Aspects of Particle Physics and High Energy Physics- Dedicated to Zhengdao Li's 95 Anniversary

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 7377

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1. Information Media Center, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521, Japan
2. Core of Research for the Energetic Universe, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
Interests: general aspects of computer science; computational science; high-energy physics and quantum fields; symmetry breaking; informatics in education
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Institute of Physics of Cantabria, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain
Interests: particle physics; high energy physics; physics; doctoral education; outreach
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SINP MSU, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Interests: experience in experimental; high energy; heavy ion physics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Symmetry, devoted to quantum field theory, elementary particle theory, nuclear physics, statistical mechanics, fluid mechanics, and astrophysics, is dedicated to Prof. Dr. Zhengdao Li's 95th birthday. 

In 1948, Zhengdao Li, working as a student of Enrico Fermi in Chicago and as a colleague of J. Steinberger, was looking for interactions similar to beta decays. He proposed, in collaboration with M.N. Rosenbluth and Z. Yang, the existence of intermediate heavy bosons in weak interactions.

In 1956, in collaboration with Z. Yang, Li was encouraged by Wú Jiànxióng and colleagues to carry out an experiment which would demonstrate the parity violation in weak decays, for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1957.

Li proposed to Jack Steinberger that he reanalyze his data on hyperon decays, which was actually the first parity violation experiment in weak interactions. The experiment on parity violation, performed in 1956 and published before his theoretical work with Z. Yang, lacked sufficient statistical significance. 

In those years, Li also carried out extensive analyses of other C.P.T symmetries in weak interactions.

Li collaborated extensively with Yang during the 1950s, leading to other important results in statistical mechanics, such as the Li–Yang theorem.

During the 1960s, his studies on massless particles were vital. It was these studies, in collaboration with Nauenberg and, independently, Kinoshita that led to the KLN theorem.

In the 1970s, his studies on matter at high densities influenced relativistic heavy ions collisions physics (RHIC).

Many other fields of physics, including statistical mechanics, astrophysics and hydrodynamics, have been covered by Zhengdao Li during his long career.

In this Special Issue, we want to invite contributions on the subjects developed by Prof. Dr. Zhengdao Li. Personal recollections by people close to him are also welcomed. 

As is apparent, Li’s work covered all the primary areas of active work at present on Particle Physics and High Energy Physics. Therefore, we welcome contributions relating to gravity, cosmology, particle physics phenomenology and experiment, supersymmetry, and relativistic heavy ion collision physics (phenomenology and experiment).

This is the year of Li’s 95th birthday; therefore, we hope to commemorate one of the most important physicists of our time and provide perspectives on the future of fundamental physics as seen by different contributors.

Prof. Dr. Tomohiro Inagaki
Prof. Dr. Alberto Ruiz Jimeno
Dr. Olga Kodolova
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

37 pages, 1279 KiB  
Article
Exiting Inflation with a Smooth Scale Factor
by Harry Oslislo and Brett Altschul
Symmetry 2023, 15(11), 2042; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15112042 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 954
Abstract
The expectation that the physical expansion of space occurs smoothly may be expressed mathematically as a requirement for continuity in the time derivative of the metric scale factor of the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker cosmology. We explore the consequences of imposing such a smoothness requirement, examining [...] Read more.
The expectation that the physical expansion of space occurs smoothly may be expressed mathematically as a requirement for continuity in the time derivative of the metric scale factor of the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker cosmology. We explore the consequences of imposing such a smoothness requirement, examining the forms of possible interpolating functions between the end of inflation and subsequent radiation- or matter-dominated eras, using a straightforward geometric model of the interpolating behavior. We quantify the magnitude of the cusp found in a direct transition from the end of slow-roll inflation to the subsequent era, analyze the validity of several smooth interpolator candidates, and investigate equation-of-state and thermodynamic constraints. We find an order-of-magnitude increase in the size of the universe at the end of the transition to a single-component radiation or matter era. We also evaluate the interpolating functions in terms of the standard theory of preheating and determine the effect on the number of bosons produced. Full article
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13 pages, 500 KiB  
Article
On the Partition Temperature of Massless Particles in High-Energy Collisions
by Wei-Liang Qian, Kai Lin, Rui-Hong Yue, Yogiro Hama and Takeshi Kodama
Symmetry 2023, 15(11), 2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15112035 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Although partition temperature derived using the Darwin–Fowler method is exact for simple scenarios, the derivation for complex systems might reside in specific approximations whose viability is not ensured if the thermodynamic limit is not attained. This work elaborates on a related problem relevant [...] Read more.
Although partition temperature derived using the Darwin–Fowler method is exact for simple scenarios, the derivation for complex systems might reside in specific approximations whose viability is not ensured if the thermodynamic limit is not attained. This work elaborates on a related problem relevant to relativistic high-energy collisions. On the one hand, it is simple enough that closed-form expressions can be obtained precisely for the one-particle distribution function. On the other hand, the resulting expression is not an exponential form, and therefore, it is not straightforward that the notion of partition function could be implied. Specifically, we derive the one-particle distribution function for massless particles where the phase-space integration is performed exactly for the underlying canonical ensemble consisting of a given number of particles. We discuss the viability of the partition temperature in this case. Possible implications of the obtained results regarding the observed Tsallis distribution in transverse momentum spectra in high-energy collisions are also addressed. Full article
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15 pages, 1665 KiB  
Article
Progress of Machine Learning Studies on the Nuclear Charge Radii
by Ping Su, Wan-Bing He and De-Qing Fang
Symmetry 2023, 15(5), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15051040 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
The charge radius is a fundamental physical quantity that describes the size of one nucleus, but contains rich information about the nuclear structure. There are already many machine learning (ML) studies on charge radii. After reviewing the relevant works in detail, the convolutional [...] Read more.
The charge radius is a fundamental physical quantity that describes the size of one nucleus, but contains rich information about the nuclear structure. There are already many machine learning (ML) studies on charge radii. After reviewing the relevant works in detail, the convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are established to reproduce the latest experimental values of charge radii. The extrapolating and interpolating abilities in terms of two CNN structures partnering two inputting matrix forms are discussed, and a testing root-mean-square (RMS) error 0.015 fm is achieved. The shell effect on charge radii of both isotones and isotopes are predicted successfully, and the CNN method works well when predicting the charge radii of a whole isotopic chain. Full article
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18 pages, 387 KiB  
Article
Einstein–Yang–Mills-Aether Theory with Nonlinear Axion Field: Decay of Color Aether and the Axionic Dark Matter Production
by Alexander B. Balakin and Gleb B. Kiselev
Symmetry 2022, 14(8), 1621; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14081621 - 06 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
We establish a nonlinear version of the SU(N)-symmetric theory, which describes self-consistently the interaction between the gravitational, gauge, vector and pseudoscalar (axion) fields. In the context of this theory the SU(N)-symmetric multiplet of vector fields is associated with the color aether, the decay [...] Read more.
We establish a nonlinear version of the SU(N)-symmetric theory, which describes self-consistently the interaction between the gravitational, gauge, vector and pseudoscalar (axion) fields. In the context of this theory the SU(N)-symmetric multiplet of vector fields is associated with the color aether, the decay of which in the early Universe produced the canonic dynamic aether and the axionic dark matter. The SU(N)-symmetric Yang–Mills field, associated with the color aether, forms the source, which transfers the energy of the decaying color aether to the axion field. The nonlinear modification of the model uses explicitly the requirement of discrete symmetry, prescribed by the axion field, and is based on the analogy with a nonlinear physical pendulum. We show that in the framework of this nonlinear regular model, the axion field can grow to an arbitrarily large value, thus explaining the abundance of the axionic dark matter in the Universe. Full article
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10 pages, 851 KiB  
Article
Radiation Backreaction in Axion Electrodynamics
by András Patkós
Symmetry 2022, 14(6), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14061113 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
Energy–momentum conservation of classical axion electrodynamics is carefully analyzed in the Hamiltonian formulation of the theory. The term responsible for the energy transfer between the electromagnetic and the axion sectors is identified. As a special application, the axion-to-light Primakoff process in the background [...] Read more.
Energy–momentum conservation of classical axion electrodynamics is carefully analyzed in the Hamiltonian formulation of the theory. The term responsible for the energy transfer between the electromagnetic and the axion sectors is identified. As a special application, the axion-to-light Primakoff process in the background of a static magnetic field is worked out and the radiative self-damping of the axion oscillations is characterized quantitatively. The damping time turns out comparable to the age of the Universe in the preferred axion mass range. Full article
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20 pages, 331 KiB  
Article
Symmetry Breaking of Universal Type and Particular Types
by Luca Fabbri
Symmetry 2022, 14(3), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14030563 - 12 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1097
Abstract
The concepts of symmetry and its breakdown are investigated in two different terms according to whether the resulting asymmetry is universal or only obtained for a special configuration: we illustrate this by considering, in the first case, an example from the standard model [...] Read more.
The concepts of symmetry and its breakdown are investigated in two different terms according to whether the resulting asymmetry is universal or only obtained for a special configuration: we illustrate this by considering, in the first case, an example from the standard model of particles with some consequences for cosmological scenarios; and in the second case, we consider an example from specific solutions for the particle dynamics, and an example for a toy model of entangled spins. Full article
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