Symmetry Application in the Control Design of Cyber-Physical Systems

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering and Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 7723

Special Issue Editors

College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Interests: smart grid; network control; signal processing; neural network; dynamic system fault diagnosis; cyber-physical fusion system
College of Automation, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065, China
Interests: image color analysis; image enhancement; image fusion; image restoration
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Guest Editor
School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
Interests: evolutionary game theory; multi-agent coordination games and control; group decision-making and group intelligence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Control design involves large-scale cyber–physical systems (CPS) such as smart grids, intelligent traffic systems, and industrial processes. The large scale of CPS leads to high dimensional states in control synthesis that requires many computational costs and lacks flexibility and scalability if we treat the CPS as a whole. Moreover, cyber-attacks on CPS induce nonlinearity and complexity, challenging the optimization of the control system.

The challenges may be tackled by utilizing the symmetry of CPS. The large complex CPS can be decomposed into many small subsystems with inherent symmetry or equivalent symmetry to simplify the control synthesis, reducing the computational burden and enhancing flexibility/scalability. These promote new theories and structures for symmetry decomposition in control designs of CPS. For those inherent symmetrical CPS, the symmetry decomposition inspires the new structure of the decomposed groups that optimized the control performance. For those inherent asymmetrical CPS, the symmetry decomposition inspires the imposed constraints to make the subsystems equivalent symmetrical.

Dr. Jian Sun
Dr. Zhiqin Zhu
Prof. Dr. Xiaojie Chen
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • cyber physical system
  • cyber attacks, attack resilient control
  • distributed control
  • control synthesis
  • advanced control
  • nonlinear control
  • smart grids
  • industrial processes
  • intelligent control
  • symmetry/asymmetry structures
  • system decomposition.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 396 KiB  
Article
Event-Triggered Distributed Sliding Mode Control of Fractional-Order Nonlinear Multi-Agent Systems
by Yi Jin, Yan Xu, Gang Liu, Zhenghong Jin and Huanhuan Li
Symmetry 2023, 15(6), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15061247 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
In this study, the state consensus problem is investigated for a class of nonlinear fractional-order multi-agent systems (FOMASs) by using a dynamics event-triggered sliding mode control approach. The main objective is to steer all agents to some bounded position based on their own [...] Read more.
In this study, the state consensus problem is investigated for a class of nonlinear fractional-order multi-agent systems (FOMASs) by using a dynamics event-triggered sliding mode control approach. The main objective is to steer all agents to some bounded position based on their own information and the information of neighbor agent. Different from the existing results, both asymptotic consensus problem and Zeno-free behavior are ensured simultaneously. To reach this objective, a novel event-triggered sliding mode control approach is proposed, composed of distributed dynamic event-triggered schemes, event-triggered sliding mode controllers, and auxiliary switching functions. Moreover, to implement the distributed control scheme, the fractional-order adaptive law is also developed to tuning the coupling weight, which is addressed in distributed protocol. With the improved distributed control scheme, all signals in the fractional-order closed-loop systems are guaranteed to be consensus and bounded, and a novel approach is developed to avoid the Zeno behavior. Finally, the availability and the effectiveness of the above-mentioned approach are demonstrated by means of a numerical example. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry Application in the Control Design of Cyber-Physical Systems)
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18 pages, 949 KiB  
Article
A New Measure for Determining the Equivalent Symmetry of Decomposed Subsystems from Large Complex Cyber–Physical Systems
by Xinghua Feng, Kunpeng Wang, Jiangmei Zhang and Jiayue Guan
Symmetry 2023, 15(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15010037 - 23 Dec 2022
Viewed by 881
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a new consistency measurement for classification rule sets that is based on the similarity of their classification abilities. The similarity of the classification abilities of the two rule sets is evaluated though the similarity of the corresponding partitions [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a new consistency measurement for classification rule sets that is based on the similarity of their classification abilities. The similarity of the classification abilities of the two rule sets is evaluated though the similarity of the corresponding partitions of the feature space using the different rule sets. The proposed consistency measure can be used to measure the equivalent symmetry of subsystems decomposed from a large, complex cyber–physical system (CPS). It can be used to verify whether the same knowledge is obtained by the sensing data in the different subsystems. In the experiments, five decision tree algorithms and eighteen datasets from the UCI machine learning repository are employed to extract the classification rules, and the consistency between the corresponding rule sets is investigated. The classification rule sets extracted from the use of the C4.5 algorithm on the electrical grid stability dataset have a consistency of 0.88, which implies that the different subsystems contain almost equivalent knowledge about the network stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry Application in the Control Design of Cyber-Physical Systems)
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37 pages, 5428 KiB  
Article
An Efficient Method to Assess Resilience and Robustness Properties of a Class of Cyber-Physical Production Systems
by Fu-Shiung Hsieh
Symmetry 2022, 14(11), 2327; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14112327 - 5 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
Widely available real-time data from the sensors of IoT infrastructure enables and increases the adoption and use of cyber-physical production systems (CPPS) to provide enterprise-wide status information to promptly respond to business opportunities through real-time monitoring, supervision and control of resources and activities [...] Read more.
Widely available real-time data from the sensors of IoT infrastructure enables and increases the adoption and use of cyber-physical production systems (CPPS) to provide enterprise-wide status information to promptly respond to business opportunities through real-time monitoring, supervision and control of resources and activities in production systems. In CPPS, the failures of resources are uncertainties that are inevitable and unexpected. The failures of resources usually lead to chaos on the shop floor, delayed production activities and overdue orders. This calls for the development of an effective method to deal with failures in CPPS. An effective method to assess the impacts of failures on performance and create an alternative plan to mitigate the impacts is important. Robustness, which refers to the ability to tolerate perturbations, and resilience, which refers to the capability to recover from perturbations, are two concepts to evaluate the influence of resource failures on CPPS. In this study, we developed a method to evaluate the influence of resource failures on CPPS based on the concepts of robustness and resilience. We modeled CPPS by a class of discrete timed Petri nets. A model of CPPS consists of asymmetrically decomposed models of tasks. The dynamics of tasks can be represented by spatial-temporal networks (STN) with a similar but asymmetrical structure. A joint spatial-temporal networks (JSTN) model constructed based on the fusion of the asymmetrical STNs is used to develop an efficient algorithm to optimize performance. We characterized robustness and resilience as properties of CPPS with respect to the failures of resources. We analyzed the complexity of the proposed method and conducted experiments to illustrate the scalability and efficiency of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry Application in the Control Design of Cyber-Physical Systems)
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14 pages, 3607 KiB  
Article
Speech Enhancement Model Synthesis Based on Federal Learning for Industrial CPS in Multiple Noise Conditions
by Kunpeng Wang, Wenjing Lu, Hao Zhou and Juan Yao
Symmetry 2022, 14(11), 2285; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14112285 - 1 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1390
Abstract
Real-time acquisition of industrial production data and rapid response to changes in the external environment are key to ensuring the symmetry of a CPS. However, during industrial production, the collected data are inevitably disturbed by environmental noise, which has a huge impact on [...] Read more.
Real-time acquisition of industrial production data and rapid response to changes in the external environment are key to ensuring the symmetry of a CPS. However, during industrial production, the collected data are inevitably disturbed by environmental noise, which has a huge impact on the subsequent data processing of a CPS. The types of noise vary greatly in different work scenarios in a factory. Meanwhile, barriers such as data privacy protection and copyright restrictions create great difficulties for model synthesis in the information space. A speech enhancement model with teacher–student architecture based on federal knowledge distillation is proposed to alleviate this problem. (1) We pre-train teacher models under different noise conditions to create multiple teacher models with symmetry and excelling in the suppression of a priori noise. (2) We construct a symmetric model–student model of the physical space of the teacher model trained on public data and transfer the knowledge of the teacher model to the student model. The student model can suppress multiple types of noise. Notably, with the TIMIT dataset and the NoiseX92 noise set, the accuracy of the proposed method improved by an average of 1.00% over the randomly specified teacher method in the PESQ metric and 0.17% for STOI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry Application in the Control Design of Cyber-Physical Systems)
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14 pages, 1024 KiB  
Article
TOPSIS-Based Algorithm for Resilience Indices Construction and the Evaluation of an Electrical Power Transmission Network
by Jiting Gu and Zhibo Liu
Symmetry 2022, 14(5), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14050985 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1488
Abstract
In the context of energy transformation, new energy technologies are developing rapidly, the penetration rate of new energy is increasing, and the energy structure tends to be low-carbon, which leads to the asymmetry between traditional energy and new energy. At present, the smart [...] Read more.
In the context of energy transformation, new energy technologies are developing rapidly, the penetration rate of new energy is increasing, and the energy structure tends to be low-carbon, which leads to the asymmetry between traditional energy and new energy. At present, the smart power grid can be conceived as a complex cyber-physical system, and its resilience assessment in the face of extreme disasters needs more holistic consideration. Therefore, considering the impact of massive access to new energy on the resilience of the power grid main network, the resilience evaluation index system of the power grid main network under the background of the energy transition is established. It is proposed to use the priority comparison method and CRITIC (Criteria Importance Through Intercriteria Correlation) to determine the subjective weight and subjective and objective weight of the index, respectively, and combine the influence of the two weights to obtain the comprehensive weight. Then, TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) is used to evaluate the regional power grid restoring force. The results of an example show that the proposed method can effectively evaluate the resilience level of the power grid under the background of the energy transition, which has a certain guiding significance for improving the power grid’s resilience under the environment of energy transformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry Application in the Control Design of Cyber-Physical Systems)
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