Symmetry in Physics of Plasma Technologies II

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2024) | Viewed by 10056

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Kurchatov Center for Thermonuclear Energy and Plasma Technologies, National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Moscow, Russia
Interests: controlled thermonuclear fusion; theoretical physics; plasma spectroscopy; superdiffusive transport
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Following the success of the Special Issue titled "Symmetry in Physics of Plasma Technologies" in Symmetry, it is my pleasure to return as the guest editor for a second installment. The first issue presented articles related mainly to controlled thermonuclear fusion, including review papers and research articles detailing the challenges of thermonuclear fusion reactor plasma-facing materials and heavy-ion beam probing of plasma, analysis of the scale symmetry of stochastic surface clustering, new theoretical methods for anisotropic diffusion of radiation defects and reflectometric diagnostics of plasma turbulence.

We welcome contributions (research and review articles) in all of these and related areas listed below in the Keywords section, especially those with an emphasis on exploiting fundamental aspects of plasma physics, including symmetry.

Prof. Dr. Alexander B. Kukushkin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Symmetry is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • magnetic confinement of plasma
  • inertial and magneto-inertial compression of plasma
  • plasma-facing components
  • acceleration of plasma
  • plasma thrusters
  • plasma radiation sources
  • plasma microwave electronics
  • plasma converters of heat to electricity
  • plasma processing of materials
  • plasma chemistry
  • symmetry issues in the physics of plasma production
  • confinement and control in various systems for technological applications

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 129 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue “Symmetry in Physics of Plasma Technologies II”
by Alexander B. Kukushkin
Symmetry 2024, 16(4), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym16040461 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 169
Abstract
The success of the Special Issue (SI) “Symmetry in Physics of Plasma Technologies” https://www [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Physics of Plasma Technologies II)
2 pages, 154 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue Symmetry in Physics of Plasma Technologies
by Alexander B. Kukushkin
Symmetry 2023, 15(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15010107 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
This Special Issue collected papers on hot topics in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF), including review papers and research articles [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Physics of Plasma Technologies II)

Research

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15 pages, 4938 KiB  
Article
Structure of Current Sheets Formed in 2D Magnetic Configurations with X-Type Null Lines in the Presence of the Hall Currents and Inverse Currents
by Anna G. Frank and Sergey A. Savinov
Symmetry 2024, 16(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym16010103 - 15 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 687
Abstract
We present experimental results on the formation and evolution of current sheets in two-dimensional magnetic configurations with an X-type null line. Typical features of both the initial magnetic field and the current sheet are their symmetry properties. The experiments were carried out using [...] Read more.
We present experimental results on the formation and evolution of current sheets in two-dimensional magnetic configurations with an X-type null line. Typical features of both the initial magnetic field and the current sheet are their symmetry properties. The experiments were carried out using the CS-3D setup. The formation of a current sheet occurs just after the magneto-sonic wave converges at the null line; then, both the electric current and plasma become compressed in a planar 2D sheet, which accumulates an excess of magnetic energy. The excitation of the Hall currents, which build up the out-of-plane magnetic fields inside the 2D current sheet, brings about the modification of the sheet structure. As a result, the magnetic fields and plasma currents become 3D. The dynamic plasma processes give rise to additional current sheet deformations, which are caused by the excitation of inverse currents at the side edges of the sheet. As a consequence, the out-of-plane magnetic fields are reversed, and strong Ampère’s forces of the opposite directions come into play. These forces slow down the previously accelerated high-speed plasma flows so that the flows become limited in time and space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Physics of Plasma Technologies II)
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13 pages, 3836 KiB  
Article
Effect of Plasma Oxygen Content on the Size and Content of Silicon Nanoclusters in Amorphous SiOx Films Obtained with Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition
by Vladimir A. Terekhov, Evgeniy I. Terukov, Yurii K. Undalov, Konstantin A. Barkov, Nikolay A. Kurilo, Sergey A. Ivkov, Dmitry N. Nesterov, Pavel V. Seredin, Dmitry L. Goloshchapov, Dmitriy A. Minakov, Elena V. Popova, Anatoly N. Lukin and Irina N. Trapeznikova
Symmetry 2023, 15(9), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15091800 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 655
Abstract
The influence of Ar + SiH4 + O2 plasma formulation on the phase composition and optical properties of amorphous SiOx films with silicon nanoclusters obtained using PECVD with DC discharge modulation was studied. Using a unique technique of ultrasoft X-ray [...] Read more.
The influence of Ar + SiH4 + O2 plasma formulation on the phase composition and optical properties of amorphous SiOx films with silicon nanoclusters obtained using PECVD with DC discharge modulation was studied. Using a unique technique of ultrasoft X-ray emission spectroscopy, it was found that at a 0.15 mol.% plasma oxygen content, amorphous silicon a-Si films are formed. At a high oxygen content (≥21.5 mol.%), nanocomposite films based on SiOx silicon suboxide containing silicon nanoclusters ncl-Si are formed. It was found that the suboxide matrix consists of a mixture of SiO1.3 and SiO2 phases, and the average oxidation state x in the SiOx suboxide matrix is ~1.5. An increase in the concentration of O2 in the reactor atmosphere from 21.5 to 23 mol.% leads to a decrease in ncl-Si content from 40 to 15% and an increase in the average oxidation state x of SiOx from 1.5 to 1.9. In this case, the suboxide matrix consists of two phases of silicon dioxide SiO2 and non-stoichiometric silicon oxide SiO1.7. Thus, according to the experimental data obtained using USXES, the phase composition of these films in pure form differs in their representation in both random coupling and random mixture models. A decrease in the ncl-Si content of SiOx films is accompanied by a decrease in their sizes from ~3 to ~2 nm and a shift in the photoluminescence band from 1.9 eV to 2.3 eV, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Physics of Plasma Technologies II)
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18 pages, 5537 KiB  
Article
Starting Modes of Bi-Directional Plasma Thruster Utilizing Krypton
by Andrei I. Shumeiko, Victor D. Telekh and Sergei V. Ryzhkov
Symmetry 2023, 15(9), 1705; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15091705 - 06 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 685
Abstract
Multidirectional plasma thrusters are of particular interest for dynamic space missions due to the adjustability of their integral characteristics. One type of multidirectional plasma thrusters is -directional, consisting of a symmetric electromagnetic system surrounding the gas discharge chamber, capable of generating a propulsion [...] Read more.
Multidirectional plasma thrusters are of particular interest for dynamic space missions due to the adjustability of their integral characteristics. One type of multidirectional plasma thrusters is -directional, consisting of a symmetric electromagnetic system surrounding the gas discharge chamber, capable of generating a propulsion minimum in two directions. The experimental results of this study of the starting modes of a multidirectional plasma thruster utilizing krypton as propellant are reported. The thruster is placed in a vacuum chamber. The magnetic field strength is adjusted in the range of 35 to 400 G in peaks. The current of 13.56 MHz frequency applied to the antenna is regulated in the range of 0 to 25 A. The diameter of the orifices is varied in the range of 3 to 10 mm. In contrast to the unidirectional electrodeless plasma thruster, the radiofrequency breakdown threshold of the multidirectional plasma thruster decreases with increasing static magnetic field due to the symmetry of the magnetic system and the gas discharge chamber. The influence of the magnetic field on the radiofrequency breakdown threshold in the multidirectional plasma thruster is shown theoretically by the classical diffusion theory and ponderomotive effects, and discussed in the electron circulation hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Physics of Plasma Technologies II)
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20 pages, 6572 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Performance Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste Treatment in Plasma Torch Reactor
by Samira Elaissi and Norah A. M. Alsaif
Symmetry 2023, 15(3), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15030692 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Thermal plasma has emerged as a technology with tremendous promise for municipal wastes that should be disposed of sustainably. A numerical simulation of a symmetric turbulent plasma jet from a thermal air plasma torch was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics®5.4 engineering simulation [...] Read more.
Thermal plasma has emerged as a technology with tremendous promise for municipal wastes that should be disposed of sustainably. A numerical simulation of a symmetric turbulent plasma jet from a thermal air plasma torch was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics®5.4 engineering simulation software. The velocities, temperature, arc root motion, and joule heating of the plasma jet were examined under the impact of the gas mass flow rate and current. Moreover, the electrical power required for the municipal solid waste (MSW) processing was estimated. The enthalpy and the effectiveness of the plasma torch were analyzed and discussed. Subsequently an investigation was conducted into the gasification characteristics of MSW using air and steam gases. The torch’s power and efficiency could be enhanced with a higher mass flow rate and temperature. Three operating modes were identified from the current–arc flow combination. Among the plasma gas considered, the air gas plasma torch guarantees an acceptable thermal efficiency and a low anode erosion rate. Plasma gasification produces cleaner syngas with higher efficiency (84%) than the conventional process due to the elevated temperature used during the process that breaks down all the char, dioxins, and tars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Physics of Plasma Technologies II)
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16 pages, 4238 KiB  
Article
Nanosphere Lithography-Based Fabrication of Spherical Nanostructures and Verification of Their Hexagonal Symmetries by Image Analysis
by Mária Domonkos and Alexander Kromka
Symmetry 2022, 14(12), 2642; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14122642 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2337
Abstract
Nanosphere lithography (NSL) is a cost- and time-effective technique for the fabrication of well-ordered large-area arrays of nanostructures. This paper reviews technological challenges in NSL mask preparation, its modification, and quality control. Spin coating with various process parameters (substrate wettability, solution properties, spin [...] Read more.
Nanosphere lithography (NSL) is a cost- and time-effective technique for the fabrication of well-ordered large-area arrays of nanostructures. This paper reviews technological challenges in NSL mask preparation, its modification, and quality control. Spin coating with various process parameters (substrate wettability, solution properties, spin coating operating parameters) are discussed to create a uniform monolayer from monodisperse polystyrene (PS) nanospheres with a diameter of 0.2–1.5 μm. Scanning electron microscopy images show that the PS nanospheres are ordered into a hexagonal close-packed monolayer. Verification of sphere ordering and symmetry is obtained using our open-source software HEXI, which can recognize and detect circles, and distinguish between hexagonal ordering and defect configurations. The created template is used to obtain a wide variety of tailor-made periodic structures by applying additional treatments, such as plasma etching (isotropic and anisotropic), deposition, evaporation, and lift-off. The prepared highly ordered nanopatterned arrays (from circular, triangular, pillar-shaped structures) are applicable in many different fields (plasmonics, photonics, sensorics, biomimetic surfaces, life science, etc.). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Physics of Plasma Technologies II)
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Review

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36 pages, 3337 KiB  
Review
Comparative Analysis of Spectroscopic Studies of Tungsten and Carbon Deposits on Plasma-Facing Components in Thermonuclear Fusion Reactors
by Vladimir G. Stankevich, Nickolay Y. Svechnikov and Boris N. Kolbasov
Symmetry 2023, 15(3), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15030623 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
Studies on the erosion products of tungsten plasma-facing components (films, surfaces, and dust) for thermonuclear fusion reactors by spectroscopic methods are considered and compared with those of carbon deposits. The latter includes: carbon–deuterium CDx (x ~ 0.5) smooth films deposited at [...] Read more.
Studies on the erosion products of tungsten plasma-facing components (films, surfaces, and dust) for thermonuclear fusion reactors by spectroscopic methods are considered and compared with those of carbon deposits. The latter includes: carbon–deuterium CDx (x ~ 0.5) smooth films deposited at the vacuum chamber during the erosion of the graphite limiters in the T-10 tokamak and mixed CHx-Me films (Me = W, Fe, etc.) formed by irradiating a tungsten target with an intense H-plasma flux in a QSPA-T plasma accelerator. It is shown that the formerly developed technique for studying CDx films with 15 methods, including spectroscopic methods, such as XPS, TDS, EPR, Raman, and FT-IR, is universal and can be supplemented by a number of new methods for tungsten materials, including in situ analysis of the MAPP type using XPS, SEM, TEM, and probe methods, and nuclear reaction method. In addition, the analysis of the fractality of the CDx films using SAXS + WAXS is compared with the analysis of the fractal structures formed on tungsten and carbon surfaces under the action of high-intensity plasma fluxes. A comparative analysis of spectroscopic studies on carbon and tungsten deposits makes it possible to identify the problems of the safe operation of thermonuclear fusion reactors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Physics of Plasma Technologies II)
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