Bioaccumulation and Toxicokinetics of Organic and Inorganic Compounds in Aquatic and Soil Organisms

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Ecotoxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 6807

Special Issue Editors

CESAM - Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: bioaccumulation; toxicokinetics; mixture toxicity; pharmaceuticals; metals; in vitro/in vivo toxicological assays
Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, 601 77 Brno, Czech Republic
Interests: bioaccumulation; toxicokinetics; mixture toxicity; bioavailability; nanoparticles; pesticides; microplastics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The presence of toxic compounds in the environment is a major cause of concern. Toxic compounds can be organic and inorganic chemicals, such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, metals, nanoparticles, microplastics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, among others, usually used in human activities. The toxicity of these compounds is intrinsically related to their bioavailability, determining any adverse effects that may occur and potentially eventually leading to their bioaccumulation. Bioaccumulation studies are therefore a helpful tool to understand the link between exposure and bioavailability, and consequently to assess the risk imposed by such pollutants to ecosystems. Such studies include the assessment of concentrations in exposure media and organisms in the lab or in the field, and the modelling of the uptake and elimination of such compounds via toxicokinetic studies.

This Special Issue aims to publish original research papers, review/mini-review papers, short communications, and case studies covering aquatic and terrestrial bioaccumulation. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies.
  • Bioaccumulation studies of emerging contaminants in vivo and in vitro.
  • In vivo and in vitro biotransformation studies.
  • Biomagnification of chemicals along a trophic chain.
  • Bioaccumulation monitoring studies.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Maria D. Pavlaki
Dr. Paula da Silva Tourinho
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ecotoxicology
  • bioavailability
  • metals
  • nanoparticles
  • pharmaceuticals
  • microplastics
  • TKTD studies

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 6315 KiB  
Article
Uptake of Radionuclides by Bryophytes in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone
Toxics 2023, 11(3), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11030218 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
The “Chernobyl nuclear disaster” released huge amounts of radionuclides, which are still detectable in plants and sediments today. Bryophytes (mosses) are primitive land plants lacking roots and protective cuticles and therefore readily accumulate multiple contaminants, including metals and radionuclides. This study quantifies 137 [...] Read more.
The “Chernobyl nuclear disaster” released huge amounts of radionuclides, which are still detectable in plants and sediments today. Bryophytes (mosses) are primitive land plants lacking roots and protective cuticles and therefore readily accumulate multiple contaminants, including metals and radionuclides. This study quantifies 137Cs and 241Am in moss samples from the cooling pond of the power plant, the surrounding woodland and the city of Prypiat. Activity concentrations of up to 297 Bq/g (137Cs) and 0.43 Bq/g (241Am) were found. 137Cs contents were significantly higher at the cooling pond, where 241Am was not detectable. Distance to the damaged reactor, amount of original fallout, presence of vascular tissue in the stem or taxonomy were of little importance. Mosses seem to absorb radionuclides rather indiscriminately, if available. More than 30 years after the disaster, 137Cs was washed out from the very top layer of the soil, where it is no more accessible for rootless mosses but possibly for higher plants. On the other hand, 137Cs still remains solved and accessible in the cooling pond. However, 241Am remained adsorbed to the topsoil, thus accessible to terrestrial mosses, but precipitated in the sapropel of the cooling pond. Full article
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13 pages, 2092 KiB  
Article
Significant Biotransformation of Arsenobetaine into Inorganic Arsenic in Mice
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020091 - 18 Jan 2023
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Abstract
Arsenic (As) is extremely toxic to living organisms at high concentrations. Arsenobetaine (AsB), confirmed to be a non-toxic form, is the main contributor to As in the muscle tissue of marine fish. However, few studies have investigated the biotransformation and biodegradation of AsB [...] Read more.
Arsenic (As) is extremely toxic to living organisms at high concentrations. Arsenobetaine (AsB), confirmed to be a non-toxic form, is the main contributor to As in the muscle tissue of marine fish. However, few studies have investigated the biotransformation and biodegradation of AsB in mammals. In the current study, C57BL/6J mice were fed four different diets, namely, Yangjiang and Zhanjiang fish diets spiked with marine fish muscle containing AsB, and arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) diets spiked with As(III) and As(V), respectively, to investigate the biotransformation and bioaccumulation of AsB in mouse tissues for 42 d. Different diets exhibited different As species distributions, which contributed to varying levels of As bioaccumulation in different tissues. The intestines accumulated the highest level of As, regardless of form, which played a major part in As absorption and distribution in mice. We observed a significant biotransformation of AsB to As(V) following its diet exposure, and the liver, lungs, and spleen of AsB-treated mice showed higher As accumulation levels than those of As(III)- or As(V)-treated mice. Inorganic As showed relatively high accumulation levels in the lungs and spleen after long-term exposure to AsB. Overall, these findings provided strong evidence that AsB undergoes biotransformation to As(V) in mammals, indicating the potential health risk associated with long-term AsB intake in mammals. Full article
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16 pages, 2983 KiB  
Systematic Review
Systematic Review of Nano- and Microplastics’ (NMP) Influence on the Bioaccumulation of Environmental Contaminants: Part II—Freshwater Organisms
Toxics 2023, 11(6), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11060474 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
Nano- and microplastic fragments (NMPs) exist ubiquitously in all environmental compartments. The literature-based evidence suggests that NMPs interact with other environmental contaminants in freshwater ecosystems through sorption mechanisms, thereby playing a vector role. Chemically bound NMPs can translocate throughout the environment, reaching long [...] Read more.
Nano- and microplastic fragments (NMPs) exist ubiquitously in all environmental compartments. The literature-based evidence suggests that NMPs interact with other environmental contaminants in freshwater ecosystems through sorption mechanisms, thereby playing a vector role. Chemically bound NMPs can translocate throughout the environment, reaching long distances from the contaminant discharge site. In addition, they can be ab/adsorbed by freshwater organisms. Although many studies show that NMPs can increase toxicity towards freshwater biota through the carrier role, little is known regarding their potential to influence the bioaccumulation of environmental contaminants (EC) in freshwater species. This review is part II of a systematic literature review regarding the influence of NMPs on bioaccumulation. Part I deals with terrestrial organisms and part II is devoted to freshwater organisms. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA ScR) was used for the literature search and selection. Only studies that assessed the bioaccumulation of EC in the presence of NMPs and compared this with the bioaccumulation of the isolated EC were considered. Here, we discuss the outcome of 46 papers, considering NMPs that induced an increase, induced a decrease, or caused no effect on bioaccumulation. Lastly, knowledge gaps are identified, and future directives for this area of research are discussed. Full article
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13 pages, 1604 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of Nano- and Microplastic (NMP) Influence on the Bioaccumulation of Environmental Contaminants: Part I—Soil Organisms
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020154 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2095
Abstract
Nano- and microplastics (NMPs) are a group of contaminants that cause concern due to their abundance in the environment, high persistence, and interaction with other contaminants. This review aims to understand the role of NMP in the bioaccumulation of environmental contaminants. For that, [...] Read more.
Nano- and microplastics (NMPs) are a group of contaminants that cause concern due to their abundance in the environment, high persistence, and interaction with other contaminants. This review aims to understand the role of NMP in the bioaccumulation of environmental contaminants. For that, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify publications that compared the uptake of contaminants in the presence and absence of NMP. In this part I, twenty-eight publications of the terrestrial compartment were analyzed. Two main taxonomic groups were studied, namely, earthworms and terrestrial plants. In earthworms, most studies observed an increase in the bioaccumulation of the contaminants, while in plants, most studies observed a decrease in the bioaccumulation. Changes in bioavailable fractions of contaminants due to NMP presence was the main reason pointed out by the authors for their outcomes. Moreover, biological aspects were also found to be important in defining how NMPs affect bioaccumulation. Dermal damage and changes in contaminant-degrading bacteria in the gut of earthworms caused an increase in bioaccumulation, and root pore blockage was a common reason for the decrease in the bioaccumulation of contaminants in plants. Nevertheless, such effects were mainly observed at high, unrealistic NMP concentrations. Finally, knowledge gaps were identified, and the limitations of this systematic review were presented. Full article
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