Advances in Energy Harvesting, Metamaterials, and Their Integrated Multifunctional Systems

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering and Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 22874

Special Issue Editors

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
Interests: piezoelectric energy harvesting; acoustic-elastic metamaterials, dynamics and vibration, triboelectric nanogenerators

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Applied Computing and Engineering, Cardiff School of Technology, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Llandaff Campus, Western Ave, Cardiff CF5 2YB, UK
Interests: electromagnetic; metamaterials; RF and microwave electronics; analogue electronics

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Information Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China
Interests: low-energy embedded system; ubiquitous Internet of Things (IoT); power-management-integrated circuit (PMIC); energy harvesting; mechatronics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vibration is one of the most ubiquitous energy sources in the ambient environment. Suppressing vibration is of great importance in numerous engineering applications. Due to the low-frequency band gap phenomenon, utilizing metamaterials for vibration suppression has attracted lots of research interests in the past two decades. On the other hand, another group of researchers is dedicated to harnessing and converting ambient vibration energy into electrical energy to power low-power consumption micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). As metamaterials can be engineered with structural symmetry or asymmetry for wave manipulation, the extraordinary phenomena in metamaterials, such as negative refraction induced wave focusing, the defect state mode, and the topological interface mode, have great potentials to be employed for improving energy harvesting efficiency. Moreover, integrating energy harvesters into metamaterials naturally yields multifunctional systems that have both vibration suppression and energy harvesting abilities. For the above two reasons, some researchers attempted to develop metamaterial-based energy harvesters in recent years. Besides, metamaterials designed with parity-time (PT) symmetry or broken time-reversal symmetry have some unique properties, such as unidirectional wave propagation, that can not be observed in natural materials. Therefore, in recent years, enormous efforts have been devoted to designing and investigating these types of metamaterials with various symmetric or asymmetric features. The aim of this Special Issue is to collect the latest advances in energy harvesting technology, metamaterial research, and the collision between the two directions. It is envisioned that this Special Issue can provide a forum for our colleagues to share their achievements and inspire others to promote their future research.

Dr. Guobiao Hu
Dr. Jasim Uddin
Prof. Dr. Junrui Liang
Prof. Dr. Junlei Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Symmetry is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy harvesting
  • piezoelectric/triboelectric/electromagnetic transduction
  • self-powered applications
  • acoustic-elastic metamaterials
  • band gaps
  • vibration suppression
  • time-reversal symmetry
  • parity-time (PT) symmetry

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

17 pages, 4033 KiB  
Article
A Dual-Beam Coupled System for Hybrid Galloping and Vortex-Induced Vibration Energy Harvesting
by Zhiqing Li, Kaihua Liu, Chaoyang Zhao, Bo Zhou, Yaowen Yang and Guiyong Zhang
Symmetry 2022, 14(12), 2601; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14122601 - 8 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1292
Abstract
Small wind energy harvesting converts aeroelastic vibration into electricity and can provide independent power supplies for low-power-consumption sensors, which are not convenient for replacing chemical batteries frequently. As wind energy harvesters collect sustainable energy from the ambient environment, they are environmentally friendly and [...] Read more.
Small wind energy harvesting converts aeroelastic vibration into electricity and can provide independent power supplies for low-power-consumption sensors, which are not convenient for replacing chemical batteries frequently. As wind energy harvesters collect sustainable energy from the ambient environment, they are environmentally friendly and energy saving. The most widely adopted wind-induced vibration mechanisms for designing wind energy harvesters are vortex-induced vibration (VIV) and galloping. VIV-based piezoelectric energy harvesters (VIVPEHs) can stabilize the output voltage at low wind speeds, while galloping-based piezoelectric energy harvesters (GPEHs) can operate at high wind speeds and have wide bandwidths. This paper uses a spring to connect the two traditional wind harvesters to constitute a hybrid wind piezoelectric energy harvester (HWPEH). It is expected that the HWPEH can inherit the advantages of both traditional wind harvesters, i.e., it can reduce the cut-in wind speed, as the traditional VIVPEH, and have a broad working bandwidth, as the traditional GPEH. The effects of the mechanical and circuit parameters on the output voltage and power of the HWPEH are investigated and compared to traditional wind harvesters. It has been found that the aerodynamic behavior of the HWPEH can be customized by changing the masses, stiffnesses, shunt resistances, and damping coefficients. The proposed HWPEH can outperform traditional wind harvesters if the system parameters are well tuned. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1923 KiB  
Article
A Flexible Meta-Curtain for Simultaneous Soundproofing and Ventilation
by Xiaobin Cui, Chenkai Liu, Jinjie Shi, Changhui Shen, Xiaozhou Liu and Yun Lai
Symmetry 2022, 14(11), 2348; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14112348 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1967
Abstract
We demonstrate a flexible meta-curtain that can simultaneously block the propagation of sound waves of selected frequencies and let air flow through freely. Such a meta-curtain is assembled by two soft and perforated polyvinyl chloride films with an optimized distance between them. The [...] Read more.
We demonstrate a flexible meta-curtain that can simultaneously block the propagation of sound waves of selected frequencies and let air flow through freely. Such a meta-curtain is assembled by two soft and perforated polyvinyl chloride films with an optimized distance between them. The total thickness of the meta-curtain is 1.16 cm and the holes on it have a diameter of 5 cm. The functionality of soundproofing is bestowed by the resonances formed between the films, which is verified by band structure analysis, numerical simulations, and experimental measurements. We experimentally observed sound transmission loss with a peak of 50 dB near 1700 Hz and an average of 26 dB from 1000 Hz to 1760 Hz, which is consistent with the numerical results. Attributing to the softness of the films and the robustness of the resonance, this meta-curtain retains its functionality even at deformations such as bending. Our work paves a way toward soundproof structures with the advantages of ventilation, flexibility, and light weight. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 10082 KiB  
Article
Study on Dynamic Snap-Through and Nonlinear Vibrations of an Energy Harvester Based on an Asymmetric Bistable Composite Laminated Shell
by Ting Dong, Xinhua Chen and Jun Zhang
Symmetry 2021, 13(12), 2405; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13122405 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2108
Abstract
Bistable energy harvesters have been extensively studied. However, theoretical research on the dynamics of bistable energy harvesters based on asymmetric bistable composite laminated plate and shell structures has not been conducted. In this paper, a theoretical model on the dynamics of an energy [...] Read more.
Bistable energy harvesters have been extensively studied. However, theoretical research on the dynamics of bistable energy harvesters based on asymmetric bistable composite laminated plate and shell structures has not been conducted. In this paper, a theoretical model on the dynamics of an energy harvester based on an asymmetric bistable composite laminated shell is established. The dynamic snap-through, the nonlinear vibrations and the voltage output with two potential wells of the bistable energy harvester are studied. The influence of the amplitude and the frequency for the base excitation on the bistable energy harvester is studied. When the frequency for the base excitation with a suitable amplitude in the frequency sweeping is located in a specific range or the amplitude for the base excitation with a suitable frequency in the amplitude sweeping is located in a specific range, the large-amplitude dynamic snap-through, nonlinear vibrations and voltage output with two potential wells can be found to occur. The amplitude and the frequency for the base excitation interact on each other for the specific amplitude or frequency range which migrates due to the softening nonlinearity. The vibration in the process of the dynamic snap-through behaves as the chaotic vibration. The nonlinear vibrations of the bistable system behave as the periodic vibration, the quasi-periodic vibration and the chaotic vibration. This study provides a theoretical reference for the design of energy harvesters based on asymmetric bistable composite laminated plate and shell structures. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 7917 KiB  
Article
Global and Local Dynamics of a Bistable Asymmetric Composite Laminated Shell
by Ting Dong, Zhenkun Guo and Guoqing Jiang
Symmetry 2021, 13(9), 1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13091690 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2019
Abstract
As bistable composite laminated plate and shell structures are often exposed to dynamic environments in practical applications, the global and local dynamics of a bistable asymmetric composite laminated shell subjected to the base excitation is presented in this paper. Temperature difference, base excitation [...] Read more.
As bistable composite laminated plate and shell structures are often exposed to dynamic environments in practical applications, the global and local dynamics of a bistable asymmetric composite laminated shell subjected to the base excitation is presented in this paper. Temperature difference, base excitation amplitude, and detuning parameters are discussed. With the change of temperature difference, the super-critical pitchfork bifurcation occurs. Three equilibrium solutions corresponding to three equilibrium configurations (two stable configurations and one unstable configuration) can be obtained. With the increase of excitation amplitude, local and global dynamics play a leading role successively. The global dynamics between the two stable configurations behave as the periodic vibration, the quasi-periodic vibration, the chaotic vibration and dynamic snap-through when the excitation amplitude is large enough. The local dynamics that are confined to a single stable configuration behave as 1:2 internal resonance, saturation and permeation when the excitation amplitude is small. Dynamic snap-through and large-amplitude vibrations with two potential wells for the global dynamics will lead to a broad application prospect of the bistable asymmetric composite laminated shell in energy harvesting devices. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 10036 KiB  
Article
Effect of Natural Wind on the Transiting Test for Measuring the Aerodynamic Coefficients of Structures
by Guangxia Zhu, Xin Liu, Lulu Liu and Shengli Li
Symmetry 2021, 13(8), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13081493 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2202
Abstract
The aerodynamic coefficients transiting test is a new method for measuring the structural aerodynamic coefficients using the wind generated by a moving vehicle. However, the effect and correction of natural wind on the transiting test has not been studied. Hence, in this study, [...] Read more.
The aerodynamic coefficients transiting test is a new method for measuring the structural aerodynamic coefficients using the wind generated by a moving vehicle. However, the effect and correction of natural wind on the transiting test has not been studied. Hence, in this study, the investigation of the aerodynamic force and pressure measurements on a special triangular prism model is simulated through the transiting test under different natural wind conditions for 30° and 90° angles of wind incidence. Force and pressure measurement results in the transiting test are used to describe and explain the effect of natural wind in the range of 0–3.0 m/s on the aerodynamic coefficients of the symmetric triangular prism qualitatively and quantitatively. The results show that the driving wind field of the vehicle, aerodynamic force coefficient, and aerodynamic pressure coefficient are significantly influenced by strong natural wind greater than 1.71 m/s, which must be considered and so it is recommended that the structure aerodynamic coefficients transiting test should be conducted under the condition that the natural wind is less than 1.71 m/s. In addition, the method of two-direction round-trip measurement is proposed to modify the effect of natural wind on transiting tests. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 5132 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Dynamics of an Unsymmetric Cross-Ply Square Composite Laminated Plate for Vibration Energy Harvesting
by Guoqing Jiang, Ting Dong and Zhenkun Guo
Symmetry 2021, 13(7), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13071261 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2333
Abstract
The nonlinear behaviors and energy harvesting of an unsymmetric cross-ply square composite laminated plate with a piezoelectric patch is presented. The unsymmetric cross-ply square composite laminated plate has two stable equilibrium positions by applying thermal stress, thus having snap-through with larger amplitude between [...] Read more.
The nonlinear behaviors and energy harvesting of an unsymmetric cross-ply square composite laminated plate with a piezoelectric patch is presented. The unsymmetric cross-ply square composite laminated plate has two stable equilibrium positions by applying thermal stress, thus having snap-through with larger amplitude between the two stable equilibrium positions relative to the general laminated plate. Based on the von-Karman large deformation theory, the nonlinear electromechanical coupling equations of motion of the unsymmetric composite laminated plate with a piezoelectric patch are derived by using Hamilton’s principle. The influence of the base excitation amplitude on nonlinear behaviors and energy harvesting are investigated. For different base excitation amplitudes, the motions of the system demonstrate periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion, chaotic motion and snap-through, and two single-well chaotic attractors and a two-well chaos attractor coexist. Moreover, the power generation efficiency is optimal when the excitation amplitude is in a certain range due to its own unique nonlinear characteristics. The unsymmetric cross-ply square composite laminated plate subjected to thermal stress can actually be called a kind of bistable composite shell structure that has a broad application prospect in combination with morphing aircraft, large deployable antenna and solar panel, which are very likely to have nonlinear vibration. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

49 pages, 14068 KiB  
Review
Overview: State-of-the-Art in the Energy Harvesting Based on Piezoelectric Devices for Last Decade
by Ivan A. Parinov and Alexander V. Cherpakov
Symmetry 2022, 14(4), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14040765 - 7 Apr 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4528
Abstract
Technologies of energy harvesting have been developed intensively since the beginning of the twenty-first century, presenting themselves as alternatives to traditional energy sources (for instance, batteries) for small-dimensional and low-power electronics. Batteries have numerous shortcomings connected, for example, with restricted service life and [...] Read more.
Technologies of energy harvesting have been developed intensively since the beginning of the twenty-first century, presenting themselves as alternatives to traditional energy sources (for instance, batteries) for small-dimensional and low-power electronics. Batteries have numerous shortcomings connected, for example, with restricted service life and the necessity of periodic recharging/replacement that create significant problems for portative and remote devices and for power equipment. Environmental energy covers solar, thermal, and oscillation energy. By this, the vibration energy exists continuously around us due to the operation of numerous artificial structures and mechanisms. Different materials (including piezoelectrics) and conversion mechanisms can transform oscillation energy into electrical energy for use in many devices of energy harvesting. Piezoelectric transducers possessing electric mechanical coupling and demonstrating a high density of power in comparison with electromagnetic and electrostatic sensors are broadly applied for the generation of energy from different oscillation energy sources. For the last decade, novel piezoelectric materials, transformation mechanisms, electrical circuits, and experimental and theoretical approaches with results of computer simulation have been developed for improving different piezoelectric devices of energy harvesting. This overview presents results, obtained in the area of piezoelectric energy harvesting for the last decade, including a wide spectrum of experimental, analytical, and computer simulation investigations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 29607 KiB  
Review
Frequency Up-Conversion for Vibration Energy Harvesting: A Review
by Xin Li, Guobiao Hu, Zhenkun Guo, Junlei Wang, Yaowen Yang and Junrui Liang
Symmetry 2022, 14(3), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14030631 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4578
Abstract
A considerable amount of ambient vibration energy spreads over an ultra-low frequency spectrum. However, conventional resonant-type linear energy harvesters usually operate within high and narrow frequency bands, which cannot match the frequencies of many vibration sources. If the excitation frequency deviates a bit [...] Read more.
A considerable amount of ambient vibration energy spreads over an ultra-low frequency spectrum. However, conventional resonant-type linear energy harvesters usually operate within high and narrow frequency bands, which cannot match the frequencies of many vibration sources. If the excitation frequency deviates a bit from the natural frequency of an energy harvester, the energy harvesting performance will deteriorate drastically. Because of the ultra-low frequency characteristic, it is challenging to reliably harvest energy from the ambient vibrations. To address this mismatching issue, the ultra-low frequency ambient vibrations are converted into high-frequency oscillations using certain mechanical mechanisms, which are termed frequency up-conversion techniques. This paper reviews the existing approaches that can realize frequency up-conversion for enhancing energy harvesting from low-frequency vibration sources. According to their working mechanisms, the existing methods are classified into three categories: impact-based, plucking-based, and snap-through-based approaches. The working principles of the three approaches are explained in detail. Representative designs from all categories are reviewed. This overview on the state-of-the-art frequency up-conversion technology would guide the better design of future kinetic energy harvesting systems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop