Applied Mechanics, Engineering and Modeling - Volume II

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering and Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 6935

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institute of Forestry, Mining and Construction Sciences, Petrozavodsk State University, Lenin Pr., 33, 185910 Petrozavodsk, Russia
Interests: applied mechanics; engineering and modeling
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Symmetry generalizes the concepts of structural regularity, balance, stability and the aesthetics of natural and artificial systems. However, the properties of the system’s components change over time, resulting in the appearance of asymmetry. This then causes movement towards symmetry; that is, a new state of balance between the components of the system. Such cycles are repeated at each new level, which should correspond to contemporaries’ research, including models and methods implemented in applied mechanics and technology. Thus, many updated solutions can be offered to predict the interconnections between the components of different systems as a contribution to sustainable development.

In this Special Issue, authors are invited to present theoretical and experimental research aimed at solving problems directly or indirectly related to the mentioned topics, including:

  • Modeling of technological processes of timber harvesting and processing;
  • Modeling the properties of paper and other materials obtained from wood raw materials;
  • Modeling the properties of rocks;
  • Modeling of technological processes in construction;
  • Modeling and improving the properties of building materials and structures;
  • Drying of 3D-printed mortar;
  • Monitoring systems for the technical condition of construction projects;
  • Monitoring and control of microclimate in residential and industrial buildings.

Prof. Dr. Gennadiy Kolesnikov
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Symmetry is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • symmetry
  • asymmetry
  • applied mechanics
  • engineering
  • modeling
  • timber harvesting and processing
  • materials properties
  • technological processes
  • building materials and structures
  • 3D-printed mortar
  • materials recycling
  • monitoring systems
  • microclimate control

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 3493 KiB  
Article
Large Deflection Geometrically Nonlinear Bending of Porous Nanocomposite Cylindrical Panels on Elastic Foundation
by Jin-Rae Cho
Symmetry 2024, 16(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym16020224 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 691
Abstract
Large deflection nonlinear bending of functionally graded (FG) porous cylindrical panels reinforced with graphene platelets (GPLs) on a Pasternak-type elastic foundation is examined by developing a reliable and effective 2D meshfree-based nonlinear numerical method. The large displacement field is express by the first-order [...] Read more.
Large deflection nonlinear bending of functionally graded (FG) porous cylindrical panels reinforced with graphene platelets (GPLs) on a Pasternak-type elastic foundation is examined by developing a reliable and effective 2D meshfree-based nonlinear numerical method. The large displacement field is express by the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and the von Kármán nonlinearity, and approximated by 2D natural element method (NEM) in conjunction with the stabilized MITC3+ shell concept and the shell surface–rectangular grid geometry transformation. The nonlinear simultaneous equations are solved by a load incremental Newton–Raphson scheme. The developed nonlinear numerical method is justified from by comparing with the reference solutions, and the load–deflection and bending moment of FG-GPLRC porous cylindrical panels on elastic foundation are scrutinizingly examined. Four different symmetric GPL distribution patters (except for FG-Λ) and three different symmetric porosity distributions are considered and their combined effects on the nonlinear bending behavior are investigated, as well as the effects of foundation stiffness and GPL amount. Also, the results are compared with those of FG CNT-reinforced porous cylindrical panels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Mechanics, Engineering and Modeling - Volume II)
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18 pages, 4113 KiB  
Article
Design Optimization of Alloy Wheels Based on a Dynamic Cornering Fatigue Test Using Finite Element Analysis and Multi-Additional Sampling of Efficient Global Optimization
by Atthaphon Ariyarit, Supakit Rooppakhun, Worawat Puangchaum and Tharathep Phiboon
Symmetry 2023, 15(12), 2169; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15122169 - 6 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1048
Abstract
An alloy wheel is generally a symmetrically shaped part integral to a vehicle because its weight and strength can improve driving performance. Therefore, alloy wheel design is essential, and a novel design method should be considered. Currently, the Multi-Additional Sampling Efficient Global Optimization [...] Read more.
An alloy wheel is generally a symmetrically shaped part integral to a vehicle because its weight and strength can improve driving performance. Therefore, alloy wheel design is essential, and a novel design method should be considered. Currently, the Multi-Additional Sampling Efficient Global Optimization (MAs-EGO) has been proposed and widely implemented in various fields of engineering design. This study employed a surrogate model to maximize Expected Hypervolume Improvement (EHVI) for multi-objectives by increasing multi-sampling per iteration to update a surrogate model and evaluate an optimal point for alloy wheel design. Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) was used to generate an initial design of an alloy wheel, including the thickness and width of the spoke wheel. The maximum principal stress according to the dynamic cornering fatigue simulation was then evaluated for risk of failure using Finite Element (FE) analysis. The objectives were to minimize both the principal stress and weight of the symmetric alloy wheel. The Kriging method was used to construct a surrogate model, including a Genetic Algorithm (GA), which was performed to maximize hypervolume improvement to explore the next additional sampling point, and that point was also an optimal point for the process when computation had converged. Finally, FE results were validated through a designed apparatus to confirm the numerical solution. The results exhibit thatMulti-Additional Sampling Efficient Global Optimization can achieve an optimal alloy shape. The maximum principal stress distribution occurs in the spoke area and exhibits a symmetrical pattern around the axis following the cyclic bending load. The optimal design point of the alloy wheel can reduce 20.181% and 3.176% of principal stress and weight, respectively, compared to the initial design. The experimental results are consistent trend in the same direction as FEA results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Mechanics, Engineering and Modeling - Volume II)
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19 pages, 4630 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Buckling Behavior of Cracked FG Cylindrical Panels Reinforced by Graphene Platelets
by Jin-Rae Cho
Symmetry 2023, 15(12), 2162; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15122162 - 5 Dec 2023
Viewed by 746
Abstract
The buckling behavior of a functionally graded graphene-platelet-reinforced composite (FG-GPLRC) was traditionally investigated, mostly with respect to its undamaged structures. In this context, the current study investigated the buckling behavior of an FG-GPLRC cylindrical panel with an anti-symmetric central crack by introducing a [...] Read more.
The buckling behavior of a functionally graded graphene-platelet-reinforced composite (FG-GPLRC) was traditionally investigated, mostly with respect to its undamaged structures. In this context, the current study investigated the buckling behavior of an FG-GPLRC cylindrical panel with an anti-symmetric central crack by introducing a 2-D extended natural element method (XNEM). The displacement was basically expressed with the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and approximated using Laplace interpolation functions (for the non-singular displacement part) and crack-tip singular functions (for the singular displacement part) without grid refinement around the crack tips. The complex numerical manipulation on the curved shell surface was resolved by geometrically transforming the curved shell surface to a 2-D planar rectangular NEM grid. The painstaking numerical locking was suppressed by adopting the concept of a stabilized MITC3+ shell element. The validity of the developed numerical method was examined through a benchmark test, and the fundamental buckling loads of cracked FG-GPLRC cylindrical panels were investigated in depth by changing the major parameters. The numerical results also included a comparison with the FG-CNTRC. The numerical results indicated that the developed numerical method effectively predicts the buckling loads with reasonable accuracy, and that the fundamental buckling load of cracked FG-GPLRC cylindrical panels are remarkably influenced by the inclination angle and length of the crack as well as the other associated parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Mechanics, Engineering and Modeling - Volume II)
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11 pages, 1598 KiB  
Article
The Onset of Darcy–Brinkman Convection in a Porous Layer with Mutual Impact of Thermal Non-Equilibrium and Non-Uniform Temperature Gradients
by Suma Shyabal, B. N. Hanumagowda, M. Ravisha, A. L. Mamatha, N. Shivaraju, Soumya D. O., Shalan Alkarni and Nehad Ali Shah
Symmetry 2023, 15(9), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15091695 - 4 Sep 2023
Viewed by 597
Abstract
The two-field thermal conditions of local thermal nonequilibrium (LTNE) were used to investigate linear stability of thermal convection in a liquid-saturated, porous layer via the extended Brinkman–Darcy model for different non-uniform basic thermal gradients. The critical values were numerically computed by the Galerkin [...] Read more.
The two-field thermal conditions of local thermal nonequilibrium (LTNE) were used to investigate linear stability of thermal convection in a liquid-saturated, porous layer via the extended Brinkman–Darcy model for different non-uniform basic thermal gradients. The critical values were numerically computed by the Galerkin method for rigid isothermal boundaries. The impact of LTNE and different forms of non-uniform basic temperature gradients on the onset of porous convection was examined. The porosity modified conductivity ratio has no influence on system stability at a small inter-phase heat transport coefficient limit. However, for higher values of the inter-phase heat transport coefficient, an increase in the porosity modified conductivity ratio hastens the onset of convection. An increase in the Darcy number delays the convective motions. The results for different basic temperature profiles are symmetric qualitatively. In addition, the possibility of control of convection by a basic temperature profile was studied in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Mechanics, Engineering and Modeling - Volume II)
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21 pages, 6593 KiB  
Article
Modal Parameter Identification of Recursive Stochastic Subspace Method
by Haishan Wu and Yifeng Huang
Symmetry 2023, 15(6), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15061243 - 11 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
In bridge health monitoring, in order to closely monitor the structural state changes of the bridge under heavy traffic load and other harsh environments, the monitoring system is required to give the change process of structural modal parameters. Due to the symmetric variables [...] Read more.
In bridge health monitoring, in order to closely monitor the structural state changes of the bridge under heavy traffic load and other harsh environments, the monitoring system is required to give the change process of structural modal parameters. Due to the symmetric variables of bridge monitoring during operation, the evaluation needs to be completed by the recursive identification of modal parameters based on environmental excitation, especially the recursive recognition of the random subspace method with high recognition accuracy. We have studied the recursive identification methods of covariance-driven and data-driven random subspace categories respectively, established the corresponding recursive format, and used the model structure of the ASCE structural health monitoring benchmark problem as a numerical example to verify the reliability of the proposed method. First, based on the similar interference environment of the observation data at the same time, a reference point covariance-driven random subspace recursive algorithm (IV-RSSI/Cov) based on the auxiliary variable projection approximation tracking (IV-PAST) algorithm is established. The recursive format of the system matrix and modal parameters is obtained. Based on Givens rotation, the rank-2 update form of the row space projection matrix is established, and the recursive format of the data-driven recursive random subspace method (RSSI/Data) under the PAST algorithm is obtained. Then, based on the benchmark problem of ASCE-SHM, the response of the model structure under environmental excitation is numerically simulated, the frequency, damping ratio and vibration mode of the structure are recursively tracked, and their reliability and shortcomings are studied. After improving the recursive method, the frequency tracking accuracy has been improved, with a maximum accuracy of 99.8%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Mechanics, Engineering and Modeling - Volume II)
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20 pages, 6196 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Sequential Excitations on Asymmetrical Reinforced Concrete Low-Rise Framed Structures
by Paraskevi K. Askouni
Symmetry 2023, 15(5), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15050968 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
In the current research, the elastoplastic behaviour of symmetrical and asymmetrical reinforced concrete buildings is explored by dynamic analysis. The used ground excitations are of sequential type, which is found in the literature to possibly strongly affect the dynamic structural behaviour. The contemporary [...] Read more.
In the current research, the elastoplastic behaviour of symmetrical and asymmetrical reinforced concrete buildings is explored by dynamic analysis. The used ground excitations are of sequential type, which is found in the literature to possibly strongly affect the dynamic structural behaviour. The contemporary seismic codes neglect the impact of sequential earthquakes on the seismic response, highlighting a scientific gap necessary to be studied. Within the scope of this study, ordinary 3D reinforced concrete low-rise building frames are forced to sequential ground excitations, as well as to a respective single-occurrence corresponding ground excitation, for comparability reasons. In the present dynamic analyses, the two horizontal directions of the excitations, along with the vertical one, are included in the analysis input. The nonlinear behaviour of reinforced concrete sections under strong strain is considered in the present analyses. The geometrical in-plan asymmetry of the 3D models is expressed by a simply defined ratio. Selected unitless resulting plots of the current dynamic analyses are presented and appropriately discussed given the relative geometrical asymmetry. The role of sequential ground excitations on the dynamic response is recognized, along with the role of simple geometrical symmetry or asymmetry, in the resulting response plots. Thus, useful conclusions are acquired, pointing to remarks on the geometrical structural design helpful for the development of recommendations of seismic provisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Mechanics, Engineering and Modeling - Volume II)
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