Sources, Atmospheric Transformation and Dispersion of Aerosol Particles

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Pollution and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 20737

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany
Interests: modeling of chemistry and transport of atmospheric pollutants; urban air quality; development of emission control scenarios; transformation of particles in the atmosphere via aerosol dynamics and chemical processes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China
Interests: aerosol measurement techniques; characteristics, sources, and formation mechanisms of atmospheric particulate matter pollution
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aerosol particles, also referred to as particulate matter, can cause adverse health effects, such as aggravation of asthma, cardiovascular disease, lung disease, and even premature death. Particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in size (PM2.5) is the main cause of severe regional air pollution and contributes to acid deposition, causing damage to local ecosystems. Aerosol particles can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere (primary particles) or form from the reaction and condensation of gaseous chemicals already existing in the atmosphere (secondary particles). Primary particles have natural and anthropogenic sources, with the latter contributing most, including incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, transport emissions, agricultural activities, and domestic heating. However, the emissions, transport, and transformation processes remain far from being fully understood for both PM2.5 and its precursors, limiting our ability to develop air pollution control strategies and to protect human health and the environment.

This Special Issue aims to investigate how airborne particles change due to chemical reactions and aerosol dynamical processes that occur during atmospheric transport away from the source of pollution, and the mixing with aerosol particles from other natural and anthropogenic sources. In order to control severe haze pollution and develop effective emission reduction measures, the need arises for additional measurements and modeling studies, tracing the development of particle pollution from sources to local and regional scales, and better characterizing the chemical/physical properties, spatiotemporal variations. and sources of ambient aerosols.

In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews related to the sources, atmospheric transformation, and dispersion of aerosol particles are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following: aerosol chemistry in regional-scale air pollution models; measurements of particulate matter and its components combined with air mass trajectories; emission characterization; source apportionment; and dispersion modeling of ultrafine particles. Atmospheric studies of particle-bound toxic compounds such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of specific interest due to their relevance for human health.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Matthias Karl
Prof. Dr. Yuan Cheng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • haze pollution
  • PAHs
  • heavy metals
  • ultrafine particles
  • aerosol dynamical processes
  • aerosol chemistry
  • source characterization
  • dispersion modeling

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

27 pages, 720 KiB  
Article
Local Scale Exposure and Fate of Engineered Nanomaterials
by Mikko Poikkimäki, Joris T. K. Quik, Arto Säämänen and Miikka Dal Maso
Toxics 2022, 10(7), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10070354 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2226
Abstract
Nanotechnology is a growing megatrend in industrial production and innovations. Many applications utilize engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) that are potentially released into the atmospheric environment, e.g., via direct stack emissions from production facilities. Limited information exists on adverse effects such ENM releases may have [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology is a growing megatrend in industrial production and innovations. Many applications utilize engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) that are potentially released into the atmospheric environment, e.g., via direct stack emissions from production facilities. Limited information exists on adverse effects such ENM releases may have on human health and the environment. Previous exposure modeling approaches have focused on large regional compartments, into which the released ENMs are evenly mixed. However, due to the localization of the ENM release and removal processes, potentially higher airborne concentrations and deposition fluxes are obtained around the production facilities. Therefore, we compare the ENM concentrations from a dispersion model to those from the uniformly mixed compartment approach. For realistic release scenarios, we based the modeling on the case study measurement data from two TiO2 nanomaterial handling facilities. In addition, we calculated the distances, at which 50% of the ENMs are deposited, serving as a physically relevant metric to separate the local scale from the regional scale, thus indicating the size of the high exposure and risk region near the facility. As a result, we suggest a local scale compartment to be implemented in the multicompartment nanomaterial exposure models. We also present a computational tool for local exposure assessment that could be included to regulatory guidance and existing risk governance networks. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

21 pages, 5539 KiB  
Article
Simulating PM2.5 Concentrations during New Year in Cuenca, Ecuador: Effects of Advancing the Time of Burning Activities
by René Parra, Claudia Saud and Claudia Espinoza
Toxics 2022, 10(5), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10050264 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1809
Abstract
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is dangerous to human health. At midnight on 31 December, in Ecuadorian cities, people burn puppets and fireworks, emitting high amounts of PM2.5. On 1 January 2022, concentrations between 27.3 and 40.6 µg m−3 [...] Read more.
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is dangerous to human health. At midnight on 31 December, in Ecuadorian cities, people burn puppets and fireworks, emitting high amounts of PM2.5. On 1 January 2022, concentrations between 27.3 and 40.6 µg m−3 (maximum mean over 24 h) were measured in Cuenca, an Andean city located in southern Ecuador; these are higher than 15 µg m−3, the current World Health Organization guideline. We estimated the corresponding PM2.5 emissions and used them as an input to the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem 3.2) model to simulate the change in PM2.5 concentrations, assuming these emissions started at 18:00 LT or 21:00 LT on 31 December 2021. On average, PM2.5 concentrations decreased by 51.4% and 33.2%. Similar modeling exercises were completed for 2016 to 2021, providing mean decreases between 21.4% and 61.0% if emissions started at 18:00 LT. Lower mean reductions, between 2.3% and 40.7%, or even local increases, were computed for emissions beginning at 21:00 LT. Reductions occurred through better atmospheric conditions to disperse PM2.5 compared to midnight. Advancing the burning time can help reduce the health effects of PM2.5 emissions on 31 December. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 6389 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Distribution of Atmospheric Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in a Medium-Sized City of Northern China
by Xin Zhang, Bianhong Zhou, Zhiyu Li, Yue Lin, Lijuan Li and Yuemei Han
Toxics 2022, 10(5), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10050216 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) was measured continuously at an urban site in Baoji city in northern China in 2018 to investigate the seasonal distribution characteristics. Coarse PM (PM2.5–10) was more prevalent in spring, substantially due to the regional transport of dust. [...] Read more.
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) was measured continuously at an urban site in Baoji city in northern China in 2018 to investigate the seasonal distribution characteristics. Coarse PM (PM2.5–10) was more prevalent in spring, substantially due to the regional transport of dust. High loadings of coarse PM were found at night compared to daytime, which could result from high production and unfavorable dispersion conditions. Fine PM (PM2.5) constituted, on average, 54% of the total PM mass concentration, whereas it contributed more than 97% of the total PM number concentration. The number and mass concentrations of fine PM increased substantially in the winter, which was possibly due to the enhanced production of atmospheric secondary processes and coal combustion. Precursor gaseous pollutants and meteorology greatly influenced the PM distributions. Fine PM was associated more strongly with gas pollutants than coarse PM, which suggested that it largely originated from secondary production and combustion sources. High relative humidity appeared to promote the production of fine PM, whereas it facilitated the removal of coarse PM. This study highlights that different air-pollution control strategies should be used for coarse and fine PM according to the distribution characteristics and influencing factors in similar medium-sized urban areas. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1472 KiB  
Article
Potential Risks of PM2.5-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals from Inland and Marine Directions for a Marine Background Site in North China
by Qianqian Xue, Yingze Tian, Xinyi Liu, Xiaojun Wang, Bo Huang, Hongxia Zhu and Yinchang Feng
Toxics 2022, 10(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10010032 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
Ambient PM2.5-bound ions, OC, EC, heavy metals (HMs), 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 7 hopanes, and 29 n-alkanes were detected at Tuoji Island (TI), the only marine background atmospheric monitoring station in North China. The annual PM2.5 average concentration was [...] Read more.
Ambient PM2.5-bound ions, OC, EC, heavy metals (HMs), 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 7 hopanes, and 29 n-alkanes were detected at Tuoji Island (TI), the only marine background atmospheric monitoring station in North China. The annual PM2.5 average concentration was 47 ± 31 μg m−3, and the average concentrations of the compositions in PM2.5 were higher in cold seasons than in warm seasons. The cancer and non-cancer risks of HMs and PAHs in cold seasons were also higher than in warm seasons. BaP, Ni, and As dominated the ∑HQ (hazard quotient) in cold seasons, while the non-carcinogenic risk in warm seasons was mainly dominated by Ni, Mn, and As. The ILCR (incremental lifetime cancer risk) values associated with Cr and As were higher in the cold season, while ILCR-Ni values were higher in the warm season. The backward trajectory was calculated to identify the potential directions of air mass at TI. Through the diagnostic ratios of organic and inorganic tracers, the sources of particulate matter in different directions were judged. It was found that ship emissions and sea salt were the main sources from marine directions, while coal combustion, vehicles emissions, industrial process, and secondary aerosols were the main source categories for inland directions. In addition, potential HM and PAH risks from inland and marine directions were explored. The non-cancerous effects of TI were mainly affected by inland transport, especially from the southeast, northwest, and west-northwest. The cancerous effects of TI were mainly simultaneously affected by the inland direction and marine direction of transport. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

30 pages, 7005 KiB  
Article
City Scale Modeling of Ultrafine Particles in Urban Areas with Special Focus on Passenger Ferryboat Emission Impact
by Marvin Lauenburg, Matthias Karl, Volker Matthias, Markus Quante and Martin Otto Paul Ramacher
Toxics 2022, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10010003 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4326
Abstract
Air pollution by aerosol particles is mainly monitored as mass concentrations of particulate matter, such as PM10 and PM2.5. However, mass-based measurements are hardly representative for ultrafine particles (UFP), which can only be monitored adequately by particle number (PN) concentrations [...] Read more.
Air pollution by aerosol particles is mainly monitored as mass concentrations of particulate matter, such as PM10 and PM2.5. However, mass-based measurements are hardly representative for ultrafine particles (UFP), which can only be monitored adequately by particle number (PN) concentrations and are considered particularly harmful to human health. This study examines the dispersion of UFP in Hamburg city center and, in particular, the impact of passenger ferryboats by modeling PN concentrations and compares concentrations to measured values. To this end, emissions inventories and emission size spectra for different emission sectors influencing concentrations in the city center were created, explicitly considering passenger ferryboat traffic as an additional emission source. The city-scale chemical transport model EPISODE-CityChem is applied for the first time to simulate PN concentrations and additionally, observations of total particle number counts are taken at four different sampling sites in the city. Modeled UFP concentrations are in the range of 1.5–3 × 104 cm−3 at ferryboat piers and at the road traffic locations with particle sizes predominantly below 50 nm. Urban background concentrations are at 0.4–1.2 × 104 cm−3 with a predominant particle size in the range 50–100 nm. Ferryboat traffic is a significant source of emissions near the shore along the regular ferry routes. Modeled concentrations show slight differences to measured data, but the model is capable of reproducing the observed spatial variation of UFP concentrations. UFP show strong variations in both space and time, with day-to-day variations mainly controlled by differences in air temperature, wind speed and wind direction. Further model simulations should focus on longer periods of time to better understand the influence of meteorological conditions on UFP dynamics. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 7126 KiB  
Article
Contributions of Traffic and Industrial Emission Reductions to the Air Quality Improvement after the Lockdown of Wuhan and Neighboring Cities Due to COVID-19
by Xiaoxiao Feng, Xiaole Zhang, Cenlin He and Jing Wang
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9120358 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2239
Abstract
Wuhan was locked down from 23 January to 8 April 2020 to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Both public and private transportation in Wuhan and its neighboring cities in Hubei Province were suspended or restricted, and the manufacturing [...] Read more.
Wuhan was locked down from 23 January to 8 April 2020 to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Both public and private transportation in Wuhan and its neighboring cities in Hubei Province were suspended or restricted, and the manufacturing industry was partially shut down. This study collected and investigated ground monitoring data to prove that the lockdowns of the cities had significant influences on the air quality in Wuhan. The WRF-CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting-Community Multiscale Air Quality) model was used to evaluate the emission reduction from transportation and industry sectors and associated air quality impact. The results indicate that the reduction in traffic emission was nearly 100% immediately after the lockdown between 23 January and 8 February and that the industrial emission tended to decrease by about 50% during the same period. The industrial emission further deceased after 9 February. Emission reduction from transportation and that from industry was not simultaneous. The results imply that the shutdown of industry contributed significantly more to the pollutant reduction than the restricted transportation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 34741 KiB  
Article
Air Quality in the Harbin-Changchun Metropolitan Area in Northeast China: Unique Episodes and New Trends
by Yulong Wang, Youwen Sun, Gerong Zhao and Yuan Cheng
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9120357 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
Because of the unique geographical, climate, and anthropogenic emission characteristics, it is meaningful to explore the air pollution in the Harbin-Changchun (HC) metropolitan area. In this study, the Air Quality Index (AQI) and the corresponding major pollutant were investigated for the HC cities, [...] Read more.
Because of the unique geographical, climate, and anthropogenic emission characteristics, it is meaningful to explore the air pollution in the Harbin-Changchun (HC) metropolitan area. In this study, the Air Quality Index (AQI) and the corresponding major pollutant were investigated for the HC cities, based on the air quality data derived from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center. The number of days with the air quality level of “good” gradually increased during recent years, pointing to an improvement of the air quality in HC. It was also found that ozone, a typical secondary pollutant, exhibited stronger inter-city correlations compared to typical primary pollutants such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. In addition, for nearly all the HC cities, the concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased substantially in 2020 compared to 2015. However, this was not the case for ozone, with the most significant increase of ozone observed for HC’s central city, Harbin. This study highlights the importance of ozone reduction for further improving HC’s air quality, and the importance of agricultural fire control for eliminating heavily-polluted and even off-the-charts PM2.5 episodes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 4575 KiB  
Article
Emissions Control Scenarios for Transport in Greater Cairo
by Rana Alaa Abbass, Prashant Kumar and Ahmed El-Gendy
Toxics 2021, 9(11), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9110285 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3653
Abstract
Air pollution is a major cause of premature death in Greater Cairo, but studies on emission control are limited. We used local and international data to predict the impact of transport emission control measures on sector parameters including congestion. The International Vehicle Emission [...] Read more.
Air pollution is a major cause of premature death in Greater Cairo, but studies on emission control are limited. We used local and international data to predict the impact of transport emission control measures on sector parameters including congestion. The International Vehicle Emission model accordingly estimated quantities of criteria, toxic and global warming emissions produced by on-road vehicles. Emissions were estimated for 2019 base case (2019-BC) and projected for 2030 under the ‘do nothing’ scenario (2030-DNS) and five scenarios: fuel subsidy removal (2030-FSR), road expansions (2030-RE), public transport improvements (2030-PTI), inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs (2030-I/MP), and fuel enhancements (2030-FE). The 2030-FSR would reduce emissions by 11.2% versus 2030-DNS. The 2030-RE resulted in an average increase of 37% in emissions compared with 2030-DNS since it induces more traffic. The 2030-PTI provides alternatives to car travel; hence, cars result in an average drop of 32.8% for all emission types compared with 2030-DNS. The 2030-I/MP exhibited reductions in PM10 and toxic pollutants, of 35–54.8% compared with 2030-DNS. The 2030-FE reduced SOx, benzene and N2O emissions by 91.8%, 81% and 39.1%, respectively, compared with 2030-DNS. The 2030-I/MP is most effective in reducing health damaging pollutants while 2030-PTI positively impacts commuters’ lifestyle. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop