Symmetry of Nanofluids and Their Applications in Engineering

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering and Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (7 February 2023) | Viewed by 16937

Special Issue Editor

School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Interests: catalytic materials; nano-structured catalyst materials; catalysis of sustainable energy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The thermophysical properties of simple fluids in the pure state mostly lack conductivity. However, a mixture of common liquids such as water and oil with refined nanoparticles (1-100nm) of suitable metals categorically shows a decline in this deficiency of conductivity and, consequently, the performance of the so-formulated nanofluid increases drastically. Hybrid nanofluids are a new class of nanofluids that have been reported to show better thermophysical and optical properties. Hybrid nanofluids are prepared by the dispersion of two or more nanoparticles in a conventional heat transfer fluid. These hybrid nanofluids can be used in direct absorption solar thermal systems as a working fluid. Hybrid nanofluids may possess better thermal network and rheological properties due to synergistic effect. Suitable topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  1. Mathematical modeling.
  2. Applications of nanofluids and hybrid nanofluids in the enhancement of single- and two-phase heat transfer.
  3. Applications of numerical methods in predicting the properties of hybrid nanofluids and the performance of nanofluidic thermal devices.
  4. Experimental approach in predicting the properties of hybrid nanofluids and the performance of nanofluidic thermal devices.
  5. Thermal systems using hybrid nanofluids.
  6. Applications in Mechanical Engineering, Renewable energy, Thermodynamics and aerospace technology The field of nanofluids is advancing rapidly, driven by unique data measurements from large-scale simulations, field measurements, and experiments at multiple scales.

So far, both single-phase and two-phase models have been adopted in the numerical simulation of hydrothermal nanofluids. Therefore, in this special issue both experimental and numerical approach will be focused.

Dr. Ghulam Rasool
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • nanofluids flow
  • numerical models
  • numerical techniques
  • experimental techniques in fluid mechanics
  • porous medium
  • entropy generation
  • irreversibility analysis for the nanofluids flow
  • heat exchangers and renewable energy
  • MHD flows and entropy optimization

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 9479 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulations through PCM for the Dynamics of Thermal Enhancement in Ternary MHD Hybrid Nanofluid Flow over Plane Sheet, Cone, and Wedge
Symmetry 2022, 14(11), 2419; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14112419 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
The Darcy ternary hybrid nanofluid flow comprising titanium dioxide (TiO2), cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) and magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles (NPs) through wedge, cone, and plate surfaces is reported in the present study. TiO2, CoFe2O [...] Read more.
The Darcy ternary hybrid nanofluid flow comprising titanium dioxide (TiO2), cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) and magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles (NPs) through wedge, cone, and plate surfaces is reported in the present study. TiO2, CoFe2O4, and MgO NPs were dispersed in water to synthesize a trihybrid nanofluid. For this purpose, a mathematical model was calculated to augment the energy transport rate and efficiency for variety of commercial and medical functions. The consequences of heat source/sink, activation energy, and the magnetic field are also analyzed. Such problems mostly occur in symmetrical phenomena and are applicable to engineering, physics, and applied mathematics. The phenomena were formulated in the form of a nonlinear system of PDEs, which are simplified to the system of dimensionless ODEs through similarity replacement (obtained from symmetry analysis). The obtained set of differential equations is resolved through a parametric continuation approach (PCM). Graphical depictions are used to evaluate and address the impact of significant factors on energy, mass, and flow exchange rates. The velocity and energy propagation rates over a cone surface were greater than those of a wedge and plate versus the variation of Grashof number, porosity effect, and heat source, while the mass transfer ratio under the impact of a chemical reaction and activation energy over a wedge surface was higher than that of a plate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry of Nanofluids and Their Applications in Engineering)
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14 pages, 2223 KiB  
Article
A Significant Role of Activation Energy and Fourier Flux on the Quadratically Radiated Sphere in Low and High Conductivity of Hybrid Nanoparticles
Symmetry 2022, 14(11), 2335; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14112335 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1112
Abstract
Fluid flow through a sphere has practical applications in numerous areas of technology, for instance, mineralogy, food engineering, and oilfield drilling. The goal of this paper is to look at how quadratic thermal radiation and activation energy affect the dissipative flow of hybrid [...] Read more.
Fluid flow through a sphere has practical applications in numerous areas of technology, for instance, mineralogy, food engineering, and oilfield drilling. The goal of this paper is to look at how quadratic thermal radiation and activation energy affect the dissipative flow of hybrid nanofluids around a sphere with the heat source parameter. bvp4c (a MATLAB in-built function) is used to solve a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which is the transformed version of the system of governing equations. Using multiple linear regression, the effects of relevant parameters on the mass transfer rate, the Nusselt number, and the skin friction coefficient are investigated. The key findings of this study are that increasing the radiation parameter improves the fluid temperature and increasing the activation energy parameter improves the fluid concentration. When the Eckert number and the parameter of the heat source are increased, the convective heat transmission is reduced. It appears that the magnetic field parameter reduces the shear stress near the surface. It is discovered that increasing the volume percentage of nanoparticles increases the skin friction coefficient and increasing the Schmidt number increases the mass transfer rate. Furthermore, the current results are validated against previously published data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry of Nanofluids and Their Applications in Engineering)
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25 pages, 13317 KiB  
Article
Mathematical Entropy Analysis of Natural Convection of MWCNT—Fe3O4/Water Hybrid Nanofluid with Parallel Magnetic Field via Galerkin Finite Element Process
Symmetry 2022, 14(11), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14112312 - 03 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Heat transfer in a symmetrical cavity with two semi-cylinders was explored in this study. Several parameters, such as (103Ra106), (105Da102), ( [...] Read more.
Heat transfer in a symmetrical cavity with two semi-cylinders was explored in this study. Several parameters, such as (103Ra106), (105Da102), (0.02ϕ0.08), (0.2ε0.8), and (0Ha100) were selected and evaluated in this research. The outcome of the magnetic field and the temperature gradient on the nanofluid flow is considered. The geometric model is therefore described using a symmetry technique. The flow issue for the governing equations has been solved using the Galerkin finite element method (G-FEM), and these solutions are presented in dimensionless form. The equations for energy, motion, and continuity were solved using the application of the COMSOL Multiphysics® software computer package. According to the results, there is a difference in the occurrence of the magnetic parameter and an increase in heat transmission when the right wall is recessed inward. The heat transmission is also significantly reduced when the right wall is exposed to the outside. The number of Nusselt grows directly proportional to the number of nanofluids in the environment. In contrast, all porous media with low Darcy and Hartmann numbers, high porosity, and low volume fraction have high Nusselt numbers. It is found that double streamlines for the hot side and single cooling for Darcy, Rayleigh, and Hartmann numbers. A cold isotherm at various physical parameters is needed in the top cavity. Rayleigh’s number and a solid volume fraction raise Darcy’s number, increasing heat transmission inside the cavity and thermal entropy determines entropy components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry of Nanofluids and Their Applications in Engineering)
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18 pages, 8714 KiB  
Article
Computational Analysis of Viscoplastic Nanofluid Blending by a Newly Modified Anchorage Impeller within a Stirred Container
Symmetry 2022, 14(11), 2279; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14112279 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
Several industrial fields require mixing and mechanical agitation processes. This operation is mainly used to enhance heat and mass transfer inside stirred tank systems and improve the degree of homogeneity to obtain a high-quality final product. The main goal of this research paper [...] Read more.
Several industrial fields require mixing and mechanical agitation processes. This operation is mainly used to enhance heat and mass transfer inside stirred tank systems and improve the degree of homogeneity to obtain a high-quality final product. The main goal of this research paper is to analyze the thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of non-Newtonian nanofluid (Bingham–Papanastasiou–Al2O3) inside a symmetrically stirred tank. A 3D numerical study has been conducted for a stationary laminar flow inside a symmetric cylindrical vessel under influencing parameters, including the inertia parameter (Re=1, 20, 100) and the volume fraction of nanoparticles (Ø=0.02, 0.06, 0.1) with different geometric configurations, has been introduced into the stirring system. According to the findings, with high inertia (Re=100), the heat transfer inside the stirred tank is enhanced. Furthermore, increasing the nanoparticle fraction volume had a significant impact on the acceleration of heat transfer along the stirred vessel. It has been also found that the geometric configuration of an anchor with added arm blade (Case 2) is more efficient compared with the rest of the anchor agitator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry of Nanofluids and Their Applications in Engineering)
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19 pages, 6166 KiB  
Article
MHD Pulsatile Flow of Blood-Based Silver and Gold Nanoparticles between Two Concentric Cylinders
Symmetry 2022, 14(11), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14112254 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
Pulsatory movements appear in a variety of fascinating applications involving periodic flow propagation and control. Pulsing encourages mixing and, as a result, mass and heat exchange with the boundaries. Pulsing also helps to decrease surface fouling by allowing solid particles to migrate. An [...] Read more.
Pulsatory movements appear in a variety of fascinating applications involving periodic flow propagation and control. Pulsing encourages mixing and, as a result, mass and heat exchange with the boundaries. Pulsing also helps to decrease surface fouling by allowing solid particles to migrate. An exact solution of the Navier–Stokes equations for the transport of an incompressible viscous fluid in a channel with arbitrary pressure distribution is described in this study. The flow is defined by two primary parameters: the pulsation parameter, which is determined by the periodic pressure gradient, and the kinetic Reynolds number, which is determined by the pulsation frequency. The purpose of employing hybrid nanofluid (HNF) is to increase the base fluid’s thermal conductivity. We regard Ag and Au as nanoparticles (NPs) and blood as a base fluid for this phenomenon. Broadening this reveals that the consideration of nanoparticles has impressively extended the warm movement at the parcels of both turbulent and laminar frameworks. Attention is paid to the slope of speed, temperature, and voltage. The geometric model is therefore described using a symmetry technique. We developed the governing equation for this problem’s analytical solutions. The velocity and temperature fields solution is given in the form of the Bessel and modified Bessel functions. Graph results show the mathematical benefits of the current limits: for instance, Hartmann number M, solid volume part of nanoparticles ϕ, Reynolds number Reβ, Prandtl number Pr, intermittent slob limit, etc. The strain angles introduced in the stress contrast, frictional force, velocity profile, and temperature profile were obtained, and the characteristics of the vortex were investigated. Resources at various boundaries of the perceptual flow are examined. As with the final essence, the smoothest results are analyzed and recorded. It has also been discovered that the velocity may be regulated by the external magnetic field, which affects the temperature profiles and hence the heat transfer, which can be enhanced or lowered by mastering the magnetic field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry of Nanofluids and Their Applications in Engineering)
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14 pages, 3553 KiB  
Article
Unsteady Electro-Hydrodynamic Stagnating Point Flow of Hybridized Nanofluid via a Convectively Heated Enlarging (Dwindling) Surface with Velocity Slippage and Heat Generation
Symmetry 2022, 14(10), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14102136 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
In (Al2O3-Cu/H2O) hybridized nanofluid (HYNF) is an unsteady electro-hydrodynamic stagnation point flow. A stretchable (shrinkable) surface that was convectively heated was studied in the past. In addition to the traditional nonslip surface, the heat generating (absorbing) and [...] Read more.
In (Al2O3-Cu/H2O) hybridized nanofluid (HYNF) is an unsteady electro-hydrodynamic stagnation point flow. A stretchable (shrinkable) surface that was convectively heated was studied in the past. In addition to the traditional nonslip surface, the heat generating (absorbing) and the velocity slippage constraints are deliberated in this research. An obtained nonlinear scheme is resolved by the homotopy analysis method. Governing parameters are the electric field parameters, that is, the dimensionless parameters including the magnetic parameter, Prandtl quantity, heat generating factor, Eckert quantity, and unsteady factor. We discuss in detail the effects of these variables on the movement of problems and thermal transmission characteristics. Increasing the values of the magneto and electric force parameters increased the temperature. Increasing the Prandtl number lowered the temperature. For the Eckert parameter, an increase in temperature was recognized. The symmetric form of the geometry model displayed improved the fluid flow by the same amount both above and below the stagnation streamline, while it decreased the flow pressure by the same level. The more heat source uses to increase the temperature of the HYNF over the entire area, the more heat is supplied to the plate, but with a heat sink, the opposite effect is observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry of Nanofluids and Their Applications in Engineering)
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18 pages, 4203 KiB  
Article
Molecular Interaction and Magnetic Dipole Effects on Fully Developed Nanofluid Flowing via a Vertical Duct Applying Finite Volume Methodology
Symmetry 2022, 14(10), 2007; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14102007 - 25 Sep 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Interpreting the complex interaction of nanostructured fluid flow with a dipole in a duct, with peripherally uniform temperature distribution, is the main focus of the current work. This paper also sheds light on the changes in the Nusselt number, temperature profiles, and velocity [...] Read more.
Interpreting the complex interaction of nanostructured fluid flow with a dipole in a duct, with peripherally uniform temperature distribution, is the main focus of the current work. This paper also sheds light on the changes in the Nusselt number, temperature profiles, and velocity distributions for the fully developed nanofluid flow in a vertical rectangular duct due to a dipole placed near a corner of the duct. A finite volume approach has been incorporated for the numerical study of the problem. It is interesting to note the unusually lower values of the Nusselt number for the higher values of the ratio Gr/Re. Due to the nanostructure in the fluid, an enhancement in the Nusselt number has been noted, which is strongly supported by the magnetic field caused by the dipole. However, as the duct shape is transformed from rectangular to square, the Nusselt number is reduced remarkably. Further, as the dipole is brought nearer to the duct corner, the Nusselt number increases significantly. On the other hand, the flow reversal in the middle of the duct has been noted at higher values of the ratio Gr/Re. The dipole is noted to have a low impact on the reversal flow as well as on the temperature distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry of Nanofluids and Their Applications in Engineering)
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17 pages, 4047 KiB  
Article
A Self-Similar Approach to Study Nanofluid Flow Driven by a Stretching Curved Sheet
Symmetry 2022, 14(10), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14101991 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 967
Abstract
Nano-fluids have considerable importance in the field of thermal development that relates to several industrial systems. There are some key applications in recent construction systems flow, as well as microscale cooling gadgets and microstructure electric gadgets for thermal migration. The current investigation concludes [...] Read more.
Nano-fluids have considerable importance in the field of thermal development that relates to several industrial systems. There are some key applications in recent construction systems flow, as well as microscale cooling gadgets and microstructure electric gadgets for thermal migration. The current investigation concludes the study of electrically conducting nano-fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in two-dimensional boundary layer flow over a curved extending surface in the coexisting of magnetic field, heat generation and thermal radiation. The small sized particles of copper (Cu) are taken as nanoparticles and water is assumed to be the base fluid. We used quasi-linearization and central difference approximation to numerically solve the system of coupled equations obtained from the partial differential equations (PDEs) by incorporating the concept of similarity. The impacts of non-dimensional parameters on velocity, concentration and thermal profiles have been discussed with the help of suitable graphs and tables. It has been noticed that the velocity decelerated with the effect of the magnetic field interaction parameter. Thermal radiation caused an increase in temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry of Nanofluids and Their Applications in Engineering)
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23 pages, 6680 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Heat Transfer of Mono and Hybrid Nanofluid Flow between Two Parallel Plates in a Darcy Porous Medium with Thermal Radiation and Heat Generation/Absorption
Symmetry 2022, 14(9), 1943; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14091943 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 2272
Abstract
In the last two decades, academicians have concentrated on the nanofluid squeezing flow between parallel plates. The increasing energy demands and their applications have seen the focus shifted to the hybrid nanofluid flows, but so much is still left to be investigated. This [...] Read more.
In the last two decades, academicians have concentrated on the nanofluid squeezing flow between parallel plates. The increasing energy demands and their applications have seen the focus shifted to the hybrid nanofluid flows, but so much is still left to be investigated. This analysis is executed to explore the symmetry of the MHD squeezing nanofluid (MoS2/H2O) flow and the hybrid nanofluid (MoS2–SiO2/H2O–C2H6O2) flow between the parallel plates and their heat transport property. The heat transport phenomenon is analyzed with the magnetic field, thermal radiation, heat source/sink, suction/injection effect, and porous medium. In the present model, the plate situated above is in the movement towards the lower plate, and the latter is stretching with a linear velocity. The prevailing PDEs depicting the modeled problem with the aforementioned effects are transformed via similarity transformations and solved via the “bvp4c” function, which is an inbuilt function in MATLAB software. The control of the factors on the fields of velocity and temperature, heat transfer rate, velocity boundary layer patterns, and streamlines is investigated. The solution profiles are visually shown and explained. Furthermore, the Nusselt number at the bottom plate is larger for the (MoS2–SiO2/H2O–C2H6O2) hybrid nanofluid than for the (MoS2/H2O) nanofluid flow. In the presence of suction/injection, the streamlines appear to be denser. In addition, the magnetic field has a thinning consequence on the velocity boundary layer region. The results of this study apply to several thermal systems, engineering, and industrial processes, which utilize nanofluid and hybrid nanofluid for cooling and heating processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry of Nanofluids and Their Applications in Engineering)
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25 pages, 11085 KiB  
Article
Quasi-Linearization Analysis for Entropy Generation in MHD Mixed-Convection Flow of Casson Nanofluid over Nonlinear Stretching Sheet with Arrhenius Activation Energy
Symmetry 2022, 14(9), 1940; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14091940 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Thermal performance of magnetically driven Casson nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet under the influence of entropy, activation energy and convective boundary conditions was analyzed numerically, employing the quasi-linearization method (QLM). The collective behavior of thermophoretic diffusion and Brownian motion along with special [...] Read more.
Thermal performance of magnetically driven Casson nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet under the influence of entropy, activation energy and convective boundary conditions was analyzed numerically, employing the quasi-linearization method (QLM). The collective behavior of thermophoretic diffusion and Brownian motion along with special effects of viscous dissipation, thermal radiation, heat generation and joule heating are considered in the energy equation for the flow problem. The addition of nanoparticles helps to stabilize the flowing of a nanofluid and maintain the symmetry of the flowing structure. The governing highly nonlinear coupled differential equations of velocity, temperature, concentration and entropy are simulated through an iterative scheme encoded with MATLAB programming language. The geometric model is, therefore, described using a symmetry technique. A comparative analysis of linear and nonlinear stretching in sheets is presented via graphs and tables regarding pertinent dimensionless parameters. It is worth noting that the Nusselt number and Sherwood number decrease at relatively higher rates with growing values of activation energy in the case of nonlinear stretching. Moreover, the entropy generation rate near the stretching surface decreases due to the strong effects of Brownian motion and thermophoretic diffusion while it goes on improving far off the stretching surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry of Nanofluids and Their Applications in Engineering)
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25 pages, 11548 KiB  
Article
Trace of Chemical Reactions Accompanied with Arrhenius Energy on Ternary Hybridity Nanofluid Past a Wedge
Symmetry 2022, 14(9), 1850; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14091850 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 1844
Abstract
Heat transfer is a vital fact of daily life, engineering, and industrial mechanisms such as cryogenic systems, spaceborne thermal radiometers, electronic cooling, aircraft engine cooling, aircraft environmental control systems, etc. The addition of nanoparticles helps to stabilize the flowing of a nanofluid and [...] Read more.
Heat transfer is a vital fact of daily life, engineering, and industrial mechanisms such as cryogenic systems, spaceborne thermal radiometers, electronic cooling, aircraft engine cooling, aircraft environmental control systems, etc. The addition of nanoparticles helps to stabilize the flowing of a nanofluid and keeps the symmetry of the flowing structure. Purpose: In this attempt, the effect of endothermic/exothermic chemical reactions accompanied by activation energy on a ternary hybrid nanofluid with the geometry of a wedge is taken into consideration. The mathematical form of PDEs is obtained by Navier–Stokes equations, the second law of thermodynamics, and Fick’s second law of diffusion. The geometric model is therefore described using a symmetry technique. Formulation: The MATLAB built-in Lobatto III A structure is utilized to find the computational solution of the dimensionless ODEs. All computational outcomes are presented by graphs and statistical graphs in order to check the performance of various dimensionless quantities against drag force factor and Nusselt quantity. Finding: the addition of tri-hybridizing nanomolecules in the standard liquid improves the thermic performance of the liquid much better in comparison to simple hybrid nanofluids. Wedge angle parameter α brings about a decrement in fluid velocity and augmentation in thermal conductivity ϵ, thermal radiation Rd, thermophoresis parameter Nt and endothermic/exothermic reaction Ω, and fitted rate constant n accelerates the heat transmission rate. Novelty: The effect of tri-hybridizing nanomolecules along with endothermic/exothermic reactions on the fluid past a wedge have not been investigated before in the available literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry of Nanofluids and Their Applications in Engineering)
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15 pages, 4096 KiB  
Article
Computational Study of MHD Darcy–Forchheimer Hybrid Nanofluid Flow under the Influence of Chemical Reaction and Activation Energy over a Stretching Surface
Symmetry 2022, 14(9), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14091759 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
The energy and mass transition through Newtonian hybrid nanofluid flow comprised of copper Cu and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles (nps) over an extended surface has been reported. The thermal and velocity slip conditions are also considered. Such a type [...] Read more.
The energy and mass transition through Newtonian hybrid nanofluid flow comprised of copper Cu and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles (nps) over an extended surface has been reported. The thermal and velocity slip conditions are also considered. Such a type of physical problems mostly occurs in symmetrical phenomena and are applicable in physics, engineering, applied mathematics, and computer science. For desired outputs, the fluid flow has been studied under the consequences of the Darcy effect, thermophoresis diffusion and Brownian motion, heat absorption, viscous dissipation, and thermal radiation. An inclined magnetic field is applied to fluid flow to regulate the flow stream. Hybrid nanofluid is created by the dispensation of Cu and Al2O3 nps in the base fluid (water). For this purpose, the flow dynamics have been designed as a system of nonlinear PDEs, which are simplified to a system of dimensionless ODEs through resemblance substitution. The parametric continuation method is used to resolve the obtained set of dimensionless differential equations. It has been noticed that the consequences of heat absorption and thermal radiation boost the energy transmission rate; however, the effect of suction constraint and Darcy–Forchhemier significantly diminished the heat transference rate of hybrid nanofluids. Furthermore, the dispersion of Cu and Al2O3 nps in the base fluid remarkably magnifies the velocity and energy transmission rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry of Nanofluids and Their Applications in Engineering)
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17 pages, 2264 KiB  
Article
Statistical Modelling for the Darcy–Forchheimer Flow of Casson Cobalt Ferrite-Water/Ethylene Glycol Nanofluid under Nonlinear Radiation
Symmetry 2022, 14(8), 1717; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14081717 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1025
Abstract
Current research is focused on the utilization of a numerical solution of Casson cobalt ferrite nanofluid flow by taking two forms of base fluid. This investigation includes the gradual influence of nonlinear thermal radiation on the improvement of heat transfer related to the [...] Read more.
Current research is focused on the utilization of a numerical solution of Casson cobalt ferrite nanofluid flow by taking two forms of base fluid. This investigation includes the gradual influence of nonlinear thermal radiation on the improvement of heat transfer related to the flow of nanofluids over a stretched rotating surface by the Darcy–Forchheimer law. The model constructed by a Casson nanoliquid in the boundary layer’s flow is studied for its symmetric behaviour, including cobalt ferrite nanomaterials. Two base liquids named as ethylene glycol and water are considered. The rate of heat transport is examined by considering Newtonian heating conditions. By utilizing similarity transformations, a partial differential system that governs the said model has been transformed into a highly nonlinear ordinary differential system, and numerical outcomes are obtained by implementing the RK4 via shooting methodologies. All obtained results, including local skin friction coefficients and local Nusselt number, are defined and discussed in the paper. The study’s findings ensure that the Casson cobalt ferrite nanofluid flowing towards a stretching plate has a unique solution: A variation of the solid volume fraction corresponds to the decrease in various values of the Casson nanofluid parameter for both type of nanofluid. Furthermore, a similar behaviour is noted for various values of the solid volume fraction, which corresponds to various values of the inertia coefficient parameter. Moreover, for the highest values of the solid volume fraction and all values of R1 and Ni taken into account, the rate of heat transfer upsurges. The data from the local skin friction coefficient (LSFC) and local Nusselt number (LNN) have been analysed using various statistical distributions, and it has been determined that both datasets generally fit the exponentiated Weibull distribution for various values of considered parameters. The findings would serve as a starting point for the manufacture of devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry of Nanofluids and Their Applications in Engineering)
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18 pages, 4846 KiB  
Article
Impact of Buoyancy and Stagnation-Point Flow of Water Conveying Ag-MgO Hybrid Nanoparticles in a Vertical Contracting/Expanding Riga Wedge
Symmetry 2022, 14(7), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14071312 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Riga surface can be utilized to reduce the pressure drag and the friction of the submarine by stopping the separation of the boundary layer as well as by moderating turbulence production. Therefore, the current symmetry of the work investigates the slip impacts on [...] Read more.
Riga surface can be utilized to reduce the pressure drag and the friction of the submarine by stopping the separation of the boundary layer as well as by moderating turbulence production. Therefore, the current symmetry of the work investigates the slip impacts on mixed convection flow containing water-based hybrid Ag-MgO nanoparticles over a vertical expanding/contracting Riga wedge. In this analysis, a flat surface, wedge, and stagnation point are also discussed. A Riga surface is an actuator that contains electromagnetic where a span-wise array associated with the permanent magnets and irregular electrodes accumulated on a smooth surface. A Lorentz force is incorporated parallel to the surface produced by this array which eases exponentially normal to the surface. Based on the considered flow symmetry, the physical scenario is initially modeled in the appearance of partial differential equations which are then rehabilitated into a system of ordinary differential equations by utilizing the pertinent similarity variables. A bvp4c solver is engaged to acquire the numerical solution. The flow symmetry and the influences of pertaining parameters involved in the problem are investigated and are enclosed in graphical form. The findings confirm that the velocity reduces, and temperature enhances due to nanoparticle volume fraction. A modified Hartmann number increases the velocity and diminishes the temperature. Moreover, the suction parameter enhances the velocity profiles and reduces the dimensionless temperature profiles. The heat transfer gradually increases by diminishing the contracting parameter and increasing the expanding parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry of Nanofluids and Their Applications in Engineering)
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