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Natural Resources of Tourism: Towards Sustainable Exploitation on Regional Scale

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2021) | Viewed by 62536

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Organization and Technologies of Service Activities, Institute of Tourism, Service and Creative Industries, Southern Federal University, 23-ja Linija Street 43, Rostov-on-Don 344019, Russia
Interests: stratigraphy; paleontology; tectonics; management of natural and mineral resources; geoconservation; geotourism; ecological law and climate change policy at local, national, and international levels
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Modern tourism studies focus much on sociological determinants of tourist activities and environmental effects of tourism development. In the other words, tourism is considered as a social phenomenon with an evident ecological impact. However, such a vision is somewhat biased, because tourism itself is impossible without a valuable resource basis, and natural resources are often vital for tourism development in a given territory. These ideas have become especially clear since such innovative, nature-dependent directions of tourism as geotourism started to rise actively in the 2010s. Undoubtedly, a vast amount of knowledge of tourism resources, i.e., natural objects, systems, landscapes, processes, and events has been accumulated, but this knowledge is often neglected as something too obvious. The relevant publications are not so infrequent, but these often appear in too marginal and difficult-to-access scientific media. In fact, this situation is challenging. There are many examples demonstrating how correct understanding of natural resources, their localization, and true value facilitated tourism growth and contributed to sustainable development in particular geographical loci—countries, regions, and natural domains.

This Special Issue focuses on the characteristics of various natural resources of tourism of the world. These resources may be geological, biological, agricultural, etc. Do not forget that running water and clean air are also tourism resources, demand for which increases together with urban sprawl and anthropogenic pollution. Three main purposes of this Special Issue are (1) to provide examples of very different natural resources from very different places of the world, (2) to clarify possibilities of these resources exploitation for the purposes of tourism industry, and (3) to focus on the regional dimension of nature-based tourism development and governance. In this case, 'region' is understood broadly, i.e., as a geographical domain, province of any country, or geopolitical macroregion. No restrictions: The contributors may prefer a definition of region depending on their own research needs. The main expected outcome of this Special Issue is a realization of how natural resources can contribute to the sustainable development of tourism (including hospitality and recreation) on a regional scale. This is nothing less than an attempt to re-shape the modern tourism science and make it more resource- and region-focused.

Dr. Dmitry A. Ruban
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Tourism resources
  • Natural resources management
  • Agritourism and rural tourism
  • Ecotourism (ecological tourism)
  • Geotourism (geological tourism)
  • Wildlife tourism
  • Outdoor recreation
  • Green tourism
  • Sustainable tourism and hospitality
  • Regional tourism governance and regulation
  • Beach management
  • Ecosystem services: relevance to tourism and recreation
  • Climate change as tourism factor
  • Tourism firms and natural resources
  • Regional tourism industry and natural resources

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 194 KiB  
Editorial
Natural Resources of Tourism: Towards Sustainable Exploitation on a Regional Scale
by Dmitry A. Ruban
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6685; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126685 - 12 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3797
Abstract
Modern tourism studies focus largely on sociological perspectives on tourist activities [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

15 pages, 3884 KiB  
Article
Geological Features for Geotourism in the Zanjan and Hamadan Area, Northern Iran
by Ardalan Afrasiabian, Siamak Mahmoudi Sivand, Dragana Dogančić, Lucija Plantak and Bojan Đurin
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6587; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126587 - 9 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3072
Abstract
Iran is a land of complex geological past which reflects in its many natural wonders. There are more than 850 known caves in Iran with a total length not exceeding 1000 km, many of them not being properly explored. Two of the biggest [...] Read more.
Iran is a land of complex geological past which reflects in its many natural wonders. There are more than 850 known caves in Iran with a total length not exceeding 1000 km, many of them not being properly explored. Two of the biggest and most famous caves are Ali-Sadr and Katale-Khor. The Katale-Khor cave has a simple maze anastomotic pattern. Ghar Ali-Sadr is an anastomotic type of cave located 75 km northwest of Hamedan in a village by the same name and circa 60 km south of Katale-Khor cave. Ali-Sadr cave is considered to be one of the most unique and scenic caves in the world. One of the features that makes Ali-Sadr cave special is a fact that it is the longest and the biggest water cave in the world (from the point of the boating course inside the cave). This natural wonders in Northern Iran are great base for developing a geotourism, as a form of tourism that specifically focuses on geology and landscape. Its purpose is to promote an understanding of earth sciences through appreciation and conservation of geodiversity. The best way to achieve this is through visits to geological features and locations. Full article
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21 pages, 2560 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Attendance and Speleotourism Potential of Accessible Caves in Karst Landscape of Slovakia
by Vladimír Čech, Peter Chrastina, Bohuslava Gregorová, Pavel Hronček, Radoslav Klamár and Vladislava Košová
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 5881; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115881 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2787
Abstract
Caves represent natural phenomena that have been used by man since ancient times, first as a refuge and dwelling, and later as objects of research and tourism. In the karst landscape of Slovak Republic in Central Europe, more than 7000 caves are registered [...] Read more.
Caves represent natural phenomena that have been used by man since ancient times, first as a refuge and dwelling, and later as objects of research and tourism. In the karst landscape of Slovak Republic in Central Europe, more than 7000 caves are registered in a relatively small area, of which 18 are open to the public. This paper deals with the analysis of the speleotourism potential of 12 of these caves, administered by the Slovak Caves Administration. Based on the obtained data, we first evaluate the number of visitors in 2010–2019. Using a public opinion survey among visitors, we then evaluate the individual indicators of quality and each cave’s resulting potential. We use a modified standardization methodology and standardization of individual evaluation criteria weights for individual evaluation indicators. The resulting values of the potential of caves for speleotourism point to the great importance of these sites for domestic and foreign tourism and the protection of nature and landscape, as 5 of these caves have been part of the UNESCO World Natural and Cultural Heritage List since 1995. Full article
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15 pages, 1155 KiB  
Article
Understanding Visitors at an Urban Park by Profiling of Destination Attributes
by Jonghyun Baek, Yeeun Kim, Hyun Kim and Hwasung Song
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 4036; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13074036 - 5 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3113
Abstract
A park has a variety of attributes, providing beautiful natural scenery and a place to rest as well as a cultural space in which performances and events are held. This study aimed to examine the various destination attributes that a place has, specifically, [...] Read more.
A park has a variety of attributes, providing beautiful natural scenery and a place to rest as well as a cultural space in which performances and events are held. This study aimed to examine the various destination attributes that a place has, specifically, the resources of an urban park, by profiling visitors according to these destination attributes. The study setting, Gwanggyo Lake Park (GLP), is located in Suwon City and is in the limelight as an eco-friendly leisure and tourism destination in South Korea. As a result of profiling 595 visitors through an application of Latent Profile Analysis (LPA), three types of profiles were obtained: “Relaxation Leisure Seekers (RLS),” “Nature Environment Seekers (NES),” and “Ecological Experience Seekers (EES).” There were differences by type in visiting patterns, environmental propensity, distance from residence, and income. The results allow a better understanding of the various attributes of the park as an ecological tourism destination by visitor profile and profile-specific characteristics. Due to COVID-19, more people are visiting parks, which are natural outdoor spaces. This study provides implications for both theoretical and practical aspects of natural resource management in that it profiles visitors by highlighting parks as both leisure and tourism destinations. Full article
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19 pages, 838 KiB  
Article
Managing Herder-Community-Based Tourism: An Institutional Framework for an Integrated Social–Ecological System
by Undrakh Zagarkhorloo, Wim Heijman, Liesbeth Dries and Buyanzaya Batjargal
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 4001; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13074001 - 3 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3583
Abstract
Improving household livelihoods through tourism, while at the same time achieving the goals of conservation, remains a challenge in high-value nature areas around the world. This paper studies a herder-community-based tourism system in Mongolia in light of these challenges. The social–ecological system (SES) [...] Read more.
Improving household livelihoods through tourism, while at the same time achieving the goals of conservation, remains a challenge in high-value nature areas around the world. This paper studies a herder-community-based tourism system in Mongolia in light of these challenges. The social–ecological system (SES) framework was used as a conceptual foundation. The generic SES framework was adapted to the case of the herder-community-based tourism system. The adapted framework was then used to assess the economic, ecological, and social objectives of the herder-community-based tourism system characterised by natural resources and cultural landscapes. Primary data collection included interviews with key informants in the tourism sector: tourism researchers, representatives of donor projects, managers of tour operators, and guides. Based on their responses, the study site was selected in the buffer zone of the Hustai National Park, which is a protected area. Respondents in the second stage of interviews were herders who participate in herder-based tourism and who live in the vicinity of the protected area. Results show that the SES framework is able to diagnose the sustainability of the herder-community-tourism system, but sustainability outcomes indicate an imbalance between social, economic, and environmental performance. The herder-community-based tourism system is successful in conserving wildlife and habitats; however, the distribution of revenues gained from tourism shows that only a small and inequitable share reaches the herder community. Full article
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32 pages, 5402 KiB  
Article
Worldwide Research on Geoparks through Bibliometric Analysis
by Gricelda Herrera-Franco, Néstor Montalván-Burbano, Paúl Carrión-Mero, María Jaya-Montalvo and Miguel Gurumendi-Noriega
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031175 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 99 | Viewed by 6896
Abstract
Since the Digne Convention in 1991, the literature related to Geoparks has gained a growing interest on the academy’s part, especially in achieving the preservation of geological interest sites through sustainable tourism. This article aims to provide an analysis of the academic research [...] Read more.
Since the Digne Convention in 1991, the literature related to Geoparks has gained a growing interest on the academy’s part, especially in achieving the preservation of geological interest sites through sustainable tourism. This article aims to provide an analysis of the academic research on Geoparks, based on publications in the Scopus database in the period 2002–2020. Bibliometric analysis methods and bibliographic display maps were examined using VOSviewer software. The bibliometric analysis process comprises three phases: (i) Search Criteria and Source Identification, (ii) software and data extraction, and (iii) data analysis and interpretation. The results show geoparks in full growth as a scientific discipline, thanks to the contribution of various authors, institutions, journals, and related topics that confirm the importance of this field of study. Additionally, bibliometric maps lead to an understanding of the intellectual structure of the subject, in which keyword co-occurrence analysis shows six main themes, ranging from ‘UNESCO Global Geoparks’ to ‘Geo-tourism-Sustainable Tourism’. this, combined with maps of co-citation, broadly exhibits this structure and development, showing areas of current interest and potential development, thus offering the latest knowledge on Geopark research worldwide. There is a growing concentration of research on geomorphological heritage and geo-tourism, focusing on methodologies to evaluate the specialities of this type of heritage and define the concept of geo-tourism; there is a great interest especially in the evaluation and identification of geo-site/geo-morphosites which try to eliminate subjectivity in methods and focus on sustainable development of the localities. Full article
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16 pages, 668 KiB  
Article
Rural Tourism and Environmental Sustainability—A Study on a Model for Assessing the Developmental Potential of Organic Agritourism
by Ching-Cheng Shen, Yen-Rung Chang and Der-Jen Liu
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9642; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229642 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3920
Abstract
In light of the public’s increasing awareness of and desire to create healthy and friendly environments, developments in organic agriculture and organic agricultural products have gradually yielded optimum choices in terms of healthy diets, travel options, and lifestyles, in addition to winning considerable [...] Read more.
In light of the public’s increasing awareness of and desire to create healthy and friendly environments, developments in organic agriculture and organic agricultural products have gradually yielded optimum choices in terms of healthy diets, travel options, and lifestyles, in addition to winning considerable attention and popularity from the public. This study was centered on a model for assessing the developmental potential of organic agritourism, with empirical analyses being conducted regarding visitors to Yuli Township in Hualien County, Taiwan. The results were as follows. By means of on-site interviews and surveys, as well as a review of relevant literature, this study constructed several assessment indicators of the developmental potential of organic agritourism. The constructed model consisted of four criteria, namely, the attractiveness of resources, market development potential, community development capabilities, and the creation of diverse values, as well as 23 sub-criteria. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach was employed, and a questionnaire with expert validity was used to deduce the weights of each criterion and sub-criterion. The highest-weighted criterion was the attractiveness of resources, followed by, in order, the creation of diverse values, market development potential, and community development capabilities. The results of this study can serve as a reference for Yuli Township in developing strategies to promote organic agritourism in the area. Full article
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15 pages, 1818 KiB  
Article
Geosites for Geotourism, Geoheritage, and Geoconservation of the Khnefiss National Park, Southern Morocco
by Saїd Mirari, Ali Aoulad-Sidi-Mhend and Abdelouahed Benmlih
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 7109; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177109 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3013
Abstract
Khnefiss National Park has a very unique advantage of presenting three landscape morphologies of high quality: the coastal band, where the sea, dunes and cliffs mix; the lagoon zone, with its multiple interlacing water, algae and sand; and the vast desert, with its [...] Read more.
Khnefiss National Park has a very unique advantage of presenting three landscape morphologies of high quality: the coastal band, where the sea, dunes and cliffs mix; the lagoon zone, with its multiple interlacing water, algae and sand; and the vast desert, with its regs, hamadas, krebs, and dune extensions. It is unique and original at the world level for a protected area to retain in a single perimeter these three major ecosystems, which therefore gives this national park an exceptional quality. Khnefiss national park faces numerous natural, human-induced, institutional, organizational, and legal constraints. Hence, there is a need for a practical tool that would reconcile the imperatives of conservation, the demands of the local population, and tourism, and at the same time positively address the constraints that hamper the management of this geosite. Indeed, we will highlight a reflection that aims at clarifying the sense of this new trajectory in which Morocco is positioned in terms of interest development of geological heritage, the emergence of consumption of natural assets, and potentialities phenomenon according to regions. Therefore, all actions are based on values of citizenship, participative, responsibility, ethicality, and fairness. Indeed, the geosites have small to large scale characteristics (from ten meters to more than 10 km). The geosite inventory is based on the geoconservation strategy. Qualitative and quantitative assessments were carried out on the basis of geoheritage values of international significance. Thene, geoconservation efforts should be made in all these geosites for many reasons, such as valorization of academic research, preservation of natural resources, and promotion of geotourism in Khnefiss national park. Full article
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15 pages, 2532 KiB  
Article
Network Platform for Tourism Sector: Transformation and Interpretation of Multifaceted Data
by Maria Kuklina, Andrey Trufanov, Tuyana Bayaskalanova, Nina Urazova, Alexei Tikhomirov, Olga Berestneva, Olga Marukhina, Igor Vidyaev, Oksana Fisochenko, Ivan Lyzin, Elena Berestneva and Nadezhda Hoch
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6314; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166314 - 5 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3081
Abstract
Modern network science has become a prominent concept, attracting diverse scientific societies to solve a wide spectrum of theoretical and practical problems. Tourism is a sphere wherein the outlines of the network’s scope are distinct. In the study, the network approach was applied [...] Read more.
Modern network science has become a prominent concept, attracting diverse scientific societies to solve a wide spectrum of theoretical and practical problems. Tourism is a sphere wherein the outlines of the network’s scope are distinct. In the study, the network approach was applied in its dual form for both network-like regional tourism data (NLRTD) and network-unlike regional tourism data (NURTD), to explore the tourism destination of Baikal natural territory, Russia, in regard to the challenges of the general sustainability of regional socio-ecological systems. The aim of the study is to elaborate a comprehensive network platform to harmonize such complex and fragile systems as Baikal natural territory. Saturated with networking ideology, the approach spans a huge set of interacting social, technological and ecological elements of the comprehensive system in order to support its functionality and sustainability in general. Particularly, the paper utilizes data from interviews done in Olkhon island (2017–2018), and publicly available textual, spatial and temporal data. NLRTD with pertinent networkization procedures was utilized in transportation schemes, while the NURTD concept implies the networkalization of landscape and land use maps. The platform provides researchers and stakeholders with concentrated information which might be not only effectively processed, but also intelligible, and correctly compared and implemented in contiguous spheres. Full article
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24 pages, 6893 KiB  
Article
Geosites and Georesources to Foster Geotourism in Communities: Case Study of the Santa Elena Peninsula Geopark Project in Ecuador
by Gricelda Herrera-Franco, Paúl Carrión-Mero, Niurka Alvarado, Fernando Morante-Carballo, Alfonso Maldonado, Pablo Caldevilla, Josué Briones-Bitar and Edgar Berrezueta
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4484; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114484 - 1 Jun 2020
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 5787
Abstract
Santa Elena Peninsula is characterized by beautiful geological features, historical geoscientific knowledge, and mineral and tourism resources that could all be combined for the sake of community development. This article provides an overview of the Santa Elena Peninsula Geopark Project through the assessment [...] Read more.
Santa Elena Peninsula is characterized by beautiful geological features, historical geoscientific knowledge, and mineral and tourism resources that could all be combined for the sake of community development. This article provides an overview of the Santa Elena Peninsula Geopark Project through the assessment of six areas that are considered by inhabitants and researchers possible geosites to foster geotourism. The methodology included: (i) a technical description and assessment of the areas of interest evaluating their geological relevance, representativeness, geotouristic prominence, geotouristic scientific interpretation, and conservation criteria; (ii) an assessment through questionnaires carried out on inhabitants; and (iii) a SWOT Plus analysis to propose strategies for promoting geotourism. Results show that the areas of interest are highly valued as geosites, since they integrate geodiversity, biodiversity, and sociocultural aspects. For example, Ancon is a historical icon of early oil exploitation, Baños de San Vicente is a natural spring of thermal water and mud volcano, and Anconcito has bituminous exudations of natural occurrence together with a spectacular landscape produced by erosion. Overall, 90% of these sites were proved to be of high and very high interest in scientific terms. Geotourism is believed to be beneficial for the inhabitants of the Santa Elena Peninsula with respect to education, valorization of resources, and the strengthening of cultural identity of communities. Full article
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14 pages, 2433 KiB  
Article
The Tourism Sector in Puerto Vallarta: An Approximation from the Circular Economy
by Jose Luis Cornejo-Ortega and Rosa María Chávez Dagostino
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4442; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114442 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3618
Abstract
The linear economic model consumes large amounts of energy and resources, but the limits on its physical capacity are being reached. The circular economy (CE), conversely, is reparative and regenerative; it aims to ensure that products, components, and resources maintain their usefulness and [...] Read more.
The linear economic model consumes large amounts of energy and resources, but the limits on its physical capacity are being reached. The circular economy (CE), conversely, is reparative and regenerative; it aims to ensure that products, components, and resources maintain their usefulness and value. Tourism is a generator of wealth and employment worldwide (9.8% of world GDP and 9.1% of world employment), but it also contributes to a variety of environmental problems all over the world. Reducing the negative impacts of the practices of the tourism sector is essential. Therefore, implementing CE practices in this sector is crucial for producing changes that benefit the environment to reach the goal of sustainable development. The objective of this research was to explore the tourism sector knowledge of a CE and the actual implementation of its practices in Puerto Vallarta, and to determine companies´ willingness to design a transition to the CE. Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, is a national tourist destination that ranks among the top three places in the country in terms of the number of tourist visitors, and therefore tourism is the basis of the local economy. A questionnaire was designed to collect information about attitudes and motives, which was answered by key informants from 64 tourism companies. The results show an incipient knowledge about the CE concept. However, companies conducting environmental activities, such as reducing consumption of fossil fuels and improving treatment of waste, indirectly generate a positive impact on the environment. In conclusion, Puerto Vallarta is prepared to implement the CE. Full article
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20 pages, 3790 KiB  
Article
Geoheritage and Geotourism Contribution to Tourism Development in Protected Areas of Slovakia—Theoretical Considerations
by Ľubomír Štrba, Jana Kolačkovská, Dušan Kudelas, Branislav Kršák and Csaba Sidor
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 2979; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072979 - 8 Apr 2020
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 5437
Abstract
Slovakia is renowned for its remarkable and rare natural beauty, abundant in natural resources with several noteworthy geological features. However, the protection of nature has primarily been understood as the protection of biodiversity in Slovakia. For the conservation of geological diversity and landforms, [...] Read more.
Slovakia is renowned for its remarkable and rare natural beauty, abundant in natural resources with several noteworthy geological features. However, the protection of nature has primarily been understood as the protection of biodiversity in Slovakia. For the conservation of geological diversity and landforms, very little has been done. Geoconservation or the protection of geodiversity is being applied to specific places known as geosites, where significant earth elements (geological, paleontological, geomorphological, hydrological and pedological) are protected, preserved and managed. Most geosites benefit from existing protected areas. Their protection is random and does not result from the recognition of their values. As discussed in the paper, geotourism related activities can undoubtedly contribute to promoting the protection of geosites in protected areas. Besides, through a geotourism approach, geodiversity can obtain public attention and positively influence the state of protected areas by its activities. Such initiatives not only can improve the protection of geological sites but also can play a crucial role in sustainable tourism development. Full article
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28 pages, 6018 KiB  
Article
The Willingness to Pay for Beach Scenery and Its Preservation in Italy
by Ilaria Rodella, Fabio Albino Madau and Donatella Carboni
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041604 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4394
Abstract
In order to understand the multiple values of landscape, this paper suggests an evaluative methodology that takes into account a quantitative approach, public opinion, and an economic estimation. This study analyzes the coastal scenery of 40 Italian beaches using a fuzzy logic and [...] Read more.
In order to understand the multiple values of landscape, this paper suggests an evaluative methodology that takes into account a quantitative approach, public opinion, and an economic estimation. This study analyzes the coastal scenery of 40 Italian beaches using a fuzzy logic and a Contingent Valuation (CV). Each site was classified into five categories: Class I beaches were littorals with high natural settings; Class II sites were natural and semiurban beaches having low influences by anthropic structures; Classes III, IV, and V had lower evaluations due to poor physical and human condition. A questionnaire survey analyzed beach users’ preferences, judgment, and Willingness to Pay (WTP). Results suggest that landscape judgment is directly correlated to scenery assessment; therefore, beaches of Class I and II were judged beautiful while beaches of Class IV and V had poor judgments. Similarly, the importance given to the landscape was highest in Class I and II than in the others. WTP for the conservation of the selected beaches was about €16 per season. Our findings suggest that people are disposed to pay more for a beach with the top-grade of scenery (Class I and II) and low grade of urbanization. Moreover, WTP would rise for females and for nonresident users with an academic degree, which appreciated the coastal landscape. Full article
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17 pages, 3042 KiB  
Article
Impact of Spatial Change on Tourism by Bridge Connections between Islands: A Case Study of Ganghwa County in South Korea
by Daeyoung Jeong, Yun Eui Choi, Lilan Jin and Jinhyung Chon
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6516; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226516 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3776
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to (1) measure the change in street networks of islands that are connected by bridges using space syntax and verify the relationships among spatial centrality, traffic volume and tourism facilities (small accommodations) and (2) establish strategies for [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to (1) measure the change in street networks of islands that are connected by bridges using space syntax and verify the relationships among spatial centrality, traffic volume and tourism facilities (small accommodations) and (2) establish strategies for sustainable tourism management through identifying the impact of this island connection on tourism destinations. Ganghwa County (Ganghwa Island, Seokmo Island and Gyodong Island) in South Korea was chosen as the study area, and we applied the angular segment analysis (ASA) method by metric distance based on space syntax. The results of this study showed that the construction of sea-crossing bridges between islands affected street networks considering metric radii (on a local scale, a mid-scale and a global scale) and areas with high spatial centrality in the study area affected traffic volumes and increased the number of small accommodations following the construction of bridges. The core areas of the whole street network were analyzed, and alternative paths for tourist flow diffusion, tourism development, land use regulation and environmental education for responsible tourism were proposed as key strategies for sustainable tourism. The findings of this study will contribute to reducing the potential for social and ecological damage by providing practical management strategies for island tourism destinations connected by bridges. Full article
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11 pages, 920 KiB  
Communication
Cheese as a Tourism Resource in Russia: The First Report and Relevance to Sustainability
by Vladimir A. Ermolaev, Natalia N. Yashalova and Dmitry A. Ruban
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5520; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195520 - 6 Oct 2019
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4796
Abstract
Cheese tasting attracts crowds of visitors to areas in countries such as France, Italy, Spain, and New Zealand, distinguishing cheese tourism as an individual tourism direction within food (gastronomic, culinary) tourism. Internationally known, but locally specific and artisanal cheese is thought to be [...] Read more.
Cheese tasting attracts crowds of visitors to areas in countries such as France, Italy, Spain, and New Zealand, distinguishing cheese tourism as an individual tourism direction within food (gastronomic, culinary) tourism. Internationally known, but locally specific and artisanal cheese is thought to be the main resource. Its exploitation by the tourism industry contributes to sustainability, supporting rural lifestyles and facilitating the integration of rural traditions, heritage, and natural landscapes. In Russia, cheese production is concentrated in regions including Altay, Voronezh, and Moscow. The state of tourist activities favors the use of cheese as a valuable tourism resource. Importantly, this resource is linked to the production of common sorts of cheese in big (industry-scale) amounts and the creation of cheese-related attractions like cheese museums. Cheese festivals also take place locally. A comparison to the European experience of cheese tourism reveals significant peculiarities of this activity in Russia and, particularly, a bigger relevance to industrial tourism than to food and rural tourism. Realization of only part of the opportunities linked to cheese tourism presents challenges regarding environmental and socioeconomical sustainability. Full article
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