Combined Effects of Climate Change and Emerging Chemicals on Ecosystems

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Ecotoxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 9915

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
CESAM–Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: aquatic ecotoxicology; marine and freshwater systems; biotic and abiotic stressors; pesticides; metals; fish; aquatic invertebrates; food webs; invasive species; bioaccumulation; nutrition in aquaculture; climate changes; biochemical; physiological and behavioral biomarkers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CESAM–Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: aquatic ecology and ecotoxicology; community ecotoxicology; evolutionary ecotoxicology; aquatic macroinvertebrates; multiple stressors (natural and anthropogenic); predation risk; parasitism; invasive species
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increase in the complexity of toxicological studies is of utmost importance to an improved environmental risk assessment of emerging chemicals under a changing climate. We are observing the daunting impacts of climate change in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems today, aligned with compelling evidence that changes on abiotic factors alter the environmental distribution and toxicity of chemicals. On the other hand, new chemicals arrive on the market every year to meet demand for products and services (from agriculture to health and even leisure activities).

This Special Issue of Toxics invites studies on the combined toxicological effects of abiotic parameters altered due to climate change (e.g., temperature, pH, salinization) and emerging chemicals (e.g., new persistent organic contaminants, personal care products, pharmaceuticals). A variety of topics encompassing the combined effects observed from lower to high levels of biological organization, from the subindividual to the community and ecosystem levels, will be included. We are also looking for studies on the fate and persistence of emerging chemicals in both terrestrial and aquatic systems under changing climate scenarios.

Dr. Andreia C. M. Rodrigues
Dr. Maria Donas Bôtto Bordalo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • aquatic biota
  • abiotic stressors
  • aquatic services
  • organic chemicals
  • toxicological effects
  • multiple stressors
  • risk assessment

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 969 KiB  
Article
Genotoxic and Toxic Effects of The Flame Retardant Tris(Chloropropyl) Phosphate (TCPP) in Human Lymphocytes, Microalgae and Bacteria
by Maria Antonopoulou, Dimitris Vlastos, Margarita Dormousoglou, Spyridon Bouras, Maria Varela-Athanasatou and Irene-Eleni Bekakou
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120736 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
Tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) is a characteristic and widely used organophosphorus flame retardant. TCPP is comprised of four isomers and the most abundant is tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate. TCPP can be released into the environment, with potential impacts on living organisms and humans due to its [...] Read more.
Tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) is a characteristic and widely used organophosphorus flame retardant. TCPP is comprised of four isomers and the most abundant is tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate. TCPP can be released into the environment, with potential impacts on living organisms and humans due to its extensive industrial use. Aiming to assess the potential risks of TCPP on human health and the environment, its toxic and genotoxic effects—using organisms from different trophic levels, i.e., bacteria, green microalgae, and human cells—were investigated. TCPP exposure at nominal concentrations of 10, 20, 30 and 40 μg mL−1 was studied to identify the potential risk of inducing genotoxic effects in cultured human lymphocytes. Treatment with 30 and 40 μg mL−1 of TCPP induced marginally significant micronuclei (MN) frequencies as well as cytotoxic effects. Freshwater microalgae species treated with TCPP (0.5, 1, 10, 20 and 50 μg L−1) showed different growth rates over time. All the tested microalgae species were adversely affected after exposure to TCPP during the first 24 h. However, differences among the microalgae species’ sensitivities were observed. In the case of the freshwater species, the most sensitive was found to be Chlorococcum sp. The marine algal species Dunaliella tertiolecta and Tisochrysis lutea were significantly affected after exposure to TCPP. The effects of TCPP on Aliivibrio fischeri that were observed can classify this flame retardant as a “harmful” compound. Our results suggest a potential risk to aquatic organisms and humans from the wide utilization of TCPP and its consequent release into the environment. These results highlight that further research should be conducted to investigate the effects of TCPP individually and in combination with other organophosphorus flame retardants in various organisms. In addition, the concern induced by TCPP points out that measures to control the introduction of TCPP into the environment should be taken. Full article
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14 pages, 2162 KiB  
Article
Ecotoxicological Studies on the Action of Actara 25 WG Insecticide on Prussian Carp (Carassius gibelio) and Marsh Frog (Pelophylax ridibundus)
by Alina Paunescu, Liliana Cristina Soare, Irina Fierascu, Radu Claudiu Fierascu, Cristina Florina Mihaescu, Lucica Tofan and Cristina Maria Ponepal
Toxics 2022, 10(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10030114 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
The toxic action of the Actara 25 WG insecticide (it contains 25% thiamethoxam as an active substance) in non-lethal doses was studied in two species of aquatic organisms—the Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) and the marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus)—at two [...] Read more.
The toxic action of the Actara 25 WG insecticide (it contains 25% thiamethoxam as an active substance) in non-lethal doses was studied in two species of aquatic organisms—the Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) and the marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus)—at two thermal levels, 6–8 °C (low temperature) and 18–20 °C (room temperature), respectively. In the Prussian carp, we recorded decreases in oxygen consumption and stimulation of the respiratory rhythm, changes that were more pronounced in the case of intoxicated fish and when the species were kept at room temperature. The histopathology of the lung in the frog illustrated the thickening of the conjunctival septum, an increase in the number of mucous cells, and an increase in the ratio between the diameter of the nucleus and the diameter of the pneumocyte. All of these changes were more pronounced in the animals kept at higher temperature. Our study looks at the extent to which temperature changes can influence the ability of poikilothermic organisms to withstand the presence of toxic substances in the environment as a result of the impact of the use of insecticides in agriculture. The two tested organisms are a common presence for the study area, which was affected in the last decade by climate change. Full article
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14 pages, 1381 KiB  
Article
Ocean Warming May Enhance Biochemical Alterations Induced by an Invasive Seaweed Exudate in the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis
by Hugo C. Vieira, Andreia C. M. Rodrigues, Sílvia F. S. Pires, Jacinta M. M. Oliveira, Rui J. M. Rocha, Amadeu M. V. M. Soares and Maria D. Bordalo
Toxics 2021, 9(6), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9060121 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3365
Abstract
Ocean warming and biological invasions are among the most pervasive factors threatening coastal ecosystems with a potential to interact. Ongoing temperature rise may affect physiological and cellular mechanisms in marine organisms. Moreover, non-indigenous species spread has been a major challenge to biodiversity and [...] Read more.
Ocean warming and biological invasions are among the most pervasive factors threatening coastal ecosystems with a potential to interact. Ongoing temperature rise may affect physiological and cellular mechanisms in marine organisms. Moreover, non-indigenous species spread has been a major challenge to biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services. The invasive red seaweed Asparagopsis armata has become successfully established in Europe. Its exudate has been considered deleterious to surrounding native species, but no information exists on its effect under forecasted temperature increase. This study evaluated the combined effects of temperature rise and A. armata exudate exposure on the native mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Oxidative stress, neurophysiological and metabolism related biomarkers were evaluated after a 96 h-exposure to exudate (0% and 2%) under present (20 °C) and warming (24 °C) temperature scenarios. Short-term exposure to A. armata exudate affected the oxidative stress status and neurophysiology of the mussels, with a tendency to an increasing toxic action under warming. Significant oxidative damage at protein level was observed in the digestive gland and muscle of individuals exposed simultaneously to the exudate and temperature rise. Thus, under a climate change scenario, it may be expected that prolonged exposure to the combined action of both stressors may compromise M. galloprovincialis fitness and survival. Full article
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