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Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 November 2024 | Viewed by 48314

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Interests: environmental policy; ecological economics; energy economics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Interests: business economics; environmental economics; energy economics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail
Guest Editor
School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Interests: environmental policy; ecological economics; energy economics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Economics and Management, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China
Interests: sustainable development; sustainability; climate change economics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues:

Based on the recent high temperature weather in the Arctic Circle and the "red snow" event in the Antarctic, it is time for mankind to think about climate change and the future survival of the earth. In this context, energy is a very important resource. It is a part of the organization of the earth. According to the law of energy conservation, resources will not disappear out of thin air after being converted into energy but will be transformed into another form and exist in the relatively isolated earth system. In other words, the process of energy consumption is actually a process of artificially changing the earth's organizational structure, which will eventually lead to the disorder of the earth's ecosystem. Therefore, human beings have to ask themselves: can energy continue to be consumed? Energy is an important raw material to promote economic development, but it is also the culprit of environmental pollution. Energy consumption is the main cause of carbon emissions, so the carbon peak is inseparable from the improvement of energy efficiency. Technological progress is generally regarded as an important factor for improving energy efficiency, but it is disturbed by many influencing factors. First, technological progress lacks sufficient financial support, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises facing financial constraints. Secondly, the bias of technological progress is the result of the game based on the maximization of interests, and the development of green finance is conducive to guide enterprises to carry out green technology R&D and promote green technology progress. Thirdly, the impact of energy policy on technological progress is uncertain, which leads to the volatility of energy efficiency, affecting the sustainability of the green economy. In addition, energy structure and energy prices are closely related to total energy consumption, but the current research still lacks depth. An effective environmental assessment method is an important link to improve the quality of enterprise environmental information disclosure, but the goal still needs to be improved. In short, energy research will help to solve the thorny problem of climate change and economic turmoil caused by energy shortages so as to promote the sustainable development of the economy and the natural environment.

Therefore, this Special Issue will collect a selection of papers presenting original and innovative contributions to the study of  energy policy, sustainable development, energy transformation, energy prices, energy consumption, energy structure, and renewable energy sources.

In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  1. Energy policy and sustainable development;
  2. Energy consumption/energy structure and sustainable development;
  3. Green investment and energy green transformation;
  4. Energy prices and sustainability;
  5. Environmental effect assessment of energy policy;
  6. Renewable energy technology and sustainable development;
  7. Other topics related to energy economics and sustainability.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Yu Hao
Dr. Muhammad Irfan
Dr. Haitao Wu
Dr. Xiaodong Yang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy policy
  • sustainable development
  • energy consumption
  • energy structure
  • energy transition
  • renewable energy technology
  • green investment

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 5952 KiB  
Article
The Adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies by Oil-Producing Countries: An Inevitable Outcome at a Time of Global Challenges and Demand for Sustainable Development
by Nashwa Mostafa Ali Mohamed, Karima Mohamed Magdy Kamal and Jawaher Binsuwadan
Sustainability 2024, 16(8), 3155; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16083155 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 893
Abstract
This paper addresses the necessity of adopting renewable energy technologies in order to achieve sustainable development goals in light of increasing global challenges, with a particular focus on the current generation’s well-being. It addresses the potential impacts of global crises, such as energy [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the necessity of adopting renewable energy technologies in order to achieve sustainable development goals in light of increasing global challenges, with a particular focus on the current generation’s well-being. It addresses the potential impacts of global crises, such as energy and food crises, on the transition to renewable energy. Using a descriptive and analytical approach, this paper examines the environmental and economic costs and benefits of renewable energy as well as the commitment of oil-producing countries to international environmental treaties. The research utilises an econometric model to analyse the relationship between sustainable development goals and global challenges. Data from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the International Renewable Energy Agency are used to inform the analysis. The findings showed that the rights and well-being of current generations are currently maintained by the persistent use of fossil fuels in oil-producing nations. Fossil fuels continue to be, and may likely remain, the primary energy source in various sectors of development, despite their significant contribution to environmental and climate issues. The paper offers insights and recommendations for policymakers seeking to determine when government spending should best be allocated to renewable energy technologies, balancing national economic interests with international agreements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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30 pages, 11631 KiB  
Article
Fueling the Future: A Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast of Fuel Consumption Trends in U.S. Electricity Generation
by Md Monjur Hossain Bhuiyan, Ahmed Nazmus Sakib, Syed Ishmam Alawee and Talayeh Razzaghi
Sustainability 2024, 16(6), 2388; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16062388 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1651
Abstract
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides crucial data on monthly and annual fuel consumption for electricity generation. These data cover significant fuels, such as coal, petroleum liquids, petroleum coke, and natural gas. Fuel consumption patterns are highly dynamic and influenced by diverse [...] Read more.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides crucial data on monthly and annual fuel consumption for electricity generation. These data cover significant fuels, such as coal, petroleum liquids, petroleum coke, and natural gas. Fuel consumption patterns are highly dynamic and influenced by diverse factors. Understanding these fluctuations is essential for effective energy planning and decision making. This study outlines a comprehensive analysis of fuel consumption trends in electricity generation. Utilizing advanced statistical methods, including time series analysis and autocorrelation, our objective is to uncover intricate patterns and dependencies within the data. This paper aims to forecast fuel consumption trends for electricity generation using data from 2015 to 2022. Several time series forecasting models, including all four benchmark methods (Mean, Naïve, Drift, and seasonal Naïve), Seasonal and Trend Decomposition using Loess (STL), exponential smoothing (ETS), and the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method, have been applied. The best-performing models are determined based on Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) values. For natural gas (NG) consumption, the ETS model achieves the lowest RMSE of 20,687.46. STL demonstrates the best performance for coal consumption with an RMSE of 5936.203. The seasonal Naïve (SNaïve) model outperforms the others for petroleum coke forecasting, yielding an RMSE of 99.49. Surprisingly, the Mean method has the lowest RMSE of 287.34 for petroleum liquids, but the ARIMA model is reliable for its ability to capture complex patterns. Residual plots are analyzed to assess the models’ performance against statistical parameters. Accurate fuel consumption forecasting is very important for effective energy planning and policymaking. The findings from this study will help policymakers strategically allocate resources, plan infrastructure development, and support economic growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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26 pages, 4889 KiB  
Article
Drifting toward Alliance Innovation: Patent Collaboration Relationships and Development in China’s Hydrogen Energy Industry from a Network Perspective
by Xiaohui Pan, Guiqiong Xu and Lei Meng
Sustainability 2024, 16(5), 2101; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16052101 - 3 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
The hydrogen energy industry, as one of the most important directions for future energy transformation, can promote the sustainable development of the global economy and of society. China has raised the development of hydrogen energy to a strategic position. Based on the patent [...] Read more.
The hydrogen energy industry, as one of the most important directions for future energy transformation, can promote the sustainable development of the global economy and of society. China has raised the development of hydrogen energy to a strategic position. Based on the patent data in the past two decades, this study investigates the collaborative innovation relationships in China’s hydrogen energy field using complex network theory. Firstly, patent data filed between 2003 and 2023 are analyzed and compared in terms of time, geography, and institutional and technological dimensions. Subsequently, a patent collaborative innovation network is constructed to explore the fundamental characteristics and evolutionary patterns over five stages. Furthermore, centrality measures and community detection algorithms are utilized to identify core entities and innovation alliances within the network, which reveal that China’s hydrogen energy industry is drifting toward alliance innovation. The study results show the following: (1) the network has grown rapidly in size and scope over the last two decades and evolved from the initial stage to the multi-center stage, before forming innovation alliances; (2) core innovative entities are important supports and bridges for China’s hydrogen energy industry, and control most resources and maintain the robustness of the whole network; (3) innovation alliances reveal the closeness of the collaborative relationships between innovative entities and the potential landscape of China’s hydrogen energy industry; and (4) most of the innovation alliances cooperate only on a narrow range of technologies, which may hinder the overall sustainable growth of the hydrogen energy industry. Thereafter, some suggestions are put forward from the perspective of an industrial chain and innovation chain, which may provide a theoretical reference for collaborative innovation and the future development and planning in the field of hydrogen energy in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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16 pages, 311 KiB  
Article
The Influence of the Increase in Energy Prices on the Profitability of Companies in the European Union
by Radu Herman, Cornelia Nistor and Nicolae Marius Jula
Sustainability 2023, 15(21), 15404; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152115404 - 28 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
This study evaluates the influence of rising energy prices on firm-level profitability. According to the policies of the European Union, the aim is to achieve an energy union that offers all community economic agents safer, cleaner, and more affordable energy. For this study, [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the influence of rising energy prices on firm-level profitability. According to the policies of the European Union, the aim is to achieve an energy union that offers all community economic agents safer, cleaner, and more affordable energy. For this study, 1342 updated observations from 16 European countries for the year 2022 were used, studying the influence of increasing energy prices on the decrease in profit. The increase in energy prices influences the risk of firms experiencing negative profitability in 2022 compared to 2018, as measured by the increase in the number of firms that register a profit of less than or equal to zero. Company characteristics, such as size and age, which positively influence the level of profitability, are statistically significant. Furthermore, this study shows that the business sector in which the firm operates influences the level of profitability in a differentiated manner. Linear and logistic regression methods were employed for the methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
23 pages, 14898 KiB  
Article
Awareness and Utilization of Incentive Programs for Household Energy-Saving Renovations: Empirical Findings from Greece
by Spyridon Karytsas and Eleni Theodoropoulou
Sustainability 2023, 15(18), 13923; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151813923 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
The Greek policy targeting residential energy efficiency has launched the “Residential Energy Saving” financial incentives program to assist in achieving the goals related to reducing energy use and GHG emissions. Considering the research gaps of previous work, the present study examines the sociodemographic, [...] Read more.
The Greek policy targeting residential energy efficiency has launched the “Residential Energy Saving” financial incentives program to assist in achieving the goals related to reducing energy use and GHG emissions. Considering the research gaps of previous work, the present study examines the sociodemographic, dwelling, and geographical characteristics, and the environmental awareness and behavior that affect individuals’ (a) actual decision to perform an energy-saving renovation of their dwelling; this has been previously examined, but not in the Greek context, (b) awareness of the incentives program; this has not been addressed in previous research, and (c) utilization of the program; this has not been addressed in previous research. Accordingly, we performed a questionnaire-based survey in Greece in 2019 (n = 451). Based on the development of three binary logistic regression models, it is indicated that the decision to perform an energy-saving renovation is affected by ownership status, year of construction, income, and environmental behavior; awareness is affected by education level, environmental awareness, and residence location; use of the incentives program is affected by residence ownership and year of construction, presence of senior citizens and education level. The study’s results, indicating the determinants of energy-saving renovation decisions and awareness and utilization of financial incentives programs, can assist policymakers in planning financial incentives adapted to different characteristics, thus achieving improved awareness and utilization of such tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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11 pages, 753 KiB  
Article
Development of New-Energy Vehicles under the Carbon Peaking and Carbon Neutrality Strategy in China
by Xia Li, Yi Peng, Qiqi He, Hongmei He and Song Xue
Sustainability 2023, 15(9), 7725; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15097725 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4125
Abstract
China regards the development of new energy vehicles (NEVs) as an important breakthrough to achieve the periodic goals of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality. After decades of development, China’s NEVs industry has made significant progress, especially in the past 20 years, where the [...] Read more.
China regards the development of new energy vehicles (NEVs) as an important breakthrough to achieve the periodic goals of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality. After decades of development, China’s NEVs industry has made significant progress, especially in the past 20 years, where the industry has transformed from a follower to a leader. This article reviews the development background of NEVs in China and reflects the development status of NEVs in different periods of China. The development of NEVs in China was analyzed through data, reflecting the current development status and trends. Combined with the policy background of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality, the position of NEV industry in China’s automobile submarket, domestic market, and international market is analyzed. Based on the analysis and discussion, the main issues faced by the development of NEVs in China were proposed, including the impact of subsidy policy withdrawal on car companies and consumers, the construction and development of infrastructure, the research and development of core technologies and components, and the construction of a clean energy system based on sustainable development. It is proposed that the future development direction of China’s NEV industry can follow the directions of electrification, intelligence, lightweight, and sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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21 pages, 1848 KiB  
Article
Rural Energy Transition for Cooking in India—Revisiting the Drivers
by Anandajit Goswami, Kaushik Ranjan Bandyopadhyay, Preeti Singh and Amulya Gurtu
Sustainability 2023, 15(9), 7635; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15097635 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
The recent analysis from IEA (International Energy Agency) on energy transition in India highlights that cooking continues to be the weakest link in the energy transition process for rural households and that rural energy transition of households to cleaner fuel is nonlinear in [...] Read more.
The recent analysis from IEA (International Energy Agency) on energy transition in India highlights that cooking continues to be the weakest link in the energy transition process for rural households and that rural energy transition of households to cleaner fuel is nonlinear in nature. Several programs have been designed to plague the voids and address this nonlinearity, but the transition to cleaner alternatives for cooking did not happen in the pace it should ideally have. Therefore, an empirical exercise was carried out at a national level to revisit the disconnect between the income growth and energy transition and identify the drivers of the energy transition process in cooking at the national as well as at the subnational state level for a developing country. The paper adds to the current scholarship on drivers of household energy transition by analyzing the relationship between household energy choices and non-income determinants and proves the nonlinearity in energy consumption of rural households of Bihar. Analyzing unit level record from National Sample Survey, an empirical exercise was carried out by using multinomial logit model to identify the potential determining factors at the individual household and group level. The group effect analysis through fixed and random effect has been conducted purposely to understand if social and cultural norms or community level factors within a village society have any effect on the cooking energy transition of rural households and if that offsets the effect of household income in energy transition for cooking. Furthermore, to statistically examine the perceived non-linearity in the consumption of cooking fuel such as firewood by rural households, Brock–Dechert–Scheinkman (BDS) test was conducted for rural households of 38 districts of Bihar. The analysis helps in inferring that subsidy on modern fuel and/or other cooking alternatives alone may not suffice to drive the transition process, but more targeted intervention rooted in the local cultural context in consonance with social and cultural norms or community level factors could be more effective for sustained rural energy transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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20 pages, 1006 KiB  
Article
Smart City Logistics on the Basis of Digital Tools for ESG Goals Achievement
by Sergey Evgenievich Barykin, Anna Viktorovna Strimovskaya, Sergey Mikhailovich Sergeev, Larisa Nikolaevna Borisoglebskaya, Natalia Dedyukhina, Igor Sklyarov, Julia Sklyarova and Lilya Saychenko
Sustainability 2023, 15(6), 5507; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15065507 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3112
Abstract
The development of modern logistics systems requires state-of-the-art solutions for simultaneously achieving sustainable development goals and ambitious business targets. On this issue, the challenge of implementing digital technologies in social life, in particular in smart cities, deserves special attention. The diversified application of [...] Read more.
The development of modern logistics systems requires state-of-the-art solutions for simultaneously achieving sustainable development goals and ambitious business targets. On this issue, the challenge of implementing digital technologies in social life, in particular in smart cities, deserves special attention. The diversified application of Industry 4.0 doctrine and digital shadow penetration to all fields of socioeconomic systems highlights the gaps in the design, control, and efficiency assessment of digital tools in the logistics of smart cities. Another challenge concerns the need to consider environmental, social, and governance (ESG) principles amid the deployment of harmonic digital tools within urban territories. All these issues require a complex methodological approach toward understanding the role of IT in the modern economy through an ESG prism. The article contains a contemporary literature review on the related topic and the conceptual framework of city logistics digitalization under ESG perspectives and constraints. The mathematical model proposed by the researchers enables a multidimensional design of digital solution applications within smart city logistics performance. The designed discrete stochastic model is eligible for scaling toward and the further development of variables other than the key ones mentioned above. The mathematical formalization of the proposed model considers the distribution of the limited budgeting of administrative branches within city logistics, highlighting the research relevance in connection with the ESG principles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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21 pages, 478 KiB  
Article
The Economic Sustainability of Variable Renewable Energy Considering the Negotiation of Different Support Schemes
by Hugo Algarvio
Sustainability 2023, 15(5), 4471; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15054471 - 2 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2476
Abstract
The increase in the prices of fossil fuels and environmental issues are leading to a high investment in wind power and solar photovoltaic all over Europe, reducing its dependence on imported fossil fuels. The European countries started incentive programs for investment in these [...] Read more.
The increase in the prices of fossil fuels and environmental issues are leading to a high investment in wind power and solar photovoltaic all over Europe, reducing its dependence on imported fossil fuels. The European countries started incentive programs for investment in these renewable technologies, which consisted of fixed and market premium feed-in tariffs. These feed-in schemes involve long-term contracts with updated prices over inflation. These incentives highly increase the investment and installation of new renewable capacity in Europe. They lead to high renewable penetrations in power systems but originate a tariff deficit due to the difference between market prices and the tariffs paid to these technologies. End-use consumers pay the tariff deficit on retail tariffs. This work analyzes the market-based remuneration of variable renewable energy considering different support schemes and the role of risk-sharing contracts in mitigating the spot price volatility. It presents models able to negotiate bilateral contracts considering risk management, notably risk attitude and risk sharing, bid establishment, and clause (by-laws) negotiation. Furthermore, to evaluate the economic sustainability of renewable generation in Spain, it presents a study for different 12-year support schemes starting in 2010. The results confirmed that, in the case of using risk-sharing contracts during crisis periods, the incidence of low energy prices (price “cannibalization”) decreases, such as the tariff deficit. Furthermore, in the case of high-inflation periods, these contracts hedge against the increase in retail prices, resulting in an economic surplus for consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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18 pages, 3936 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Pakistan’s Renewable Energy Potential: A Review of the Country’s Energy Policy, Its Challenges, and Recommendations
by Yongrong Xin, Muhammad Khyzer Bin Dost, Hamza Akram and Waqas Ahmad Watto
Sustainability 2022, 14(23), 16123; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142316123 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7754
Abstract
Pakistan’s dependence on imported fuels has led to a massive electrical shortfall, stifling the country’s socioeconomic growth. Pakistan’s energy gap is between 5000 and 8000 megawatts (MW), with a 6–8% yearly growth predicted, therefore, it needs more sustainable and renewable energy sources. Pakistan [...] Read more.
Pakistan’s dependence on imported fuels has led to a massive electrical shortfall, stifling the country’s socioeconomic growth. Pakistan’s energy gap is between 5000 and 8000 megawatts (MW), with a 6–8% yearly growth predicted, therefore, it needs more sustainable and renewable energy sources. Pakistan uses solar, wind, hydropower, and biomass for renewable energy. Pakistan needs cheap energy to support its economic growth. Most of the world’s energy is currently conventionally produced. The objective of this research is to analyze the opportunities that are afforded by renewable energy sources as well as the role that the government plays in the process of policy formulation. An examination of qualitative data from research works, journals, and government annual performance reports is presented. This study investigates renewable energy sources and government policy. According to the study, renewable energy resources are abundant. The renewable energy plan has no effect on real implementation. This research paper examines electricity restrictions, the transition to renewable energy sources, and Pakistan’s renewable energy policy difficulties. After analyzing the nation’s renewable energy potential, practical implications were made to promote it, for example 1710-megawatt wind installations. There are currently 217-megawatt biogas power stations being developed. Accelerating the energy transition to the nation’s future energy perspectives is a priority for sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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16 pages, 897 KiB  
Article
Environmental Policy and Exports in China: An Analysis Based on the Top 10,000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program
by Xin Liu and Zhiyong Kang
Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 14157; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142114157 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1643
Abstract
This study builds a model to theoretically analyze the impact of China’s Top 10,000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program on the country’s manufacturing exports. The results show that the implementation of this Program has not only a cost-increasing effect but also an innovation-promoting effect on [...] Read more.
This study builds a model to theoretically analyze the impact of China’s Top 10,000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program on the country’s manufacturing exports. The results show that the implementation of this Program has not only a cost-increasing effect but also an innovation-promoting effect on manufacturing enterprises’ exports. In particular, the actual effect depends on the superimposition of these two effects, which change as the intensity of the Program changes. Using data on industrial enterprises in Sichuan Province, the study applies the sharp regression discontinuity design (SRDD) to identify the causal relationship between the Program’s intensity and the export scale of manufacturing enterprises, which turns out to be an inverted U-shaped relationship. Moreover, with a moderate intensity of the Program, the innovation-promoting effect is proved greater than the cost-increasing effect, which leads to an expansion of the enterprises’ export scale. The study concludes that the implementation of appropriate environmental control policies does not undermine the export competitiveness of Chinese enterprises, but instead promotes a win-win solution by improving both environmental quality and export performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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25 pages, 44973 KiB  
Article
Impact of Block Spatial Optimization and Vegetation Configuration on the Reduction of PM2.5 Concentrations: A Roadmap towards Green Transformation and Sustainable Development
by Feng Wang, Bo Sun, Xin Zheng and Xiang Ji
Sustainability 2022, 14(18), 11622; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811622 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1263
Abstract
The article aims to reduce PM2.5 concentration by improving the spatial comfort of blocks and the vegetation configuration. It mainly analyzes the impact of the following five aspects on the PM2.5 concentration distribution in blocks, including different angles between the prevailing [...] Read more.
The article aims to reduce PM2.5 concentration by improving the spatial comfort of blocks and the vegetation configuration. It mainly analyzes the impact of the following five aspects on the PM2.5 concentration distribution in blocks, including different angles between the prevailing wind direction and blocks, different vegetation types, the distance between vegetation and buildings, vegetation height and building height, and different street tree configuration types on both sides of the block. The results show that: when the street angle is 45 degrees, the PM2.5 concentration in the air is the lowest. The PM2.5 concentration in the air is significantly improved when the enclosed vegetation type (F1–F2) is planted, and the spacing between vegetation and buildings has no obvious effect on PM2.5 concentration distribution. There is a negative correlation between the height of vegetation on both sides and the PM2.5 concentration. At the height of 6 m, the PM2.5 concentrations on the windward and leeward sides are relatively balanced. When the street trees are evenly distributed, they have the least effect on reducing PM2.5 concentrations. However, the richer the distribution levels of street trees, the more obvious the effect on reducing PM2.5 concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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24 pages, 2228 KiB  
Article
Assessing ASEAN’s Liberalized Electricity Markets: The Case of Singapore and the Philippines
by Hassan Ali, Han Phoumin, Beni Suryadi, Aitazaz A. Farooque and Raziq Yaqub
Sustainability 2022, 14(18), 11307; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811307 - 9 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3285
Abstract
The efforts towards the liberalization of electricity markets have sped up recently in some countries within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. This step of opening up the electricity markets is aimed at establishing competitive and efficient electricity markets that not [...] Read more.
The efforts towards the liberalization of electricity markets have sped up recently in some countries within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. This step of opening up the electricity markets is aimed at establishing competitive and efficient electricity markets that not only reduce electricity prices, but also support a sustainable future by reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from electricity generation and promoting the wider adoption of renewable energy (RE)-based electricity generation. This paper assesses the effects of the electricity market liberalization process in Singapore and the Philippines on these expected outcomes during the period 2015–2020. The regression analysis results suggest that in the specified period, the liberalization of the electricity market in Singapore has delivered both household and industry electricity price reductions and improvement in the RE share. However, there is no significant effect of the electricity market liberalization process on the electricity generated CO2 emissions. For the same period, the results imply that with the electricity market liberalization process in the Philippines, the electricity prices for household consumers and electricity-generated CO2 emissions have increased. Additionally, the liberalization process has no significant impact on both the RE share and industry electricity prices in the Philippines. To overcome the obstacles and strike a balance between the expected outcomes, policy recommendations are given for ASEAN economies following the pathway of liberalized electricity markets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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20 pages, 1356 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Impact of Carbon Trading Policies on Carbon Emission and Carbon Emission Efficiency
by Yizhang He and Wei Song
Sustainability 2022, 14(16), 10216; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141610216 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3087
Abstract
As the carbon trading scheme has a significant impact on China’s sustainable economy and environmental protection, the policy influence of carbon emissions and carbon emission efficiency in pilot provinces has become a key research topic. Based on the data of 30 provinces and [...] Read more.
As the carbon trading scheme has a significant impact on China’s sustainable economy and environmental protection, the policy influence of carbon emissions and carbon emission efficiency in pilot provinces has become a key research topic. Based on the data of 30 provinces and cities in China from 2007 to 2018, this paper estimates carbon emission efficiency by using a super-efficiency SBM model, and the difference-in-difference method is adopted to investigate the policy’s influence. The results show that: (1) carbon trading policies have a significant carbon emission reduction effect and a positive effect on carbon emission efficiency in pilot areas. (2) There is a dynamic effect that increases year by year, and the policies have a synergistic emission reduction effect on CO2 and SO2. (3) The carbon trading policy has different effects on carbon emission efficiency depending on pilot areas. Before and after the implementation of the policy, carbon emission efficiency in Tianjin remained almost unchanged, while the carbon emission efficiency in Hubei and Chongqing increased significantly. Although the efficiency of Shanghai and Guangdong remains at the forefront, they fluctuate greatly. Beijing is the only city to remain a frontier every year, showing significant policy impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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24 pages, 2495 KiB  
Article
Digital Economy, Financial Development, and Energy Poverty Based on Mediating Effects and a Spatial Autocorrelation Model
by Junhong Qu and Xiaoli Hao
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9206; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159206 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2225
Abstract
How to effectively solve the problem of energy poverty from the perspective of digital economy is a topic worthy of attention. As a new economic form characterized by information technology, does the digital economy have an important impact on energy poverty? What is [...] Read more.
How to effectively solve the problem of energy poverty from the perspective of digital economy is a topic worthy of attention. As a new economic form characterized by information technology, does the digital economy have an important impact on energy poverty? What is the inner mechanism? Based on the theoretical analysis of the internal mechanism of the impact of the digital economy on energy poverty, this paper systematically investigates the impact of the digital economy on energy poverty by establishing a mediation effect model, spatial autocorrelation test, and heterogeneity analysis, taking 30 provinces in China as the research object. The study found that: (1) the digital economy has a significant mitigation effect on energy poverty, there are regional differences, and the mitigation effect is more obvious under a high level of digital economic development; (2) financial development is one of the mechanisms involved in alleviating energy poverty, and only the intermediary effect in the eastern region is significant; (3) energy poverty has a gradually increasing positive spatial correlation and obvious spatial agglomeration characteristics. Finally, this research provides policy implications for fully realizing the potential of the role of the digital economy and financial development, thereby alleviating energy poverty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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26 pages, 2043 KiB  
Article
Industrial-Innovative Paradigm of Social Sustainability: Modeling the Assessment of Demoethical, Demographic, Democratic, and Demoeconomic Factors
by Rinat Zhanbayev and Muhammad Irfan
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7280; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127280 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
The article presents an analysis of tools for influencing the sustainable development of regions, considering their industry specifics, as well as ways to influence socioeconomic growth. The purpose of the article is to model the assessment of demoetic, demographic, democratic, and demoeconomical factors [...] Read more.
The article presents an analysis of tools for influencing the sustainable development of regions, considering their industry specifics, as well as ways to influence socioeconomic growth. The purpose of the article is to model the assessment of demoetic, demographic, democratic, and demoeconomical factors as the basis of the industrial and innovative paradigm of social sustainability. Achieving sustainability is possible only along the vector of harmony through the systemic combination 4D = “D + 3D”, namely, demoethics and demography, democracy, demoeconomy. Analysis of the existing processes of development and harmonization of society is implemented in the example of Kazakhstan. Research methods include integral analysis for ranking regions and correlation and regression modeling to assess the impact of factors on the process of sustainable development of society in a particular territory. The article hypothesizes that the creation of conditions for the development of the main regional industry will stimulate its sustainable and harmonious socioeconomic growth and provide the necessary level for the process of social harmonization. The findings show that the proposed approach made it possible to identify harmonious and disharmonious factors in the development of the region and to identify tools for influencing the process of sustainable development of society to increase the level of harmonious socioeconomic development of a particular region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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16 pages, 838 KiB  
Article
Agricultural Insurance and Agricultural Fertilizer Non-Point Source Pollution: Evidence from China’s Policy-Based Agricultural Insurance Pilot
by Ziheng Niu, Feng Yi and Chen Chen
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2800; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052800 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2885
Abstract
For a long time, the relationship between agricultural insurance and the input of chemical fertilizer has been controversial. Since the pilot of policy-based agricultural insurance in China, most scholars have only paid attention to the role of the policy in ensuring farmers’ income [...] Read more.
For a long time, the relationship between agricultural insurance and the input of chemical fertilizer has been controversial. Since the pilot of policy-based agricultural insurance in China, most scholars have only paid attention to the role of the policy in ensuring farmers’ income and reducing farmers’ poverty, but its possible negative impact on the agricultural ecological environment is often ignored. If the pilot of this policy motivates farmers to apply more chemical fertilizers, which in turn causes more serious environmental problems, this would be contrary to the goals of the policy itself. Using the panel data of 31 provinces from 2000 to 2020 in China, this paper regards the pilot of policy-based agricultural insurance as a quasi-natural experiment and uses a difference-in-difference model to evaluate the impact of policy-based agricultural insurance on agricultural fertilizer non-point source pollution. The research results show that the pilot of policy-based agricultural insurance has aggravated the non-point source pollution of agricultural fertilizers in China. After a series of robustness tests, the research conclusion is still valid. At the same time, the effect of policy-based agricultural insurance aggravating agricultural fertilizer non-point source pollution had a lasting impact for 4 years during the pilot period and did not disappear until the policy-based agricultural insurance was fully covered. In addition, the heterogeneity results show that farmers in eastern China and high-disaster areas have a higher probability of moral hazard with overuse after purchasing policy-based agricultural insurance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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15 pages, 1406 KiB  
Article
Role of Energy Mix in Determining Climate Change Vulnerability in G7 Countries
by Hui Dai, Jamal Mamkhezri, Noman Arshed, Anam Javaid, Sultan Salem and Yousaf Ali Khan
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2161; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042161 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3583
Abstract
Anthropogenic activities are responsible for greenhouse gas emissions, causing extreme events like soil erosion, droughts, floods, forest fires and tornadoes. Fossil fuel consumption produces CO2, and trapping heat is the major reason for a rapid increase in global temperature, and electricity [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic activities are responsible for greenhouse gas emissions, causing extreme events like soil erosion, droughts, floods, forest fires and tornadoes. Fossil fuel consumption produces CO2, and trapping heat is the major reason for a rapid increase in global temperature, and electricity generation is responsible for 25% of greenhouse gas emissions. Fossil fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and their adverse impact have become the focus of efforts to mitigate climate change vulnerability. This study explores empirical determinants of vulnerability to climate change such as ecosystem, food, health and infrastructure. The sustainable use of energy is necessary for development, and a source of response to climate change. The present study focuses on renewable energy consumption to determine climate vulnerability in G7 countries between 1995 and 2019. The panel ARDL approach showed that the renewable to non-renewable energy mix showed a quadratic effect on vulnerability, whereby a minimum threshold of renewable energy is required to witness a reduction in food, health and infrastructure vulnerability. Other results indicate that trade openness and development expenditures reduce health vulnerability. Development expenditures also decrease ecosystem vulnerability, while trade openness increases it. However, both of these variables increase infrastructure vulnerability. Avoiding severe food and water crises requires investment to tackle climate change, conserve energy and water resources, reform global trade and food markets, and adapting and adopting climate-resilient responses to change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Energy Policy towards Sustainability)
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