered an antitoxin solution during porcine oocyte maturation and revealed the involvement of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy, in which resveratrol mitigated zearalenone-induced embryonic developmental incapacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Fungal Toxins: Current Status and Future Perspectives)
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Review

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11 pages, 1432 KiB  
Review
Type A Trichothecene Metabolic Profile Differentiation, Mechanisms, Biosynthetic Pathways, and Evolution in Fusarium Species—A Mini Review
by Jianhua Wang, Mengyuan Zhang, Junhua Yang, Xianli Yang, Jiahui Zhang and Zhihui Zhao
Toxins 2023, 15(7), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15070446 - 05 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1415
Abstract
Trichothecenes are the most common Fusarium toxins detected in grains and related products. Type A trichothecenes are among the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety due to their high toxicity. Recently, two different trichothecene genotypes within Fusarium species were reported. [...] Read more.
Trichothecenes are the most common Fusarium toxins detected in grains and related products. Type A trichothecenes are among the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety due to their high toxicity. Recently, two different trichothecene genotypes within Fusarium species were reported. The available information showed that Tri1 and Tri16 genes are the key determinants of the trichothecene profiles of T-2 and DAS genotypes. In this review, polymorphisms in the Tri1 and Tri16 genes in the two genotypes were investigated. Meanwhile, the functions of genes involved in DAS and NEO biosynthesis are discussed. The possible biosynthetic pathways of DAS and NEO are proposed in this review, which will facilitate the understanding of the synthesis process of trichothecenes in Fusarium strains and may also inspire researchers to design and conduct further research. Together, the review provides insight into trichothecene profile differentiation and Tri gene evolutionary processes responsible for the structural diversification of trichothecene produced by Fusarium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Fungal Toxins: Current Status and Future Perspectives)
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14 pages, 355 KiB  
Review
Mycotoxin Determination and Occurrence in Pseudo-Cereals Intended for Food and Feed: A Review
by María Vanessa Vila-López, Noelia Pallarés, Emilia Ferrer and Josefa Tolosa
Toxins 2023, 15(6), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15060379 - 04 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Nowadays, pseudo-cereals’ consumption is increasing due to their health benefits as they possess an excellent nutrient profile. Whole pseudo-cereal grains are rich in a wide range of compounds, namely flavonoids, phenolic acids, fatty acids, and vitamins with known beneficial effects on human and [...] Read more.
Nowadays, pseudo-cereals’ consumption is increasing due to their health benefits as they possess an excellent nutrient profile. Whole pseudo-cereal grains are rich in a wide range of compounds, namely flavonoids, phenolic acids, fatty acids, and vitamins with known beneficial effects on human and animal health. Mycotoxins are common contaminants in cereals and by-products; however, the study of their natural occurrence in pseudo-cereals is currently scarce. Pseudo-cereals are similar to cereal grains; thus, mycotoxin contamination is expected to occur in pseudo-cereals. Indeed, mycotoxin-producing fungi have been reported in these matrices and, consequently, mycotoxin contents have been reported too, especially in buckwheat samples, where ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol reached levels up to 1.79 μg/kg and 580 μg/kg, respectively. In comparison to cereal contamination, mycotoxin levels detected in pseudo-cereal samples are lower; however, more studies are necessary in order to describe the mycotoxin pattern in these samples and to establish maximum levels that ensure human and animal health protection. In this review, mycotoxin occurrence in pseudo-cereal samples as well as the main extraction methods and analytical techniques to determine them are described, showing that mycotoxins can be present in pseudo-cereal samples and that the most employed techniques for their determination are liquid and gas chromatography coupled to different detectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Fungal Toxins: Current Status and Future Perspectives)
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