The Dark Universe: The Harbinger of a Major Discovery

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2024 | Viewed by 9349

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Physics, University of Patras, Patra, Greece and CAST Spokesperson at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
Interests: theoretical physics; nuclear physics; accelerator physics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The nature of the dark universe, we are living in, remains elusive since decades. For example, the origin of dark matter,  dark energy, and the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the cosmos are the most tantalizing challenges for all of physics. It is actually unusual that fundamental physics questions remain unanswered for several decades. Novel ideas going beyond standard techniques might bring the breakthrough(s) in the exciting field of astroparticle physics. The level of the issue allows to address a wide audience of scientists also beyond physics. This might trigger a synergy towards novel interdisciplinary solutions within overlooked anomalous findings, e.g., from atmospheric physics to exoplanetary systems including lasting mysteries in biomedicine. Also, all this might be the overlooked manifestation of the dark universe and they may unravel the nature of the dark universe. Primarily, this issue is of pedagogical nature aiming to show young researchers that also in our time there is no lack of novel ideas.

Prof. Konstantin Zioutas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Dark matter;
  • Dark energy;
  • Dark matter streams;
  • Cosmic rays;
  • Matter antimatter asymmetry;
  • Cosmology; Models;
  • Dark Universe;
  • Symmetry;  
  • axion;
  • WIMP;
  • Beyond SM physics;
  • Direct dark matter signatures;
  • Astrophysical dark matter signatures;
  • Detection techniques;
  • Cosmological constant;
  • Variable physics constants;
  • Gravitation;

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 916 KiB  
Article
A Forecast of the Sensitivity of the DALI Experiment to Galactic Axion Dark Matter
by Juan F. Hernández-Cabrera, Javier De Miguel, Enrique Joven Álvarez, E. Hernández-Suárez, J. Alberto Rubiño-Martín and Chiko Otani
Symmetry 2024, 16(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym16020163 - 30 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 514
Abstract
The axion is a long-postulated boson that can simultaneously solve two fundamental problems of modern physics: the charge–parity symmetry problem in the strong interaction and the enigma of dark matter. In this work, we estimate, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, the sensitivity [...] Read more.
The axion is a long-postulated boson that can simultaneously solve two fundamental problems of modern physics: the charge–parity symmetry problem in the strong interaction and the enigma of dark matter. In this work, we estimate, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, the sensitivity of the Dark-photons & Axion-Like particles Interferometer (DALI), a new-generation Fabry–Pérot haloscope proposed to probe axion dark matter in the 25–250 μeV band. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Dark Universe: The Harbinger of a Major Discovery)
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30 pages, 1344 KiB  
Article
Numerical Modeling of the Interaction of Dark Atoms with Nuclei to Solve the Problem of Direct Dark Matter Search
by Timur Bikbaev, Maxim Khlopov and Andrey Mayorov
Symmetry 2023, 15(12), 2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15122182 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 710
Abstract
The puzzle of the direct dark matter search can be resolved by examining the concept of «dark atoms», which consist of hypothetical stable lepton-like particles with a charge of 2n, where n is any natural number, bound to n nuclei [...] Read more.
The puzzle of the direct dark matter search can be resolved by examining the concept of «dark atoms», which consist of hypothetical stable lepton-like particles with a charge of 2n, where n is any natural number, bound to n nuclei of primordial helium. These «dark atoms», known as «XHe» (X-helium) atoms, remain undiscovered in experiments due to their neutral atom-like states. In this model, the positive results of the DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA experiments could be explained by the annual modulation of radiative capture of XHe atoms engaging in low-energy bound states with sodium nuclei. This specific phenomenon does not occur under the conditions of other underground experiments. The proposed solution to this puzzle involves establishing the existence of a low-energy bound state of «dark atoms» and nuclei while also considering the self-consistent influence of nuclear attraction and Coulomb repulsion. Resolving this complex issue, which has remained unsolved for the past 17 years, necessitates a systematic approach. To tackle this problem, numerical modeling is employed to uncover the fundamental processes behind the interaction of «dark atoms» with nuclei. To comprehend the essence of XHe’s interaction with baryonic matter nuclei, a classical model is employed wherein quantum physics and nuclear size effects are progressively incorporated. A numerical model describing the interaction between XHe «dark atoms» and nuclei is developed through the continuous inclusion of realistic features of quantum mechanics in the initial classical three-body problem involving the X-particle, the helium nucleus, and the target nucleus. This approach yields a comprehensive numerical model that encompasses nuclear attraction and electromagnetic interaction between the «dark atom» and nuclei. Finally, this model aids in supporting the interpretation of the results obtained from direct underground dark matter experiments through the lens of the «dark atom» hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Dark Universe: The Harbinger of a Major Discovery)
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16 pages, 2722 KiB  
Article
Comparing Instrument Spectral Sensitivity of Dissimilar Electromagnetic Haloscopes to Axion Dark Matter and High Frequency Gravitational Waves
by Michael E. Tobar, Catriona A. Thomson, William M. Campbell, Aaron Quiskamp, Jeremy F. Bourhill, Benjamin T. McAllister, Eugene N. Ivanov and Maxim Goryachev
Symmetry 2022, 14(10), 2165; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14102165 - 16 Oct 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1676
Abstract
It is known that haloscopes that search for dark matter axions via the axion-photon anomaly are also sensitive to gravitational radiation through the inverse Gertsenshtein effect. Recently this way of searching for high frequency gravitational waves has gained momentum as it has been [...] Read more.
It is known that haloscopes that search for dark matter axions via the axion-photon anomaly are also sensitive to gravitational radiation through the inverse Gertsenshtein effect. Recently this way of searching for high frequency gravitational waves has gained momentum as it has been shown that the strain sensitivity of such detectors, are of the same order of sensitivity to the axion-photon theta angle. Thus, after calculating the sensitivity of a haloscope to an axion signal, we also have calculated the order of magnitude sensitivity to a gravitational wave signal of the same spectral and temporal form. However, it is unlikely that a gravitational wave and an axion signal will be of the same form, since physically the way the signals are generated are completely different. For gravitational wave detection, the spectral strain sensitivity is in units strain per square root Hz, is the natural way to compare the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors due to its independence on the gravitational wave signal. In this work, we introduce a systematic way to calculate the spectral sensitivity of an axion haloscope, so instrument comparison may be achieved independent of signal assumptions and only depends on the axion to signal transduction sensitivity and noise in the instrument. Thus, the calculation of the spectral sensitivity not only allows the comparison of dissimilar axion detectors independent of signal, but also allows us to compare the order of magnitude gravitational wave sensitivity in terms of spectral strain sensitivity, allowing comparisons to standard gravitational wave detectors based on optical interferometers and resonant-mass technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Dark Universe: The Harbinger of a Major Discovery)
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23 pages, 1034 KiB  
Article
Infrasonic, Acoustic and Seismic Waves Produced by the Axion Quark Nuggets
by Dmitry Budker, Victor V. Flambaum and Ariel Zhitnitsky
Symmetry 2022, 14(3), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14030459 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
We advocate the idea that Axion Quark Nuggets (AQN) hitting the Earth can be detected by analysing the infrasound, acoustic, and seismic waves which always accompany their passage in the atmosphere and underground. Our estimates for the infrasonic frequency ν5 Hz [...] Read more.
We advocate the idea that Axion Quark Nuggets (AQN) hitting the Earth can be detected by analysing the infrasound, acoustic, and seismic waves which always accompany their passage in the atmosphere and underground. Our estimates for the infrasonic frequency ν5 Hz and overpressure δp0.3 Pa for relatively large size dark matter (DM) nuggets suggest that sensitivity of presently available instruments is already sufficient to detect very intense (but very rare) events today with existing technology. A study of much more frequent but less intense events requires a new type of instrument. We propose a detection strategy for a systematic study to search for such relatively weak and frequent events by using distributed acoustic sensing and briefly mention other possible detection methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Dark Universe: The Harbinger of a Major Discovery)
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13 pages, 2488 KiB  
Article
On the Origin of the Rhythmic Sun’s Radius Variation
by Konstantin Zioutas, Marios Maroudas and Alexander Kosovichev
Symmetry 2022, 14(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14020325 - 05 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
Based on helioseismological measurements (1996–2017), the entire Sun shrinks during solar maximum and regrows during the next solar minimum by about a few km (~10−5 effect). Here, we observe, for the first time, that the solar radius variation resembles a 225-day relationship [...] Read more.
Based on helioseismological measurements (1996–2017), the entire Sun shrinks during solar maximum and regrows during the next solar minimum by about a few km (~10−5 effect). Here, we observe, for the first time, that the solar radius variation resembles a 225-day relationship that coincides with Venus’ orbital period. We show that a remote link between planet Venus and Sun’s size must be at work. However, within known realms of physics, this is unexpected. Therefore, we can only speculate about its cause. Notably, the driving idea behind this investigation was some generic as-yet-invisible matter from the dark Universe. In fact, the 11-year solar cycle shows planetary relationships for a number of other observables as well. It has been proposed that the cause must be due to some generic streaming invisible massive matter (IMM). As when a low-speed stream is aligned toward the Sun with an intervening planet, the IMM influx increases temporally due to planetary gravitational focusing, assisted eventually with the free fall of incident slow IMM. A case-specific simulation for Venus’ impact supports the tentative scenario based on this investigation’s driving idea. Importantly, Saturn, combined with the innermost planets Mercury or Venus, unambiguously confirms an underlying planetary correlation with the Sun’s size. The impact of the suspected IMM accumulates with time, slowly triggering the underlying process(es); the associated energy change is massive even though it extends from months to several years. This study shows that the Sun’s size response is as short as half the orbital period of Mercury (44 days) or Venus (112 days). Then, the solar system is the target and the antenna of still unidentified external impact, assuming tentatively from the dark sector. If the generic IMM also has some preferential incidence direction, future long-lasting observations of the Sun’s shape might provide an asymmetry that could be utilized to identify the not isotropic influx of the assumed IMM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Dark Universe: The Harbinger of a Major Discovery)
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13 pages, 2677 KiB  
Article
The Echo Method for Axion Dark Matter Detection
by Ariel Arza and Elisa Todarello
Symmetry 2021, 13(11), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13112150 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1291
Abstract
The axion is a dark matter candidate arising from the spontaneous breaking of the Peccei–Quinn symmetry, introduced to solve the strong CP problem. It has been shown that radio/microwave radiation sent out to space is backscattered in the presence of axion dark matter [...] Read more.
The axion is a dark matter candidate arising from the spontaneous breaking of the Peccei–Quinn symmetry, introduced to solve the strong CP problem. It has been shown that radio/microwave radiation sent out to space is backscattered in the presence of axion dark matter due to stimulated axion decay. This backscattering is a feeble and narrow echo signal centered at an angular frequency very close to one-half of the axion mass. In this article, we summarize all the relevant results found so far, including analytical formulas for the echo signal, as well as sensitivity prospects for possible near-future experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Dark Universe: The Harbinger of a Major Discovery)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Cosmic fluxes of multiple charge constituents of composite dark matter and their effects
Authors: M.Yu.Khlopov* et al
Affiliation: * NRNU MEPHI, Moscow; SFEDU, Rostov on Don, Russia and APC Laboratory, Paris, France
Abstract: The lack of positive signatures of supersymmetric particles at the LHC can imply non supersymmetric solutions for the problems of divergence of Higgs boson mass and origin of the electroweak symmetry breaking scale. The models of composite Higgs boson can solve these problems and give rise to stable -2n charged lepton-like particles. These particles bound with n nuclei of primordial helium form dark atoms of dark matter. Dark atom hypothesis can explain the puzzles of direct dark matter searches and is challenging for studies of signatures of multiple charged stable particles. Destruction of dark atoms by high energy cosmic rays or in Supernova explosions should lead to existence of cosmic fluxes of stable multiple charged particles and we discuss possible features and effects of this exotic component of cosmic rays.

Title: Dark antimatter: new features of mirror world
Authors: zurab berezhiani
Affiliation: full professor of theoretical physics at the Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L'Aquila L'Aquila, Italy scientific Staff member at INFN, Gran Sasso National Laboratories, Assergi, Italy
Abstract: Dark matter in the Universe can exist in the form of matter of a parallel mirror sector of particles identical to that of ordinary particles. In the Early Universe, B and L violating interactions between the particles of ordinary and mirror worlds can co-generate their baryon asymmetries in comparable amounts, Ω′B ≥ ΩB, also predicting the sign of mirror baryon asymmetry. At low energies, the same interactions induce particle mixing phenomena between two sectors. In this way, e.g. mirror neutron n′ should oscillate into our antineutron n ̄, with probability that depends on environmental conditions as matter density and magnetic fields. This oscillation can be faster than the neutron decay itself, with n′−n ̄ conversion rate accessible for the experimental search. In short, the possibility of dark matter conversion into our antimatter which can have fascinating phenomenological and astrophysical consequences, and can open a potentially huge source of energy by getting an antimatter from mirror matter in a controllable way.

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