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Sustainability and Rural Tourism

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Tourism, Culture, and Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2021) | Viewed by 45488

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Economics, Management, Industrial Engineering and Tourism, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: consumer behavior in tourism; tourist experience; sustainability, destination marketing; rural tourism; wine tourism; host-guest interaction; accessible tourism

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Guest Editor
Red Kite Environment - Consultants in Tourism, Protected Area and Heritage Management, UK; EURAC Research, Centre for Advanced Studies, Bolzano-Bozen, Italy
Interests: rural tourism; sustainable development; sustainable tourism; heritage tourism; rural entrepreneurship

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Economics, Management, Industrial Engineering and Tourism (DEGEIT), University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal
2. Governance, Competitiveness and Public Policies (GOVCOPP) Research Unit, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal
Interests: consumer behavior in tourism; sustainable tourism; acessible tourism; cultural tourism; competitiveness of tourism destinations
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Rural tourism has received increasing attention from academics and professionals in diverse fields. Identified as an opportunity to diversify and help develop tourism rural regions, it is simultaneously based on growing trends in tourism demand for more authentic, involving, slow and personalized, co-creative experiences in unique tourism contexts. It also potentially contributes to sustainable local/regional development due to its multiplier effects, enhancing local economies, justifying heritage conservation, and empowering local communities to make the best use of endogenous resources, local products and competences.

This call seeks papers from a wide range of disciplines and regions that explore the questions, techniques and dilemmas involved in the sustainable development and management of Rural Tourism. The Special Issue will be guest edited by Professors Elisabeth Kastenholz and Maria João Carneiro, both at University of Aveiro, Portugal, and by Bernard Lane, the founding Editor of the Journal of Sustainable Tourism. All have considerable experience in the subject, and in researching, editing and publishing.

Theoretical and empirical contributions are invited on subjects, including, but not limited to:

  • The history and ongoing evolution of Rural Tourism;
  • Motivations for visiting rural areas, benefits, activities and experiences sought;
  • Sustainable product development in Rural Tourism, including co-creating experiences, bio-diversity conservation, and conservation support;
  • Sustainability issues in targeting, segmenting and positioning in Rural Tourism;
  • Promotion and communication in Rural Tourism; social marketing and nudge theory in sustainable Rural Tourism.
  • Sustainability certification as a marketing tool in Rural Tourism;
  • The nature of rural tourist experiences and their outcomes;
  • Rural tourism’s threats to sustainability (especially to local cultures, communities and environments), and management opportunities;
  • Agriculture, the farming community and synergies with tourism;
  • Heritage interpretation for rural areas, including biodiversity;
  • Climate change and Rural Tourism;
  • Slow rural tourism destinations and experiences;
  • Corridors, trails and route development in the countryside;
  • Wine and food tourism, wine routes and experiences;
  • Lifestyle entrepreneurship in rural tourism;
  • Rural tourism strategy making, implementation and project method;
  • Governing rural tourism destinations; empowering local communities; using and conserving endogenous resources, local products and competences;
  • Rural Tourism partnerships at local, regional, national and international levels;
  • Rural ‘bonds and bridges’: network dynamics within and between rural areas and between rural and urban areas;
  • New trends and issues in Rural Tourism, including wellness, AirBnB, co-working with protected areas, and specific cultural tourism types.

Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Kastenholz
Prof. Dr. Bernard Lane
Prof. Dr. Maria João Carneiro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Rural Tourism
  • Sustainability
  • Rural Tourism Markets
  • Rural Tourism Experiences
  • Rural Communities
  • Rural Tourism Attractions
  • Rural Tourism Entrepreneurship
  • Rural Tourism Marketing
  • Local Products
  • Rural Destinations
  • Networks
  • Governance

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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15 pages, 288 KiB  
Editorial
Rural Tourism and Sustainability: A Special Issue, Review and Update for the Opening Years of the Twenty-First Century
by Bernard Lane, Elisabeth Kastenholz and Maria João Carneiro
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6070; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106070 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4577
Abstract
Rural Tourism became a worldwide and growing activity during the late 1970s and early 1980s [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Rural Tourism)

Research

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17 pages, 464 KiB  
Article
Challenges for Collecting Questionnaire-Based Onsite Survey Data in a Niche Tourism Market Context: The Case of Wine Tourism in Rural Areas
by Diana Cunha, Elisabeth Kastenholz and Bernard Lane
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12251; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112251 - 6 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3284
Abstract
Questionnaire-based surveys are among the most widespread data collection methods in tourism research. However, the special features of rural tourism, with frequently spontaneous, non-massive visitation patterns and sparse visitor numbers, pose challenges to onsite questionnaire administration. Researchers must address these problems to make [...] Read more.
Questionnaire-based surveys are among the most widespread data collection methods in tourism research. However, the special features of rural tourism, with frequently spontaneous, non-massive visitation patterns and sparse visitor numbers, pose challenges to onsite questionnaire administration. Researchers must address these problems to make sample recruitment easier and more effective, while maintaining the goals of representativeness of population and data validity. Using the rural wine tourism context, this article identifies the major challenges for questionnaire-based onsite surveys and suggests best practice procedures. Challenges are discussed using three complementary perspectives: of the supply agents, of the research subjects (the visitors) and of the researchers. The article presents the theory and case study-inspired reflection on the potential strategies of overcoming these challenges and guaranteeing the largest possible number of visitors surveyed in contexts where visitors are few. The discussion includes the questionnaire’s characteristics; the physical setting of its administration; the researchers involved; the visitors approached; the social interactions and influences occurring during the process. Issues with the future use of alternative online forums are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Rural Tourism)
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14 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Agritourism Development in the USA: The Strategy of the State of Michigan
by Xiaowen Jin, Hao Wu, Jing Zhang and Guangming He
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11360; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011360 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3721
Abstract
Agritourism has been widely promoted by governments at many levels, especially in the developed regions of Europe and North America, as a tool to revitalize rural economies and as a sustainable path. Research on agritourism has mainly focused on defining and categorizing agritourism, [...] Read more.
Agritourism has been widely promoted by governments at many levels, especially in the developed regions of Europe and North America, as a tool to revitalize rural economies and as a sustainable path. Research on agritourism has mainly focused on defining and categorizing agritourism, farmers’ perceptions, tourists’ attitudes, tourism benefits, and marketing. However, little attention has been paid to characterizing the processes and strategies of agritourism development in a relatively large region, for instance, in a state or a province. This article uses the state of Michigan in the Midwest of the USA as a case study, systematically collecting academic publications from several literature databases on agritourism, the state’s regulation and policies on agritourism, the development of agritourism associations, the participation of universities in agritourism related to academic and outreach activities, identifying key and critical developmental events, and reconstructing the historical phases of the agritourism development process. It summarizes the significant characteristics of agritourism’s development in the state of Michigan, the state government’s comprehensive strategy and leadership, the universities’ strong intellectual support, and the consistent involvement of the industrial associations, as well as the interactions of these three parties at the different developmental stages of agritourism. The discussion is set in the wider context of agritourism’s development in the USA. We conclude by presenting the implications and recommendations derived from the agritourism development experience in the state of Michigan. We specifically discuss the relevance of the Michigan experience for agritourism stakeholders in other regions worldwide, especially those that are still in the early stages of agritourism development, such as China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Rural Tourism)
16 pages, 1301 KiB  
Article
Tourist and Viral Mobilities Intertwined: Clustering COVID-19-Driven Travel Behaviour of Rural Tourists in South Tyrol, Italy
by Anna Scuttari, Valeria Ferraretto, Agnieszka Elzbieta Stawinoga and Maximilian Walder
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11190; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011190 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2590
Abstract
Travel patterns have dramatically changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Tourism has been both a vector and a victim of the disease. This paper explores the pandemic’s impact on rural tourism, using the theoretical framework of the “mobilities turn” to investigate issues of corporeal [...] Read more.
Travel patterns have dramatically changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Tourism has been both a vector and a victim of the disease. This paper explores the pandemic’s impact on rural tourism, using the theoretical framework of the “mobilities turn” to investigate issues of corporeal and communicative travel found between the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. A sample of 874 guests visiting the Italian region of South Tyrol, where rural tourism is the norm, identified different patterns of physical travel and approaches to collecting on-site information on COVID-19. Results from a principal component analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis highlighted at least two different approaches from visitors to the region: the first is more cautious, mostly practiced by domestic tourists, with limited mobility on-site, coupled with a need for information; the second is instead a more adventurous approach, with higher on-site mobility, more use of sustainable forms of transport and less interest in data evidence on COVID-19. Implications for rural tourism and its future are discussed. The hypothesis of an inverse relationship between corporeal and communicative travel needs further exploration in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Rural Tourism)
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15 pages, 632 KiB  
Article
Labour Reconversion from the Agricultural Sector to Rural Tourism: Analysis of Rural Areas in Chile
by Claudio Mancilla and Luz María Ferrada
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11152; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011152 - 9 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
The aim of this study is to analyse the likelihood of agricultural workers in rural areas converting to the tourism sector. Chile is used as a case study, drawing on the CASEN survey of 2017 to analyse differences between the northern, central, and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to analyse the likelihood of agricultural workers in rural areas converting to the tourism sector. Chile is used as a case study, drawing on the CASEN survey of 2017 to analyse differences between the northern, central, and southern regions of the country and construct a satellite account of tourism. A matching process was carried out within the data, and the estimation of a logit model was done to assess the probability of labour reconversion. The results indicate that an agricultural worker has a 12.8% probability of retraining. However, differences emerged when demographic characteristics were analysed; specifically, people with post-secondary education and women have a higher probability of retraining. These and other sociodemographic characteristics are important to explain potential labour reconversion towards tourism in rural areas, although differences arose between areas of the country. Therefore, homogeneous public policies that do not consider the specific characteristics of the territories within a country will be ineffective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Rural Tourism)
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15 pages, 4724 KiB  
Article
The Efficiency Score of Small Accommodation Businesses in Non-Coastal Rural Areas in Greece
by Eleni Dimitriadou, Thomas Bournaris, Theodoros Stavrinoudis and Olga Iakovidou
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11005; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131911005 - 4 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2382
Abstract
Small accommodation businesses dominate the rural hospitality industry, producing simple or complex tourist products and services in order to be sustainable and competitive. In this paper, a two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) model was applied in a representative sample of 151 small accommodation [...] Read more.
Small accommodation businesses dominate the rural hospitality industry, producing simple or complex tourist products and services in order to be sustainable and competitive. In this paper, a two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) model was applied in a representative sample of 151 small accommodation businesses in non-coastal areas in the region of Central Macedonia in Greece. In the first stage, DEA-bootstrapping is applied to estimate point and interval efficiency ratios of accommodation businesses and identify the benchmark accommodations. The double bootstrapping truncated procedure of Simar and Wilson is implemented in the second stage to investigate the role of five business factors in terms of efficiency. The findings suggest that small accommodation businesses, although they are based in areas where tourist resources abound, are inefficient. Moreover, the results of the truncated regression method showed that the business’s size, the operating days, and the variety of activities (simple/complex) affect business’s inefficiency. On the contrary, the business’s age and their engagement in agriculture or not do not affect business’s efficiency. The results are important for rural entrepreneurs and policy makers, and they will also be useful for the adaptation of businesses to increase their efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Rural Tourism)
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13 pages, 591 KiB  
Article
Rural Winery Resiliency and Sustainability through the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Kynda R. Curtis and Susan L. Slocum
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10483; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810483 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3939
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the tourism industry worldwide, including the wine industry in the western U.S. due to mandated winery and tasting room closures, followed by restrictions on capacity and food- and drink-handling once wineries reopened. In California, tasting rooms were [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the tourism industry worldwide, including the wine industry in the western U.S. due to mandated winery and tasting room closures, followed by restrictions on capacity and food- and drink-handling once wineries reopened. In California, tasting rooms were fully closed from mid-March to mid-May 2020 and could not have visitors indoors through to October 2020. Hence, this study examines the resiliency of wineries in minor California wine regions, including the challenges faced during the pandemic, strategies used to sustain their business, and the attributes of their operation which contributed to success. Data were collected through structured in-person interviews with five wineries in minor California wine regions, specifically Russian River Valley and Sierra Foothills. The four themes which emerged include: lifestyle business; market differentiation; direct marketing; and the effects of COVID-19. These wineries are primarily family-owned, which gives them the ability to control costs and make decisions rapidly. They did not have a large workforce or multiple layers of management, allowing them to pivot quickly to adjust to the regulatory environment. This study on rural winery resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic will assist rural tourism operations in dealing with social and economic shocks in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Rural Tourism)
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19 pages, 4309 KiB  
Article
Breaking Brands: New Boundaries in Rural Destinations
by Isabel Paulino, Lluís Prats and Antoni Domènech
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9921; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179921 - 3 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Tourism destinations are generally delimited and branded based on administrative boundaries, which act as artificial barriers that may reduce the competitiveness of the tourism sector. Increasingly, literature is taking a demand perspective (i.e., tourist spatial behaviour) when identifying and promoting destinations. This perspective [...] Read more.
Tourism destinations are generally delimited and branded based on administrative boundaries, which act as artificial barriers that may reduce the competitiveness of the tourism sector. Increasingly, literature is taking a demand perspective (i.e., tourist spatial behaviour) when identifying and promoting destinations. This perspective can help to promote destinations more efficiently, particularly in rural areas, where most tourism flows depend on private vehicle and which do not take into account administrative boundaries. These flows are therefore highly conditioned by the geography of the area, hosting capacity and the cumulative effect of attractions. This research centres on brand creation from a tourist perspective, particularly how tourists consume a destination. Els Ports (Spain), a rural mountain area divided into multiple administrative divisions, each marketing its own brand, is taken as a case study. Recently, destination managers have seen the opportunity for regional cooperation and taken steps to cross traditional boundaries to market the area better. This study uses GIS techniques to compare tourist travel patterns with brand boundaries and new cooperative initiatives. The findings provide material for discussion on the branding strategy of Els Ports and the need to rebrand rural tourism destinations into functional tourism areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Rural Tourism)
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15 pages, 1252 KiB  
Article
“Agro”, “Agri”, or “Rural”: The Different Viewpoints of Tourism Research Combined with Sustainability and Sustainable Development
by Sofia Karampela, Alexis Andreopoulos and Alex Koutsouris
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9550; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179550 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5485
Abstract
The objective of this study is to review the different viewpoints of research addressing “agro”, “agri”, or “rural” tourism, ascertain the implications of relevant scientific articles and suggest future research avenues related to sustainability and sustainable development issues. A two-step systematic approach was [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to review the different viewpoints of research addressing “agro”, “agri”, or “rural” tourism, ascertain the implications of relevant scientific articles and suggest future research avenues related to sustainability and sustainable development issues. A two-step systematic approach was followed in identifying “agrotourism”, “agro tourism”, “agro-tourism”, “agritourism”, “agri tourism”, “agri-tourism”, or “rural tourism” articles in the Scopus database. Articles were selected if they corresponded to the keywords: sustainable development, sustainability, local development; thus, 252 papers were selected. The findings indicate that the literature does not analyze integrated approaches to sustainability, sustainable and local development in depth. The results are discussed mainly on qualitative grounds, from the supply side and with limited policy recommendations. They also display that the papers mainly refer to single case studies and comparative studies are lacking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Rural Tourism)
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20 pages, 1057 KiB  
Article
Interaction as a Central Element of Co-Creative Wine Tourism Experiences—Evidence from Bairrada, a Portuguese Wine-Producing Region
by Mariana Carvalho, Elisabeth Kastenholz and Maria João Carneiro
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9374; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169374 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3482
Abstract
Wine tourism experiences promote not only rural territories’ distinctive wine and food products, but also their local identity, natural and cultural resources and historical features that add value and uniqueness to tourist experiences. The new experience paradigm applied to tourism invites stakeholders to [...] Read more.
Wine tourism experiences promote not only rural territories’ distinctive wine and food products, but also their local identity, natural and cultural resources and historical features that add value and uniqueness to tourist experiences. The new experience paradigm applied to tourism invites stakeholders to rethink how and why tourists travel and live their experiences on holidays. Interaction and engagement are components of co-creation, stressing the central role of visitors sharing value creation with other destination stakeholders. The present qualitative study uses discourses from 22 semi-structured in-depth interviews with visitors to Portugal’s Bairrada wine region. Content analysis, carried out with QRS Nvivo 12, shows that interaction enhances wine and food experiences in several contexts. Storytelling seems to contribute to value creation, with stories co-created between winemakers or other destination stakeholders and visitors. Apart from this social interaction, visitors’ physical interaction with natural and cultural destination features is also revealed as a crucial part of wine tourism experiences. Study results suggest the importance of DMOs, facilitating co-creation experiences in wine regions, contributing to visitor satisfaction and loyalty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Rural Tourism)
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27 pages, 2614 KiB  
Article
Park–People Relationships: The Socioeconomic Monitoring of National Parks in Bavaria, Germany
by Hubert Job, Sarah Bittlingmaier, Marius Mayer, Eick von Ruschkowski and Manuel Woltering
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 8984; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168984 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3261
Abstract
Questions about park–people relationships and the understanding and handling of the conflicts that may result from the creation and management of national parks in the surrounding area are prerequisites for both successful park management and sustainable rural tourism development. This paper analyzes the [...] Read more.
Questions about park–people relationships and the understanding and handling of the conflicts that may result from the creation and management of national parks in the surrounding area are prerequisites for both successful park management and sustainable rural tourism development. This paper analyzes the roles that research may play in relation to park–people relationships in the context of the two oldest German national parks located in Bavaria. The different fields of action of national parks are used to identify the potential for conflict, using detailed case studies from the Bavarian Forest and Berchtesgaden National Parks using quantitative population surveys carried out in 2018. The overall attitude towards both national parks is overwhelmingly positive, with trust towards park administrations and the perceived economic benefits from rural tourism being the attitudes most strongly correlated to the overall level of park–people relationships. Nevertheless, some points of contention still exist, like the ecological integrity approach towards strict nature conservation and related landscape changes (e.g., deadwood cover). A comparison over time shows in both cases that the spatial proximity to the protected area negatively influences people’s attitudes towards the parks, but less so than in the past. Recommendations for national park management include communicating proactively and with greater transparency with locals and decision-makers, to identify conflicts earlier and, where possible, to eliminate them. Furthermore, developing a standardized method to monitor park–people relationships in Germany is a must and would benefit integrated approaches in research and management based on conservation social science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Rural Tourism)
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15 pages, 1721 KiB  
Article
Sustainability Communication in Rural Tourism: Website Content Analysis, in Viseu Dão Lafões Region (Portugal)
by Maria Lúcia Pato and Ana Sofia Duque
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 8849; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168849 - 7 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3291
Abstract
In the last few years, the relationship between tourism and sustainability has been consolidated. In the context of rural tourism, this connection is even stronger given the environmental specificities and the natural framework of this type of tourism. To achieve sustainability behaviors, it [...] Read more.
In the last few years, the relationship between tourism and sustainability has been consolidated. In the context of rural tourism, this connection is even stronger given the environmental specificities and the natural framework of this type of tourism. To achieve sustainability behaviors, it is crucial that rural tourism lodgings communicate their essence, as well the products and experiences available for tourists. This because it is a common practice for visitors to look for more information on the internet about where they will be staying, before booking their tourist experience. The main objective of this study is the analysis of the information provided by rural tourism lodgings, through their websites, regarding sustainability issues. The territory selected for the development of this study is the Portuguese Viseu Dão Lafões Region, located in the center of Portugal. Based on other studies, the methodology includes a content analysis, conducted on 39 rural tourism lodging websites. The results show that some improvements are needed, to clarify and emphasize the message about sustainable practices, in these rural lodgings. Some practical recommendations are provided, that can be adapted to these rural tourism lodgings, or others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Rural Tourism)
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16 pages, 506 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Mental-Health Positive Impacts of Agritourism; A Case Study from South Korea
by Mehdi Rezaei, Doohwan Kim, Ahad Alizadeh and Ladan Rokni
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 8712; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168712 - 4 Aug 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3328
Abstract
The stressful lifestyle of urban dwellers has increased the demand for green-based leisure activities; considering such growing demand, this paper investigated the potential mental health benefits of agritourism activities. The assessments were based on a questionnaire survey of two groups: visitors of agritourism [...] Read more.
The stressful lifestyle of urban dwellers has increased the demand for green-based leisure activities; considering such growing demand, this paper investigated the potential mental health benefits of agritourism activities. The assessments were based on a questionnaire survey of two groups: visitors of agritourism sites around Seoul and a control group staying home (n = 200). In addition to measuring the participants’ well-being level and stress level, they were also asked to self-estimate their immediate mood after their activities of the day. The analysis was conducted with R version 4.1.0 to explore the potential relationships and interactions between the activity of the day, perceived psychological factors, and the immediate emotional outcomes. Findings reveal that visitors to the agritourism sites perceived considerable improvement in their immediate mood compared to the control group who stayed home. Results indicate a significant interaction between self-reported wellbeing and agritourism activities and a combined effect on improved mood. Therefore, agritourism can potentially be a resource for a positive mood boost and improved mental health. The suggested practical implications can be applied as strategies to evoke the feeling of more connection to the agritourism activities and raise awareness of potential mental health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Rural Tourism)
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