Environmental and Health Risks of Nanotechnology (Closed)

A topical collection in Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This collection belongs to the section "Exposome Analysis and Risk Assessment".

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Editors


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Collection Editor
Molecular Bioeffects Branch, Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, AFRL, USA
Interests: toxicology, in vitro, exposure, nanomaterials

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Collection Editor
Molecular Bioeffects Branch, Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, AFRL, USA
Interests: toxicology, risk assessment, exposure, nanobiotechnology, nanotoxicology

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanotechnology has great potential for medical and consumer applications, such as targeted drug delivery, optical imaging diagnostics, antimicrobials for wound dressings, and cosmetics, etc. Furthermore, nanomaterial (NM) applications are also being realized in clean energy, water treatment, pollution reduction, and the design of improved materials. Currently, over 1,600 consumer products are on the market that have incorporated NMs in order to enhance product capabilities. In addition to the small size of NMs, several parameters contribute to NM-enhanced magnetic, electrical, optical, mechanical, and structural properties. Many of these characteristics, such as elemental composition, charge, shape, crystallinity, surface area, solubility, degree and pattern of aggregation, and surface chemistry have the potential to also generate toxicity. In view of the increasing application of NMs, there is a growing level of exposure to NMs. Consequently, it is important to answer questions regarding the safety of these materials. In this Special Issue, we invite authors to submit manuscripts that have evaluated the environmental health and safety of nanomaterials. We require detailed characterizations of the nanomaterials used in studies.

Dr. Laura Braydich-Stolle
Prof. Dr. Saber M. Hussain
Collection Editors

Submission

Manuscripts for the topical collection can be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on this website. The topical collection considers regular research articles, short communications and review articles. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxics is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • nanomaterials
  • exposure
  • toxicity
  • nanotoxicology
  • risk assessment
  • characterization

Published Papers (7 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020, 2017, 2015

12 pages, 2028 KiB  
Article
Effects of Polydopamine Microspheres Loaded with Silver Nanoparticles on Lolium multiflorum: Bigger Size, Less Toxic
by Xinrui Wang, Hongyong Luo, Weihua Zheng, Xinling Wang, Haijun Xiao and Zhen Zheng
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9070151 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
The rapid development of nanotechnology and its widespread use have given rise to serious concerns over the potential adverse impacts of nanomaterials on the Earth’s ecosystems. Among all the nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most extensively used nanomaterials due to [...] Read more.
The rapid development of nanotechnology and its widespread use have given rise to serious concerns over the potential adverse impacts of nanomaterials on the Earth’s ecosystems. Among all the nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most extensively used nanomaterials due to their excellent antibacterial property. However, the toxic mechanism of AgNPs in nature is still unclear. One of the questions under debate is whether the toxicity is associated with the size of AgNPs or the silver ions released from AgNPs. In our previous study, a sub-micron hybrid sphere system with polydopamine-stabilized AgNPs (Ag@PDS) was synthesized through a facile and green method, exhibiting superior antibacterial properties. The current study aims to explore the unique toxicity profile of this hybrid sphere system by studying its effect on germination and early growth of Lolium multiflorum, with AgNO3 and 15 nm AgNPs as a comparison. The results showed the seed germination was insensitive/less sensitive to all three reagents; however, vegetative growth was more sensitive. Specifically, when the Ag concentration was lower than 40 mg/L, Ag@PDS almost had no adverse effects on the root and shoot growth of Lolium multiflorum seeds. By contrast, when treated with AgNO3 at a lower Ag concentration of 5 mg/L, the plant growth was inhibited significantly, and was reduced more in the case of AgNP treatment at the same Ag concentration. As the exposures of Ag@PDS, AgNO3, and AgNPs increased, so did the Ag content in the root and shoot. In general, Ag@PDS was proven to be a potential useful hybrid material that retains antibacterial property with light phytotoxicity. Full article
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15 pages, 8388 KiB  
Article
In-Vitro and In-Vivo Tolerance and Therapeutic Investigations of Phyto-Fabricated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles against Selected Pathogens
by Amreen Shah, Isfahan Tauseef, Manel Ben Ali, Muhammad Arfat Yameen, Amine Mezni, Amor Hedfi, Syed Kashif Haleem and Sirajul Haq
Toxics 2021, 9(5), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9050105 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
The Paeonia emodi (P. emodi)-mediated iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) were screened for in-vitro and in-vivo antibacterial activity against the Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC #: 6538) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC #:15224). [...] Read more.
The Paeonia emodi (P. emodi)-mediated iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) were screened for in-vitro and in-vivo antibacterial activity against the Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC #: 6538) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC #:15224). The synthesized Fe2O3 NPs were characterized via nitrogen adsorption-desorption process, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The SBET was found to be 94.65 m2/g with pore size of 2.99 nm, whereas the average crystallite and particles size are 23 and 27.64 nm, respectively. The 4 μg/mL is the MIC that inhibits the growth of E. coli, whereas those for S. aureus are below the detection limit (<1.76 μg/mL). The tolerance limit of the mice model was inspected by injecting different concentration of Fe2O3 NPs and bacteria suspensions. The 14 ppm suspension was the tolerated dose and the concentration above were proved lethal. The most severe infection was induced in mice with injection of 3 × 107 CFUs of both bacteria, while the inoculation of higher concentrations of bacterial suspensions resulted in the mice’s death. The histopathological and hematological studies reveals that the no/negligible infection was found in the mice exposed to the simultaneous inoculation of Fe2O3 NPs (14 ppm) and bacterial suspensions (3 × 107 CFUs). Full article
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13 pages, 3509 KiB  
Article
Disturbance in Mammalian Cognition Caused by Accumulation of Silver in Brain
by Anna A. Antsiferova, Marina Yu. Kopaeva, Vyacheslav N. Kochkin, Pavel K. Kashkarov and Mikhail V. Kovalchuk
Toxics 2021, 9(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9020030 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2410
Abstract
The influence of daily prolonged administration of silver nanoparticles on the cognitive functions of a model mammal was studied. The accumulation of silver in the whole brain and the hippocampus, cerebellum, cortex and residual brain tissue of the mouse was investigated by highly [...] Read more.
The influence of daily prolonged administration of silver nanoparticles on the cognitive functions of a model mammal was studied. The accumulation of silver in the whole brain and the hippocampus, cerebellum, cortex and residual brain tissue of the mouse was investigated by highly precise and representative neutron activation analysis, and histological studies were conducted. Here, we show that long-term memory impairments were caused by the accumulation of silver nanoparticles in the brain and its subregions, such as the hippocampus, cerebellum and cortex, in a step-like manner by disturbance of hippocampal cell integrity. Three different approaches allowed us to observe this phenomenon and discover the reasons it occurred. Full article
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11 pages, 6413 KiB  
Article
Effects of Sub-Lethal Doses of Selenium Nanoparticles on the Health Status of Rats
by Lenka Urbankova, Sylvie Skalickova, Magdalena Pribilova, Andrea Ridoskova, Pavlina Pelcova, Jiri Skladanka and Pavel Horky
Toxics 2021, 9(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9020028 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3431
Abstract
Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are fast becoming a key instrument in several applications such as medicine or nutrition. Questions have been raised about the safety of their use. Male rats were fed for 28 days on a monodiet containing 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 [...] Read more.
Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are fast becoming a key instrument in several applications such as medicine or nutrition. Questions have been raised about the safety of their use. Male rats were fed for 28 days on a monodiet containing 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 mg Se/kg. Se content in blood and liver, liver panel tests, blood glucose, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were analysed. Liver and duodenum were subjected to histopathology examination. The weight gain of rats showed no differences between tested groups. Se content in blood was higher in all treated groups compared to the control group. The liver concentration of Se in the treated groups varied in the range from 222 to 238 ng/g. No differences were observed in the activity of AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and TAS (total antioxidant status). A significant decrease in ALT activity compared to the control group was observed in the treated groups. GPx activity varied from 80 to 88 U/mL through tested groups. SOD activity in liver was decreased in the SeNP-treated group with 5 mg Se/kg (929 ± 103 U/mL). Histopathological examination showed damage to the liver parenchyma and intestinal epithelium in a dose-dependent manner. This study suggests that short-term SeNP supplementation can be safe and beneficial in Se deficiency or specific treatment. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021, 2017, 2015

22 pages, 3576 KiB  
Article
Astrocytes Are More Vulnerable than Neurons to Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticle Toxicity in Vitro
by Jorge Humberto Limón-Pacheco, Natalie Jiménez-Barrios, Alejandro Déciga-Alcaraz, Adriana Martínez-Cuazitl, Mónica Maribel Mata-Miranda, Gustavo Jesús Vázquez-Zapién, Jose Pedraza-Chaverri, Yolanda Irasema Chirino and Marisol Orozco-Ibarra
Toxics 2020, 8(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8030051 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3234
Abstract
Some studies have shown that silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) can reach different regions of the brain and cause toxicity; however, the consequences of SiO2-NPs exposure on the diverse brain cell lineages is limited. We aimed to investigate the neurotoxic [...] Read more.
Some studies have shown that silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) can reach different regions of the brain and cause toxicity; however, the consequences of SiO2-NPs exposure on the diverse brain cell lineages is limited. We aimed to investigate the neurotoxic effects of SiO2-NP (0–100 µg/mL) on rat astrocyte-rich cultures or neuron-rich cultures using scanning electron microscopy, Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), FTIR microspectroscopy mapping (IQ mapping), and cell viability tests. SiO2-NPs were amorphous particles and aggregated in saline and culture media. Both astrocytes and neurons treated with SiO2-NPs showed alterations in cell morphology and changes in the IR spectral regions corresponding to nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. The analysis by the second derivative revealed a significant decrease in the signal of the amide I (α-helix, parallel β-strand, and random coil) at the concentration of 10 µg/mL in astrocytes but not in neurons. IQ mapping confirmed changes in nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids in astrocytes; cell death was higher in astrocytes than in neurons (10–100 µg/mL). We conclude that astrocytes were more vulnerable than neurons to SiO2-NPs toxicity. Therefore, the evaluation of human exposure to SiO2-NPs and possible neurotoxic effects must be followed up. Full article
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2017

Jump to: 2021, 2020, 2015

1849 KiB  
Review
Exposure to Inorganic Nanoparticles: Routes of Entry, Immune Response, Biodistribution and In Vitro/In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation
by Valeria De Matteis
Toxics 2017, 5(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics5040029 - 17 Oct 2017
Cited by 213 | Viewed by 11535
Abstract
The development of different kinds of nanoparticles, showing different physico-chemical properties, has fostered their large use in many fields, including medicine. As a consequence, inorganic nanoparticles (e.g., metals or semiconductors), have raised issues about their potential toxicity. The scientific community is investigating the [...] Read more.
The development of different kinds of nanoparticles, showing different physico-chemical properties, has fostered their large use in many fields, including medicine. As a consequence, inorganic nanoparticles (e.g., metals or semiconductors), have raised issues about their potential toxicity. The scientific community is investigating the toxicity mechanisms of these materials, in vitro and in vivo, in order to provide accurate references concerning their use. This review will give the readers a thorough exploration on the entry mechanisms of inorganic nanoparticles in the human body, such as titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs), silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2NPs), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and quantum dots (QDsNPs). In addition, biodistribution, the current trends and novelties of in vitro and in vivo toxicology studies will be discussed, with a particular focus on immune response. Full article
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2015

Jump to: 2021, 2020, 2017

663 KiB  
Review
Nanotoxicology and Metalloestrogens: Possible Involvement in Breast Cancer
by David R. Wallace
Toxics 2015, 3(4), 390-413; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics3040390 - 28 Oct 2015
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 7971
Abstract
As the use of nanotechnology has expanded, an increased number of metallic oxides have been manufactured, yet toxicology testing has lagged significantly. Metals used in nano-products include titanium, silicon, aluminum, silver, zinc, cadmium, cobalt, antimony, gold, etc. Even the noble metals, platinum and [...] Read more.
As the use of nanotechnology has expanded, an increased number of metallic oxides have been manufactured, yet toxicology testing has lagged significantly. Metals used in nano-products include titanium, silicon, aluminum, silver, zinc, cadmium, cobalt, antimony, gold, etc. Even the noble metals, platinum and cerium, have been used as a treatment for cancer, but the toxicity of these metals is still unknown. Significant advances have been made in our understanding and treatment of breast cancer, yet millions of women will experience invasive breast cancer in their lifetime. The pathogenesis of breast cancer can involve multiple factors; (1) genetic; (2) environmental; and (3) lifestyle-related factors. This review focuses on exposure to highly toxic metals, (“metalloestrogens” or “endocrine disruptors”) that are used as the metallic foundation for nanoparticle production and are found in a variety of consumer products such as cosmetics, household items, and processed foods, etc. The linkage between well-understood metalloestrogens such as cadmium, the use of these metals in the production of nanoparticles, and the relationship between their potential estrogenic effects and the development of breast cancer will be explored. This will underscore the need for additional testing of materials used in nano-products. Clearly, a significant amount of work needs to be done to further our understanding of these metals and their potential role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Full article
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