Experimental Particle Physics

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 April 2023) | Viewed by 4134

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INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati, Italy
Interests: carbon nanotubes; material sciences; nanotechnology; multifunctional materials; nano carbon; biomedical applications
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CNR Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN-CNR), Via dei Taurini, 00185 Rome, Italy
Interests: theoretical physics; experimental physics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last decades, our knowledge of the phenomena occurring in elelmentary particle physics has continued to grow, building upon the gigamtic work carried out by experimentalists and theorists alike related to intentional or unintentional exposure to engineered nanomaterials, as well as methods for the bio-degradation of engineered nanomaterials. This Issue aims to gather updates on the recent progress in this field, collecting contributions from scientists engaged at the forefront of this challenging area of research. At the same time, this Issue has a second purpose, i.e., to invite new proposals for alternative explanations of the pheneomena not yet completely understood. Last, but not least, we intend to showcase bold proposals that might foster the development of a new era of progress and discovery in the not yet fully explored corners of high energy particle phenomena. In the present era, with the difficulty in realizing new accelerators and detectors that are able to push energy beyond the current CERN Large Hadron limits, it is our firm belief that a profitable and parallel approach can be found by reconsidering the phenomena that have not yet been fully understood, in light of a vast landscape of theories, paying attention to aspects that have been previously neglected or overlooked. This will yield a much needed stimulus to revive the thrust forward of high energy elementary particle physics. Please note that all submitted papers must be within the general scope of the Symmetry journal.

Prof. Dr. Stefano Bellucci
Dr. Fabio Cardone
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Symmetry is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • high energy
  • elementary particle physics
  • experiments at particle accelerators

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 4476 KiB  
Article
An Insight of the Theoretical Physics of Ru-Alloyed Iron Pyrite Studied for Energy Generation
by Muaffaq M. Nofal, Refka Sai, Ihab Shawish and Muneerah A. Alaqeel
Symmetry 2022, 14(11), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14112252 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
Pyrite FeS2 has become the focus of many researchers in thin-film photovoltaics because it has some possibilities in photovoltaics. In this manuscript, we present an experimental and a theoretical study of the electronic structure of pyrite FeS2 alloyed with a small [...] Read more.
Pyrite FeS2 has become the focus of many researchers in thin-film photovoltaics because it has some possibilities in photovoltaics. In this manuscript, we present an experimental and a theoretical study of the electronic structure of pyrite FeS2 alloyed with a small concentration of 1.19% of ruthenium (Fe0.9881Ru0.0119S2) by using the Linear Muffin-Tin Orbital Method in the Atomic-Sphere approximation (LMTO-ASA) calculations and the density of states. We observed that the bandgap of FeS2 increases from 0.90508 to 1.21586 eV when we replace ~1.19% of the Fe atoms with ruthenium atoms x=0.0119 concentration of Ru. We prove that this low concentration of Ru saved the gap states and the electronic and optical properties of FeS2 pyrite. Our calculated electronic bandgap is 1.21586 eV and direct. Our results confirm that the symmetric operation of the space Th6 Pa3 saves electronic structure of iron pyrite when alloyed with ruthenium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Particle Physics)
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Review

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39 pages, 538 KiB  
Review
A Review of Experiments Reporting Non-Conventional Phenomena in Nuclear Matter Aiming at Identifying Common Features in View of Possible Interpretation
by Stefano Bellucci, Fabio Cardone and Fabio Pistella
Symmetry 2023, 15(8), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15081507 - 29 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1020
Abstract
The purpose of the present paper is to clarify, as far as it is possible, the overall picture of experimental results in the field of non-conventional phenomena in nuclear matter published in the scientific literature, accumulated in the past few decades and still [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present paper is to clarify, as far as it is possible, the overall picture of experimental results in the field of non-conventional phenomena in nuclear matter published in the scientific literature, accumulated in the past few decades and still missing a widely accepted interpretation. Completeness of the collection of the experiments is not among the aims of the effort; the focus is on adopting a more comprehensive and integral approach through the analysis of the different experimental layouts and different results, searching for common features and analogous factual outcomes in order to obtain a consistent reading of many experimental evidences that appear, so far, to lack a classification in a logic catalogue, which might be compared to a building rather than a collection of single stones. Particular attention is put on the issue of reproducibility of experiments and on the reasons why such a limitation is a frequent characteristic of many experimental activities reported in published papers. This approach is innovative as compared with those already available in the scientific literature. In a synoptical table, a comprehensive classification is given of the twenty experiments examined in terms of types of evidences that are ascertained by the experimenters in their published papers but are “unexpected” according to well-established physical theories. Examples of such unexpected evidences (named also non-conventional or weird) evidences are: excess heat generation, isotope production, reduction of radioactivity levels, and production of neutrons or alpha particles. These evidences are classified taking into account both the material where the evidence takes place (solutions, metals, rocks and artificial materials) and the stimulation techniques (supply of electric voltage, irradiation by photons, mechanical pressure) used to generate the evidences (which do not appear in the absence of such stimuli at an appropriate intensity). Also, in our paper, “identity cards” are provided for each experiment examined, including details that emerged during the experiment and were reported in each respective paper, that sometimes are not given adequate consideration either by the author of the experiment or in other review papers. The analysis of the details provides suggestions (also referred to as clues in this papers) used to formulate the content of the second part of each identity card, where inferences deduced from facts are outlined in view of presenting tentative interpretation at the microscopic level. This is done by concentrating attention on the clues repeated in different experiments in order to yield possible explanations of the “unexpected” evidences. The main outcome of such analysis is that, in all examined cases, a common “operation” can be identified: the stimulation techniques mentioned above can be interpreted as a sort of compression producing a ramp of energy densification (with reference to volumes in space or time coordinates). Here we use the term “compression” to indicate an operation activated by the experimenter; as such, it is objective. We consider energy densification an inference of possible consequences of the operation on the status of the system. Five types of densifications were identified. This reading in terms of energy densification is in accordance with the predictions of the Deformed Space Time theory, reported in the scientific literature, in the context of a generalization of the Einstein relativity theory, according to which the existence of energy thresholds is found to separate, for each interaction, the flat metric part from the deformed metric part and the appearance of new microscopic effects as a consequence of trespassing such thresholds. The phenomena occurring in the deformed part of the interaction metric are governed by the energy density in the space-time (volume and time interval). This energy density is computed from the threshold energies and is peculiar to the phenomenology under consideration. As a conclusion, it is suggested that the revealed qualified information, homogenized and elaborated on, might help in repeating, with proper adjustments and adequate additional instrumentation, some key experiments, in order to ensure systematic reproducibility, which is a prerequisite for interpretations and explanations to be sound and credible, as well in deriving from such an effort, indications for new experiments. It is uncomfortable that, after thirty years, there are still pending questions to which the most acknowledged physical theories are not capable of giving an answer. Even a definitive demonstration that all these experiments have decisive faults would be preferable than leaving the issue unaddressed. Major research agencies, for instance in the USA and in Europe, are moving in this direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Particle Physics)
16 pages, 350 KiB  
Review
A New Insight on Physical Phenomenology: A Review
by Stefano Bellucci, Fabio Cardone and Fabio Pistella
Symmetry 2021, 13(4), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13040607 - 6 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2120
Abstract
After a brief digression on the current landscape of theoretical physics and on some open questions pertaining to coherence with experimental results, still to be settled, it is shown that the properties of the deformed Minkowski space lead to a plurality of potential [...] Read more.
After a brief digression on the current landscape of theoretical physics and on some open questions pertaining to coherence with experimental results, still to be settled, it is shown that the properties of the deformed Minkowski space lead to a plurality of potential physical phenomena that should occur, provided that the resulting formalisms can be considered as useful models for the description of some aspects of physical reality. A list is given of available experimental evidence not easy to be interpreted, at present, by means of the more established models, such as the standard model with its variants aimed at overcoming its descriptive limits; this evidence could be useful to verify the predictions stemming from the properties of the deformed Minkowski space. The list includes anomalies in the double-slit-like experiments, nuclear metamorphosis, torsional antennas, as well as the physical effect of the “geometric vacuum” (as defined in analogy with quantum vacuum), in the absence of external electromagnetic field, when crossing critical thresholds of energy parameter values, energy density in space and energy density in time. Concrete opportunities are suggested for an experimental exploration of phenomena, either already performed but still lacking a widely accepted explanation, or conceivable in the application of the approach here presented, but not tackled until now. A tentative list is given with reference to experimental infrastructures already in operation, the performances of which can be expanded with limited additional resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Particle Physics)
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