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Secure and Sustainable Energy System

A topical collection in Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This collection belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

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Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Global Studies, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi 259-1292, Japan
Interests: energy policy; energy finance; green finance; sustainability; banking and finance

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA), Jakarta Pusat 10270, Indonesia
Interests: energy policy; energy finance; green finance; sustainability; banking and finance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Alarming reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have shown that climate change is a pressing matter that needs to be addressed, and in 2015, United Nations (UN) members agreed upon keeping global warming below 2°C through their Nationally Determined Contribution. The UN also acknowledged the matter by adding ‘Climate Action’ as one of their Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Yet, IPCC and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) reports keep highlighting that further actions need to be taken to reach this goal and fulfill SDGs. Increasing the share of sustainable energy resources in the energy baskets would not only reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions — in line with the SDGs and the Paris Agreement — but would also increase energy security (Taghizadeh et al. 2019).

Several developed and developing economies are still following pro-fossil fuel energy policies, and the extra GHG generated by new coal-fired power plants could more than wipe out any reductions in emissions made by other nations. One of the biggest barriers in the development of sustainable energy system is the low level of investment (Sachs, Woo, Yoshino, and Taghizadeh-Hesary, 2019). The lack of long‐term financing, the low rate of return, the existence of various risks, and the lack of capacity of market players are major challenges for the development of sustainable energy systems. (Taghizadeh-Hesary and Yoshino, 2019; 2020).

With this background, this Special Issue aims to collect high-quality, unpublished, empirical case studies or thematic studies that assess the challenges for the development of secure and sustainable energy systems and provide practical policy recommendations. Empirical studies need to be developed based on well-established theoretical frameworks. Papers needs to be prepared based on the “Sustainability” guideline for the authors.

Guest Editors,

Reference:

Sachs J.D., Woo W.T., Yoshino N., Taghizadeh-Hesary F. (2019) Importance of Green Finance for Achieving Sustainable Development Goals and Energy Security. Handbook of Green Finance. Energy Security and Sustainable Development. Sachs J.D., Woo W.T., Yoshino N., Taghizadeh-Hesary F. (eds.), Tokyo: Springer

Taghizadeh-Hesary, F., Yoshino, N., Chang, Y., Rillo, A.D. (2019). Introduction. Achieving Energy Security in Asia: Diversification, Integration and Policy Implications. F. Taghizadeh-Hesary, N. Yoshino, Y. Chang, A.D. Rillo (eds.) Singapore: World Scientific

Taghizadeh-Hesary F., Yoshino N. (2019). The way to induce private participation in green finance and investment, Finance Research Letters, 31: 98-103

Taghizadeh-Hesary, F.; Yoshino, N. (2020). Sustainable Solutions for Green Financing and Investment in Renewable Energy Projects. Energies, 13, 788, https://doi.org/10.3390/en13040788

Prof. Dr. Farhad Taghizadeh–Hesary
Dr. Han Phoumin
Guest Editors

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Keywords

• Sustainability
• Energy security
• Sustainable energy
• Green energy
• Low-carbon energy
• Renewable energy
• Clean energy
• Green finance
• Green economy
• Green development
• Green fiscal policy
• Green bond
• Green bank
• Carbon taxation
• Pollution taxation
• Energy efficiency
• Energy systems
• Liberalization and the environment.

Published Papers (17 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021, 2020

27 pages, 6497 KiB  
Article
Multi-Criteria Decision-Making System for Wind Farm Site-Selection Using Geographic Information System (GIS): Case Study of Semnan Province, Iran
by Hossein Yousefi, Saheb Ghanbari Motlagh and Mohammad Montazeri
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7640; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137640 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3830
Abstract
Selecting the best place for constructing a renewable power plant is a vital issue that can be considered a site-selection problem. Various factors are involved in selecting the best location for a renewable power plant. Therefore, it categorizes as a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) [...] Read more.
Selecting the best place for constructing a renewable power plant is a vital issue that can be considered a site-selection problem. Various factors are involved in selecting the best location for a renewable power plant. Therefore, it categorizes as a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In this study, the site selection of a wind power plant is investigated in a central province of Iran, Semnan. The main criteria for classifying various parts of the province were selected and pairwise compared using experts’ opinions in this field. Furthermore, multiple restrictions were applied according to local and constitutional rules and regulations. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to weigh the criteria, and according to obtained weights, wind speed, and slope were the essential criteria. Moreover, a geographic information system (GIS) is used to apply the weighted criteria and restrictions. The province’s area is classified into nine classes according to the results. Based on the restrictions, 36.2% of the total area was unsuitable, mainly located in the north part of the province. Furthermore, 2.68% (2618 km2) and 4.98% (4857 km2) of the total area are the ninth and eightieth classes, respectively, which are the best locations for constructing a wind farm. The results show that, although the wind speed and slope are the most essential criteria, the distance from power facilities and communication routes has an extreme impact on the initial costs and final results. The results of this study are reliable and can help to develop the wind farm industry in the central part of Iran. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022, 2020

21 pages, 2717 KiB  
Article
Study on Combustion Characteristics and Thermodynamic Parameters of Thermal Degradation of Guinea Grass (Megathyrsus maximus) in N2-Pyrolytic and Oxidative Atmospheres
by Ayokunle O. Balogun, Adekunle A. Adeleke, Peter P. Ikubanni, Samuel O. Adegoke, Abdulbaset M. Alayat and Armando G. McDonald
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010112 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2027
Abstract
This study provides an extensive investigation on the kinetics, combustion characteristics, and thermodynamic parameters of the thermal degradation of guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus) in N2-pyrolytic and oxidative atmospheres. A model-fitting technique and three different iso-conversional techniques were used to [...] Read more.
This study provides an extensive investigation on the kinetics, combustion characteristics, and thermodynamic parameters of the thermal degradation of guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus) in N2-pyrolytic and oxidative atmospheres. A model-fitting technique and three different iso-conversional techniques were used to investigate the kinetics of the thermal process, after which an analysis of the combustion characteristics and thermodynamic parameters was undertaken. Prior to this, experiments on the physico-chemical characterization, thermogravimetric, and spectroscopic analyses were carried out to provide insight into the compositional structure of the guinea grass. The volatile matter, fixed carbon, and total lignin contents by mass were 73.0%, 16.1%, and 21.5%, respectively, while the higher heating value was 15.46 MJ/kg. The cellulose crystallinity index, determined by XRD, was 0.43. The conversion of the GG in air proceeded at a relatively much higher rate as the maximum mass-loss rate peak in a 20 K/min read was −23.1 and −12.3%/min for the oxidative and the pyrolytic, respectively. The kinetics investigation revealed three distinctive stages of decomposition with their corresponding values of activation energy. The average values of activation energy (FWO) at the latter stages of decomposition in the pyrolytic processes (165 kJ/mol) were higher than those in the oxidative processes (125 kJ/mol)—an indication of the distinctive phenomenon at this stage of the reaction. The Coats–Redfern kinetic model revealed that chemical reactions and diffusional models played a predominant role in the thermal decomposition process of the GG. This study showed that the thermodynamic parameters varied with the conversion ratio, and the combustion performance increased with the heating rates. The use of GG as an energy feedstock is recommended based on the findings from this work. Full article
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17 pages, 15831 KiB  
Article
Environmental Assessment of Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Technology System with Phase Change Material for Domestic Heating Applications
by Daniel Chocontá Bernal, Edmundo Muñoz, Giovanni Manente, Adriano Sciacovelli, Hossein Ameli and Alejandro Gallego-Schmid
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11265; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011265 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3360
Abstract
The emissions generated by the space and water heating of UK homes need to be reduced to meet the goal of becoming carbon neutral by 2050. The combination of solar (S) collectors with latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) technologies with phase change [...] Read more.
The emissions generated by the space and water heating of UK homes need to be reduced to meet the goal of becoming carbon neutral by 2050. The combination of solar (S) collectors with latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) technologies with phase change materials (PCM) can potentially help to achieve this goal. However, there is limited understanding of the environmental sustainability of LHTES technologies from a full life cycle perspective. This study assesses for the first time 18 environmental impacts of a full S-LHTES-PCM system from a cradle to grave perspective and compares the results with the most common sources of heat in UK homes. The results show that the system’s main environmental hotspots are the solar collector, the PCM, the PCM tank, and the heat exchanger. The main cause of most of the impacts is the extensive consumption of electricity and heat during the production of raw materials for these components. The comparison with other sources of household heat (biomass, heat pump, and natural gas) indicates that the S-LHTES-PCM system generates the highest environmental impact in 11 of 18 categories. However, a sensitivity analysis based on the lifetime of the S-LHTES-PCM systems shows that, when the lifetime increases to 40 years, almost all the impacts are significantly reduced. In fact, a 40-year S-LHTES-PCM system has a lower global warming potential than natural gas. Full article
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21 pages, 2666 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Energy-Related Infrastructure Development in the Mekong Subregion: Key Drivers and Policy Implications
by Han Phoumin, Sopheak Meas and Hatda Pich An
Sustainability 2021, 13(10), 5720; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13105720 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3825
Abstract
Many players have supported infrastructure development in the Mekong Subregion, bridging the missing links in Southeast Asia. While the influx of energy-related infrastructure development investments to the region has improved the livelihoods of millions of people on the one hand, it has brought [...] Read more.
Many players have supported infrastructure development in the Mekong Subregion, bridging the missing links in Southeast Asia. While the influx of energy-related infrastructure development investments to the region has improved the livelihoods of millions of people on the one hand, it has brought about a myriad of challenges to the wider region in guiding investments for quality infrastructure and for promoting a low-carbon economy, and energy access and affordability, on the other hand. Besides reviewing key regional initiatives for infrastructure investment and development, this paper examines energy demand and supply, and forecasts energy consumption in the subregion during 2017–2050 using energy modeling scenario analysis. The study found that to satisfy growing energy demand in the subregion, huge power generation infrastructure investment, estimated at around USD 190 billion–220 billion, is necessary between 2017 and 2050 and that such an investment will need to be guided by appropriate policy. We argue that without redesigning energy policy towards high-quality energy infrastructure, it is very likely that the increasing use of coal upon which the region greatly depends will lead to the widespread construction of coal-fired power plants, which could result in increased greenhouse gas and carbon dioxide emissions. Full article
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24 pages, 1591 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the Characteristics of Green Bond Markets to Facilitate Green Finance in the Post-COVID-19 World
by Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary, Naoyuki Yoshino and Han Phoumin
Sustainability 2021, 13(10), 5719; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13105719 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 91 | Viewed by 9967
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic and the global recessions have reduced the investments in green projects globally that would endanger the achievement of the climate-related goals. Therefore, the post-COVID-19 world needs to adopt the green financial system by introducing new financial instruments. In this regard, [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic and the global recessions have reduced the investments in green projects globally that would endanger the achievement of the climate-related goals. Therefore, the post-COVID-19 world needs to adopt the green financial system by introducing new financial instruments. In this regard, green bonds—a type of debt instrument aiming to finance sustainable infrastructure projects—are growing in popularity. While the literature does not contest their effectiveness in fighting climate change, research highlights the high level of risks and low returns associated with this instrument. This study analyzes the green bond markets in different regions with a focus on Asia and the Pacific. It aims to fill the gap in the literature by conducting a comparative study of the characteristics, risks, and returns of green bonds based on the region. The study is based on theoretical background and empirical analysis using the data retrieved from Bloomberg New Energy Finance and the Climate Bonds Initiative. The empirical results are based on several econometrics tests using panel data analysis estimation methods, namely pooled ordinary least squares and generalized least squares random effects estimator. Our findings prove that green bonds in Asia tend to show higher returns but higher risks and higher heterogeneity. Generally, the Asian green bonds market is dominated by the banking sector, representing 60% of all issuance. Given that bonds issued by this sector tend to show lower returns than average, we recommend policies that could increase the rate of return of bonds issued by the banking sector through the use of tax spillover. In the era of post-COVID-19, diversification of issuers, with higher participation from the public sector and de-risking policies, could also be considered. Full article
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19 pages, 8260 KiB  
Article
Optimal Allocation of Gas Resources to Different Consumption Sectors Using Multi-Objective Goal Programming
by Ieva Meidute-Kavaliauskiene, Vida Davidaviciene, Shahryar Ghorbani and Iman Ghasemian Sahebi
Sustainability 2021, 13(10), 5663; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13105663 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2069
Abstract
Natural gas is a main source of energy in Iran, and optimal allocation to different sectors is crucial, based on realities, geopolitical considerations, and national security concerns. In this paper, a multi-objective goal programming model is developed to study the optimal allocation of [...] Read more.
Natural gas is a main source of energy in Iran, and optimal allocation to different sectors is crucial, based on realities, geopolitical considerations, and national security concerns. In this paper, a multi-objective goal programming model is developed to study the optimal allocation of this resource to various consumption sectors, including household business, industry, petrochemical industry, power plants, injection to oil fields, and export from Iran for the horizon of 2025. In this research, the energy security index is prioritized over other indicators. Two objective functions are considered: the first is maximizing the energy security index (minimizing the cost of energy security), and the second is minimizing the relative weight of different consumption sectors. The goal share of the various gas sectors, the amount of consumption of the various consumption sectors, and the allocatable and predicted amount for each year is calculated. Household business, power plants, petrochemical industries, industry, and export aid injection to oil fields are the most consuming sectors in 2025, respectively. Also, based on cost minimization, power plants, petrochemical industries, and industries in general are the more consuming sectors, respectively. Full article
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14 pages, 1012 KiB  
Article
Harnessing Wind Energy Potential in ASEAN: Modelling and Policy Implications
by Youngho Chang and Han Phoumin
Sustainability 2021, 13(8), 4279; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084279 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3348
Abstract
This study examines whether and how harnessing more wind energy can decrease the cost of meeting the demand for electricity and amount of carbon emissions in the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region, using the ASEAN integrated electricity trade model. Three scenarios [...] Read more.
This study examines whether and how harnessing more wind energy can decrease the cost of meeting the demand for electricity and amount of carbon emissions in the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region, using the ASEAN integrated electricity trade model. Three scenarios are considered: a counterfactual business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, which assumes no wind energy is used; an actual BAU scenario that uses the wind-generation capacity in 2018; and a REmap scenario, which employs the wind-generation capacity from the Renewable Energy Outlook for ASEAN. Simulation results suggest that dispatching more wind energy decreases the cost of meeting the demand for electricity and amount of carbon emissions. However, these emissions increase during the late years of the study period, as the no- or low-emitting energy-generation technologies are crowded out. Full article
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18 pages, 293 KiB  
Article
Environmental Efficiency Analysis for Multi Plants Production Technologies
by Mojtaba Ghiyasi and Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 3989; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073989 - 2 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1395
Abstract
The current article extends the literature by proposing new models for estimating the classical and environmental performance of multi-plant firms. This yields some new indices for capturing the environmental performance vs. classical economic performance at the local and global level. The proposed approaches [...] Read more.
The current article extends the literature by proposing new models for estimating the classical and environmental performance of multi-plant firms. This yields some new indices for capturing the environmental performance vs. classical economic performance at the local and global level. The proposed approaches and indices were applied for the economic and environmental performance assessment of 46 power plants in Iran. The primary result emphasizes considering not only local environmental performance but also global performance to have a broad insight of environmental performance assessments. Moreover, we find only a few power plants with a resistant environmental performance at the global level. Proposed models in this article are general because they can be utilized in environmental analysis of any multiple plant production units. Full article
29 pages, 3912 KiB  
Article
ASEAN’s Energy Transition towards Cleaner Energy System: Energy Modelling Scenarios and Policy Implications
by Han Phoumin, Fukunari Kimura and Jun Arima
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2819; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052819 - 5 Mar 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 6403
Abstract
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) faces tremendous challenges regarding the future energy landscape and how the energy transition will embrace a new architecture—including sound policies and technologies to ensure energy access together with affordability, energy security, and energy sustainability. Given the [...] Read more.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) faces tremendous challenges regarding the future energy landscape and how the energy transition will embrace a new architecture—including sound policies and technologies to ensure energy access together with affordability, energy security, and energy sustainability. Given the high share of fossil fuels in ASEAN’s current energy mix (oil, coal, and natural gas comprise almost 80%), the clean use of fossil fuels through the deployment of clean technologies is indispensable for decarbonizing ASEAN’s emissions. The future energy landscape of ASEAN will rely on today’s actions, policies, and investments to change the fossil fuel-based energy system towards a cleaner energy system, but any decisions and energy policy measures to be rolled out during the energy transition need to be weighed against potentially higher energy costs, affordability issues, and energy security risks. This paper employs energy modelling scenarios to seek plausible policy options for ASEAN to achieve more emissions reductions as well as energy savings, and to assess the extent to which the composition of the energy mix will be changed under various energy policy scenarios. The results imply policy recommendations for accelerating the share of renewables, adopting clean technologies and the clean use of fossil fuels, and investing in climate-resilient energy quality infrastructure. Full article
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15 pages, 4175 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Assessment of Energy Supply Security: Korea Case Study
by Herie Park and Sungwoo Bae
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041854 - 8 Feb 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3030
Abstract
Ensuring energy supply security has become one of the most important purposes for many countries. To make the strategies for ensuring the energy supply security of a country, it is essential to quantitatively assess the security. This paper aims to present a methodology [...] Read more.
Ensuring energy supply security has become one of the most important purposes for many countries. To make the strategies for ensuring the energy supply security of a country, it is essential to quantitatively assess the security. This paper aims to present a methodology to evaluate the energy supply security of a country by using different indices of energy dependence and energy diversity, which have been raised as two main paradigms of energy supply security. This study also proposes two indices reflecting the correlation between a country’s energy diversity and energy import dependence to evaluate its energy supply security based on easily accessible data. The presented methodology and indices were applied to the evaluation of the primary energy supply security of Korea from 1991 to 2018. The results show that a country highly dependent on energy imports is not evaluated as secure enough in terms of energy supply even if it obtains higher energy diversity. This finding supports the importance of the correlation of energy dependence and energy diversity of a country to ensure its energy supply security. This approach could be further adapted to other countries and help them to make their energy policy and strategies. Full article
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16 pages, 1423 KiB  
Article
Cost–Benefit Analysis of HELE and Subcritical Coal-Fired Electricity Generation Technologies in Southeast Asia
by Hassan Ali, Han Phoumin, Steven R. Weller and Beni Suryadi
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031591 - 2 Feb 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4949
Abstract
A large potential exists in the Southeast Asia region for deployment of high-efficiency, low-emission (HELE) electricity generation technologies. A cost–benefit analysis of HELE technologies compared to the less efficient subcritical electricity generation plants is thus carried out to find a persuasive scenario supporting [...] Read more.
A large potential exists in the Southeast Asia region for deployment of high-efficiency, low-emission (HELE) electricity generation technologies. A cost–benefit analysis of HELE technologies compared to the less efficient subcritical electricity generation plants is thus carried out to find a persuasive scenario supporting quicker transition from subcritical stations towards HELE technologies in the region. A levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) analysis is carried out for both technologies under four potential policy scenarios. Scenario 1 does not take into consideration any carbon pricing or costs associated with the desulphurization (deSOx) and denitrification (deNOx) facilities. Scenario 2 (Scenario 3) incorporates carbon pricing (costs associated with the deSOx and deNOx facilities), and Scenario 4 includes both carbon pricing and costs associated with the deSOx and deNOx facilities. Under each scenario, a sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate the uncertainty affecting the future coal prices. This study demonstrates that HELE technologies are competitive against the subcritical plants under all four scenarios and both the technologies derive benefit from lifetime extensions and low coal prices. It is revealed that future deployments of HELE technologies can be best expedited by factoring in carbon pricing in LCOE costs of coal-fired power plants under Scenario 2. Full article
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19 pages, 1031 KiB  
Review
Green Technological Development and Deployment in the Association of Southeast Asian Economies (ASEAN)—At Crossroads or Roundabout?
by Rabindra Nepal, Han Phoumin and Abiral Khatri
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020758 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 6100
Abstract
Southeast Asia faces one of the fastest growths in electricity demand in the world, driven by increasing incomes, urbanization and industrialization. Development and deployment of green energy technologies offer a natural conduit to meet the growing electricity needs of the Association of Southeast [...] Read more.
Southeast Asia faces one of the fastest growths in electricity demand in the world, driven by increasing incomes, urbanization and industrialization. Development and deployment of green energy technologies offer a natural conduit to meet the growing electricity needs of the Association of Southeast Asian Economies (ASEAN) region while also serving as a viable strategy to adapt to climate change. The aim of this study is to formulate the policy lessons for the ASEAN economies and governments in facilitating the development and deployment of green technologies and alternatives energy options based on a specific case review of the ASEAN. The ASEAN economic region is prioritizing sustainable economic growth while minimizing the regional impacts of climate change through decarbonization. The study undertakes a case-specific analysis in reviewing green energy deployment in the context of green growth and energy transition using secondary data sources and discusses the current status and future options of renewable energy development in the ASEAN. We find that carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies will allow the ASEAN to continue to use fossil fuels while achieving sustainable economic growth as coal demand increases in the region. The deployment of CCS technologies will also act as an enabler of hydrogen energy as a green energy solution in the region in the longer term. Boosting public acceptance to nuclear energy, implementing energy efficiency improvement policies and eliminating fossil fuels consumption subsidies are feasible short-term and medium-term policies. Increasing both the public and private sector energy investments and development of CCS technologies in the longer term are necessary complementary policies to maximize the benefits of greater deployment of renewable energy sources in the region and combat climate change. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2022, 2021

15 pages, 2472 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Approach to the Realization of Saudi Arabia’s Energy Sustainability
by Mohammed Siddig H. Mohammed, Abdulsalam Alhawsawi and Abdelfattah Y. Soliman
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010205 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2473
Abstract
As system thinking is a recognized approach to the comprehension and realization of energy sustainability, this paper applies a holistic representation to the World Energy Trilemma Index (WETI) key indicators using Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) to illuminate the probabilistic information of their influences [...] Read more.
As system thinking is a recognized approach to the comprehension and realization of energy sustainability, this paper applies a holistic representation to the World Energy Trilemma Index (WETI) key indicators using Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) to illuminate the probabilistic information of their influences in Saudi Arabia’s context. The reached realization is suggested to inform the policies to improve energy sustainability, and thus the country’s rank in the WETI. The analysis used two groups of learning cases, one used the energy statistics of the period from 1995 to 2019 to show the outlook of the Business as Usual path, and the other addressed the projected data for the period from 2018 to 2037 to investigate the expected impact of the new policies. For both BAU and new policies, the BBN calculated the improvement, stability, and declining beliefs. The most influential factors on energy sustainability performance were the electricity generation mix, CO2 emissions, energy intensity, and energy storage. Moreover, the interlinkage between the influential indicators and their causes was estimated in the new policies model. A back-casting analysis was carried out to show the changes required to drive the improvement belief to 100%. The compiled BBN can be used to support structuring policymaking and analyzing the projections’ outcomes by investigating different scenarios for improvement probabilities of energy sustainability. Full article
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21 pages, 4890 KiB  
Article
Blockchain-Based Securing of Data Exchange in a Power Transmission System Considering Congestion Management and Social Welfare
by Moslem Dehghani, Mohammad Ghiasi, Taher Niknam, Abdollah Kavousi-Fard, Mokhtar Shasadeghi, Noradin Ghadimi and Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010090 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 172 | Viewed by 5516
Abstract
Using blockchain technology as one of the new methods to enhance the cyber and physical security of power systems has grown in importance over the past few years. Blockchain can also be used to improve social welfare and provide sustainable energy for consumers. [...] Read more.
Using blockchain technology as one of the new methods to enhance the cyber and physical security of power systems has grown in importance over the past few years. Blockchain can also be used to improve social welfare and provide sustainable energy for consumers. In this article, the effect of distributed generation (DG) resources on the transmission power lines and consequently fixing its conjunction and reaching the optimal goals and policies of this issue to exploit these resources is investigated. In order to evaluate the system security level, a false data injection attack (FDIA) is launched on the information exchanged between independent system operation (ISO) and under-operating agents. The results are analyzed based on the cyber-attack, wherein the loss of network stability as well as economic losses to the operator would be the outcomes. It is demonstrated that cyber-attacks can cause the operation of distributed production resources to not be carried out correctly and the network conjunction will fall to a large extent; with the elimination of social welfare, the main goals and policies of an independent system operator as an upstream entity are not fulfilled. Besides, the contracts between independent system operators with distributed production resources are not properly closed. In order to stop malicious attacks, a secured policy architecture based on blockchain is developed to keep the security of the data exchanged between ISO and under-operating agents. The obtained results of the simulation confirm the effectiveness of using blockchain to enhance the social welfare for power system users. Besides, it is demonstrated that ISO can modify its polices and use the potential and benefits of distributed generation units to increase social welfare and reduce line density by concluding contracts in accordance with the production values given. Full article
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15 pages, 991 KiB  
Article
Potential Renewable Hydrogen from Curtailed Electricity to Decarbonize ASEAN’s Emissions: Policy Implications
by Han Phoumin, Fukunari Kimura and Jun Arima
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10560; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410560 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4524
Abstract
The power generation mix of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is dominated by fossil fuels, which accounted for almost 80% in 2017 and are expected to account for 82% in 2050 if the region does not transition to cleaner energy systems. [...] Read more.
The power generation mix of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is dominated by fossil fuels, which accounted for almost 80% in 2017 and are expected to account for 82% in 2050 if the region does not transition to cleaner energy systems. Solar and wind power are the most abundant energy resources but contribute negligibly to the power mix. Investors in solar or wind farms face high risks from electricity curtailment if surplus electricity is not used. Employing the policy scenario analysis of the energy outlook modelling results, this paper examines the potential scalability of renewable hydrogen production from curtailed electricity in scenarios of high share of variable renewable energy in the power generation mix. The study found that ASEAN has high potential in developing renewable hydrogen production from curtailed electricity. The study further found that the falling cost of renewable hydrogen production could be a game changer to upscaling the large-scale hydrogen production in ASEAN through policy support. The results implied a future role of renewable hydrogen in energy transition to decarbonize ASEAN’s emissions. Full article
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21 pages, 2108 KiB  
Article
Reassessing the Environmental Kuznets Curve in Relation to Energy Efficiency and Economic Growth
by Jie Zhang, Majed Alharthi, Qaiser Abbas, Weiqing Li, Muhammad Mohsin, Khan Jamal and Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8346; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208346 - 10 Oct 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3647
Abstract
Energy consumption and its efficiency are significant factors for economic growth and environmental stress. This study postulates the occurrence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis (EKC) by using the Autoregressive-Distributed Lag (ARDL) model. Furthermore, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is used to [...] Read more.
Energy consumption and its efficiency are significant factors for economic growth and environmental stress. This study postulates the occurrence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis (EKC) by using the Autoregressive-Distributed Lag (ARDL) model. Furthermore, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is used to measure energy efficiency, energy intensity, and environment to view the trajectory of EKC for the underline economies. For this purpose, a panel dataset from 1990–2013 of 15 developing countries is analyzed to verify the objectives mentioned above. The results of the panel ARDL support EKC’s theory for underline economies, as GDP positively impacts carbon emissions, while the square of GDP is negatively related. The DEA-based results found relatively low environmental conditions in these emerging economies due to high energy intensity and low energy efficiency. This outcome suggests that renewable energy sources must be treated as an essential factor for achieving sustainable economic goals without environmental degradation. Full article
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17 pages, 734 KiB  
Article
The Roles of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Coordinated Development Strategy in Industrial Energy and Related Pollutant Emission Intensities
by Cong Hu, Biliang Hu, Xunpeng Shi and Yan Wu
Sustainability 2020, 12(19), 7973; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12197973 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5922
Abstract
This study investigates the different impacts of coordinated development in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region on industrial energy and pollution intensities based on the difference-in-difference (DID) method and the quantile DID method. The panel data cover industrial energy consumption and three wastes, which are [...] Read more.
This study investigates the different impacts of coordinated development in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region on industrial energy and pollution intensities based on the difference-in-difference (DID) method and the quantile DID method. The panel data cover industrial energy consumption and three wastes, which are industrial wastewater, sulfur dioxide, and dust emissions, from all 13 cities in the BTH region and 17 cities in Henan Province for the period 2007–2017. The study finds that China’s BTH coordinated development strategy, on average, tends to restrain regional industrial energy intensity, especially in lower quantile level (0.1–0.4) cities. However, it tends to promote industrial energy intensity in higher quantile level (0.7–0.9) cities. The impacts on pollution intensities vary among industrial wastewater, sulfur dioxide, and dust emissions. The results suggest that, in addition to paying attention to dust pollution caused by transportation integration in the BTH region, China should also pay more attention to green relocation of industries from Beijing to Hebei and strengthen coordinated environmental regulation while maintaining corporate interests. Full article
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