Soil and Water Pollution, Remediation and Ecotoxicity Assessment

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Toxicity Reduction and Environmental Remediation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 6208

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Research Institute for Advanced Industrial Technology, College of Science and Technology, Korea University, Sejong 30019, Republic of Korea
Interests: bioremediation; environmental microbiology; phytoremediation; biological wastewater treatment; microalgae; bioelectrochemical fuel cells
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Research Institute for Advanced Industrial Technology, College of Science and Technology, Korea University, Sejong 30019, Republic of Korea
Interests: nanomaterial; environmental remediation; biomass reutilization; bioelectrochemical system; wastewater treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
International Research Center in Critical Raw Materials for Advanced Industrial Technologies (ICCRAM), Universidad de Burgos, 09001 Burgos, Spain
Interests: bioremediation; phytoremediation; plant-microbe interaction; constructed wetland; dendoremediation; resource recovery; phytotoxicity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In public health and illness prevention, the affordability and effectiveness of monitoring and treatment remain key factors. This is primarily due to a lack of financial and technical resources for effective treatment facilities. Recent research has concentrated on trying to counteract and remedy these dangers and health problems. To clean an environmental matrix in an eco-efficient manner, natural bio-solutions can be used, such as bioremediation and phytoremediation. There are many advantages to using them over chemical or physical remediation methods, given that they are eco-friendly and cost-effective. There are a number of challenges associated with finding appropriate remediation methods. The type, content, and concentration of contaminants might also be problematic. As a result, it is critical to determine the appropriate plants, as well as the number of contaminants which provide a risk to living creatures and abiotic settings. Natural biological systems (NBSs) have the potential to be scaled up in the future to minimize the demand for fossil fuels, address the issue of limited usable land in urban and suburban regions, and emphasize resource recycling with economic rewards. Hence, we aim to collate review articles, research papers, case studies, short communications, and novel methods on the following topics (but not limited to):

  • NBS for emerging and legacy pollutants;
  • Biomonitoring methods for real-time monitoring of contaminants;
  • Efficacy and toxicological profiling of NBS;
  • Emerging trends and novel techniques in bioremediation;
  • Assessment of environmental toxicity;
  • Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing analysis of remediation methods.

Dr. Fida Hussain
Dr. Asim Ali Yaqoob
Dr. Aqib Hassan Ali Khan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioremediation
  • toxicology
  • soil and water pollution
  • bioaugmentation
  • phytoremediation
  • biostimulation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 1038 KiB  
Article
Assessment and Exposure Analysis of Trace Metals in Different Age Groups of the Male Population in Southern Punjab, Pakistan
by Sajjad Hussain, Tasawar Khanam, Subhan Ullah, Fouzia Aziz, Abdul Sattar, Imran Hussain, Muhammad Abu Bakar Saddique, Amna Maqsood, Changfeng Ding, Xingxiang Wang and Jianjun Yang
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11120958 - 24 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
In developing countries, like Pakistan, the pursuit of urbanization and economic development disrupts the delicate ecosystem, resulting in additional biogeochemical emissions of heavy metals into the human habitat and posing significant health risks. The levels of these trace elements in humans remain unknown [...] Read more.
In developing countries, like Pakistan, the pursuit of urbanization and economic development disrupts the delicate ecosystem, resulting in additional biogeochemical emissions of heavy metals into the human habitat and posing significant health risks. The levels of these trace elements in humans remain unknown in areas at higher risk of pollution in Pakistan. In this investigation, selected trace metals including Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb) Cadmium (Cd), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), and Arsenic (As) were examined in human hair, urine, and nail samples of different age groups from three major cities (Muzaffargarh, Multan, and Vehari) in Punjab province, Pakistan. The results revealed that the mean concentrations (ppm) of Cr (1.1) and Cu (9.1) in hair was highest in Muzaffargarh. In urine samples, the mean concentrations (μg/L) of Co (93), As (79), Cu (69), Cr (56), Ni (49), Cd (45), and Pb (35) were highest in the Multan region, while As (34) and Cr (26) were highest in Vehari. The mean concentrations (ppm) of Ni (9.2), Cr (5.6), and Pb (2.8), in nail samples were highest in Vehari; however, Multan had the highest Cu (28) concentration (ppm). In urine samples, the concentrations of all the studied metals were within permissible limits except for As (34 µg/L) and Cr (26 µg/L) in Vehari. However, in nail samples, the concentrations of Ni in Multan (8.1 ppm), Muzaffargarh (9 ppm), Vehari (9.2 ppm), and Cd (3.69 ppm) in Muzaffargarh exceeded permissible limits. Overall, the concentrations of metals in urine, nail, and hair samples were higher in adults (39–45 age group). Cr, Cu, and Ni revealed significantly higher concentrations of metals in hair and water in Multan, whereas As in water was significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with urinary As in Multan, indicating that the exposure source was region-specific. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Water Pollution, Remediation and Ecotoxicity Assessment)
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16 pages, 2132 KiB  
Article
Contamination Status, Environmental Factor and Risk Assessment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Hexachlorobutadiene in Greenhouse and Open-Field Agricultural Soils across China
by Yaru Li, Fangwei Hou, Rongguang Shi, Xiaohua Li, Jing Lan and Zongshan Zhao
Toxics 2023, 11(11), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11110941 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
With the popularization and high-intensity utilization of greenhouse cultivation for crops growth, the pollution of greenhouse soils has been of concern. Therefore, a national-scale survey was conducted to investigate the contamination status, sources, influence factors and the risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and [...] Read more.
With the popularization and high-intensity utilization of greenhouse cultivation for crops growth, the pollution of greenhouse soils has been of concern. Therefore, a national-scale survey was conducted to investigate the contamination status, sources, influence factors and the risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) in greenhouse and nearby open-field soils. Contents of PCBs ranged from <LOD to 673.78 ng/g (mean: 77.38 ng/g) in greenhouse soils, and <LOD to 552.53 ng/g (mean: 61.90 ng/g) in open-field soils. HCBD was detected in all greenhouse soils with content ranging from 0.85 to 24.18 ng/g (mean: 8.33 ng/g), and a range of <LOD-20.19 ng/g (mean: 6.39 ng/g) in open-field soils. The sources of PCBs were the disposal of electrical equipment, domestic coal, wood burning emissions, etc. Levels of PCBs and HCBD were not correlated with the soil properties but positively correlated with Pseudomonas as the PCBs-degrader in open-field soils. Although the higher values of mean contents were found in greenhouses, the health risks of ΣPCBs in open-field soils were higher than in greenhouse soils due to the higher percentages of high-toxicity PCBs, especially the carcinogenic risks to children (>10−6). This study provided a full insight on the contamination status and risks of PCBs and HCBD when guiding greenhouse agriculture activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Water Pollution, Remediation and Ecotoxicity Assessment)
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15 pages, 2811 KiB  
Article
Statistical Analysis and Health Risk Assessment: Vegetables Irrigated with Wastewater in Kirri Shamozai, Pakistan
by Mehak Nawaz Khan, Muhammad Anis Aslam, Imran Zada and Thamer H. Albekairi
Toxics 2023, 11(11), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11110899 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1090
Abstract
One of the primary environmental routes through which humans are exposed to metals and may be exposed to health risks is the food chain’s contamination with heavy metals. The study observed the risks posed by contaminants in vegetables produced in soil that received [...] Read more.
One of the primary environmental routes through which humans are exposed to metals and may be exposed to health risks is the food chain’s contamination with heavy metals. The study observed the risks posed by contaminants in vegetables produced in soil that received wastewater irrigation, as well as their origins and the human health impacts. Eight harmful metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr) were tested for concentration levels in water, soil, and vegetable samples using analytical techniques and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The present study investigated the potential health implications associated with the consumption of vegetables irrigated using wastewater containing heavy metals. The results indicated a notable accumulation of heavy metals in plant and soil samples obtained from Kirri Shamozai, Pakistan. In comparison to vegetables cultivated in soil irrigated with fresh water, the concentration levels of heavy metals in vegetables grown on soil irrigated with untreated wastewater were considerably higher at (P ≤ 0.001) and above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limits. The results showed that heavy metals had significantly accumulated in the soil and had permeated into the crops. Heavy metal concentrations in vegetables cultivated on land irrigated with wastewater were more significant than those grown on land irrigated with freshwater. They exceeded US EPA and World Health Organization (WHO) limits. PCA results for Pb, Cu, and Cr are the main issues impacting water quality and health hazards. The PCA results show that the soil has an extensive loading of heavy metals Cd, Ni, and Mn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Water Pollution, Remediation and Ecotoxicity Assessment)
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19 pages, 2721 KiB  
Article
Technosols Derived from Mining, Urban, and Agro-Industrial Waste for the Remediation of Metal(loid)-Polluted Soils: A Microcosm Assay
by Antonio Aguilar-Garrido, Ana Romero-Freire, Mario Paniagua-López, Francisco Javier Martínez-Garzón, Francisco José Martín-Peinado and Manuel Sierra-Aragón
Toxics 2023, 11(10), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11100854 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
This study evaluated the effectiveness of six Technosols designed for the remediation of polluted soils (PS) by metal(loid)s at physicochemical, biological, and ecotoxicological levels and at a microcosm scale. Technosols T1–T6 were prepared by combining PS with a mix of organic and inorganic [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of six Technosols designed for the remediation of polluted soils (PS) by metal(loid)s at physicochemical, biological, and ecotoxicological levels and at a microcosm scale. Technosols T1–T6 were prepared by combining PS with a mix of organic and inorganic wastes from mining, urban, and agro-industrial activities. After two months of surface application of Technosols on polluted soils, we analysed the soil properties, metal(loid) concentration in total, soluble and bioavailable fractions, soil enzymatic activities, and the growth responses of Trifolium campestre and Lactuca sativa in both the Technosols and the underlying polluted soils. All Technosols improved the unfavourable conditions of polluted soils by neutralising acidity, increasing the OC, reducing the mobility of most metal(loid)s, and stimulating both the soil enzymatic activities and growths of T. campestre and L. sativa. The origin of organic waste used in the Technosols strongly conditioned the changes induced in the polluted soils; in this sense, the Technosols composed of pruning and gardening vermicompost (T3 and T6) showed greater reductions in toxicity and plant growth than the other Technosols composed with different organic wastes. Thus, these Technosols constitute a potential solution for the remediation of persistent polluted soils that should be applied in large-scale and long-term interventions to reinforce their feasibility as a cost-effective ecotechnology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Water Pollution, Remediation and Ecotoxicity Assessment)
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19 pages, 3203 KiB  
Article
Potentially Toxic Element Contamination in Soils Affected by the Antimony Mine Spill in Northwest China
by Yongzhen Chai and Fei Guo
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040359 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1452
Abstract
This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the potential ecological and health risks in the area of the antimony mine spill in Longnan, Northwest China, and identifies the sources of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the soil as a result of the spill. [...] Read more.
This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the potential ecological and health risks in the area of the antimony mine spill in Longnan, Northwest China, and identifies the sources of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the soil as a result of the spill. The geo-accumulation index and enrichment factor show that the study area is highly contaminated with arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and antimony (Sb). The ecological risk index in the tailings spill area ranged from 320.43 to 5820.46 (mean: 1489.82), indicating a very-high potential ecological risk, with mean values of 104.86, 1118.87 and 248.84 for As, Hg and Sb, respectively. The multivariate statistical analysis suggested that Sb and Hg come from tailings leakage, while copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) may be imported from natural sources, and As and lead (Pb) originate from agricultural activities. In addition As and Sb pose a high health risk. With the exception of the non-carcinogenic risk in adults, all other risks are significantly exceeded in other populations, with children being the highest-risk group. These findings provide important quantitative information for the assessment and management of PTE contamination in other tailings spill areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Water Pollution, Remediation and Ecotoxicity Assessment)
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