Persistent Organic Pollutants and Human Health

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2020) | Viewed by 9143

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Guest Editor
Toxicology Unit, Clinical Sciences Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain
Interests: environmental toxicology; biomonitoring; persistent organic pollutant; heavy metals; emerging pollutants; pesticides; mechanisms of action of pollutants
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of substances characterized by their high resistance to environmental degradation, their lipophilic nature, and their ability to alter physiological systems of living beings, specifically the endocrine systems. They are substances which were used as pesticides (organochlorine pesticides like DDT), as flame retardants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs)), and they have other uses mainly associated to the industry (dioxins). Due to their potential damage to the environment and people, most of these substances were included in different annexes of the Stockholm Convention and banned, mostly, for decades. Despite this, biomonitoring studies show that the world’s population still has detectable levels of many of these substances. In addition, it has been seen that persistent organic pollutants are associated with different human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases or diabetes. Moreover, many of these compounds seem to alter fat metabolism and be partially responsible for the obesity epidemic that plagues the planet. It is a topic of total relevance which affects humans as a species and the total environment of the planet and that, therefore, still requires continuous research to answer the many questions that are not clarified.

Dr. Luis Alberto Henríquez-Hernández
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • persistent organic pollutants
  • xenobiotics
  • endocrine disruptors
  • organochlorine pesticides
  • polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs)
  • dioxins
  • biomonitoring
  • human health

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1487 KiB  
Article
Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Women’s Serum in the European Arctic Russia
by Yulia Varakina, Dmitry Lahmanov, Andrey Aksenov, Anna Trofimova, Rimma Korobitsyna, Natalia Belova, Nikita Sobolev, Dmitry Kotsur, Tatiana Sorokina, Andrej M. Grjibovski, Valery Chashchin and Yngvar Thomassen
Toxics 2021, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9010006 - 07 Jan 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2945
Abstract
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are heterogeneous carbon-based compounds that can seriously affect human health. The aim of this study was to measure serum concentrations of POPs in women residing in the Euro-Arctic Region of Russia. A total of 204 women from seven rural [...] Read more.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are heterogeneous carbon-based compounds that can seriously affect human health. The aim of this study was to measure serum concentrations of POPs in women residing in the Euro-Arctic Region of Russia. A total of 204 women from seven rural settlements of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO) took part in the study. We measured serum concentrations of 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 17 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) across the study sites and among Nenets and non-Nenets residents. Measurement of POPs was performed using an Agilent 7890A gas chromatograph equipped with an Agilent 7000 series MS/MS triple quadrupole system. The concentrations of all POPs were low and similar to findings from other Arctic countries. However, significant geographic differences between the settlements were observed with exceptionally high concentrations of PCBs in Varnek located on Vaygach Island. Both ΣDDT (p = 0.011) and ΣPCB (p = 0.038) concentrations were significantly lower in Nenets. Our main findings suggest that the serum concentrations of the legacy POPs in women in the Euro-Arctic Region of Russia are low and similar to those in other Arctic countries. Significant variations between settlements, and between Nenets and non-Nenets residents, were found. Arctic biomonitoring research in Russia should include studies on the associations between nutrition and concentrations of POPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Persistent Organic Pollutants and Human Health)
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17 pages, 2120 KiB  
Article
Tris(2-chloroethyl) Phosphate (TCEP) Elicits Hepatotoxicity by Activating Human Cancer Pathway Genes in HepG2 Cells
by Abdullah M. Al-Salem, Quaiser Saquib, Maqsood A. Siddiqui, Javed Ahmad and Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy
Toxics 2020, 8(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040109 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2922
Abstract
Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) is one of the organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) used in consumer commodities and have been detected in human body fluids. Research on TCEP-induced transcriptomic alterations and toxicological consequences in liver cells is still lacking. Herein, human hepatocellular (HepG2) cells were [...] Read more.
Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) is one of the organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) used in consumer commodities and have been detected in human body fluids. Research on TCEP-induced transcriptomic alterations and toxicological consequences in liver cells is still lacking. Herein, human hepatocellular (HepG2) cells were treated with 100, 200, and 400 μM TCEP for 3 days to quantify hepatotoxicity by MTT, NRU, and comet assays. Apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), oxidative stress, and Ca2+ influx were measured by flow cytometry. A qPCR array was employed for transcriptomic analysis. MTT and NRU data showed 70.92% and 75.57% reduction in cell survival at 400 μM. In addition, 20-fold greater DNA damage was recorded at 400 μM. Cell cycle data showed 65.96% subG1 apoptotic peak in 400 μM treated cells. An elevated level of oxidative stress, esterase, Ca2+ influx, and ΔΨm dysfunction were recorded in TCEP-treated cells. Out of 84 genes, the qPCR array showed upregulation of 17 genes and downregulation of 10 key genes belonging to human cancer pathways. Our study endorses the fact that TCEP possesses hepatotoxic potential at higher concentrations and prolonged exposure. Hence, TCEP may act as a cancer-inducing entity by provoking the gene network of human cancer pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Persistent Organic Pollutants and Human Health)
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9 pages, 597 KiB  
Article
Lactational Transfer of Long-Chain Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids in Mice: A Method to Directly Collect Milk and Evaluate Chemical Transferability
by Yukiko Fujii, Kouji H. Harada, Hatasu Kobayashi, Koichi Haraguchi and Akio Koizumi
Toxics 2020, 8(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8020023 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2750
Abstract
Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, C8), are a group of industrial chemicals that are detected in the serum of people throughout the world. Long-chain PFCAs (C9 to C13) have high lipophilicity, therefore they may have a high transfer rate [...] Read more.
Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, C8), are a group of industrial chemicals that are detected in the serum of people throughout the world. Long-chain PFCAs (C9 to C13) have high lipophilicity, therefore they may have a high transfer rate to breast milk. This study investigated the lactational transfer of PFCAs with carbon chain lengths of 8 to 13 in mice. Lactating dams were given a single intravenous administration of PFCAs (C8 to C13) during the postnatal period (8–13 days after delivery). Milk was collected from the dam 24 h after administration using a milking device built in-house. Plasma was obtained from the dam at the same time as milk collection. The observed milk/plasma (M/P) concentration ratios were 0.32 for C8, 0.30 for C9, 0.17 for C10, 0.21 for C11, 0.32 for C12, and 0.49 for C13. These results indicate that the M/P concentration ratio is not related to the lipophilicity of PFCAs. However, estimated relative daily intake, an indicator of how much PFCA is transferred from dams to pups per body weight, increased with chain length: 4.16 for C8, 8.98 for C9, 9.35 for C10, 9.51 for C11, 10.20 for C12, and 10.49 for C13, which may be related to the lower clearance of long-chain PFCAs. These results indicate the importance of future risk assessment of long-chain PFCAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Persistent Organic Pollutants and Human Health)
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