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Diagnostics and Nondestructive Testing as an Important Factor of Sustainability

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Engineering and Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 June 2023) | Viewed by 23717

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Aleja Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Interests: magnetic methods of nondestructive testing; electromagnetic properties sensing; residual magnetic field; Barkhausen Noise

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 21st century world is a world of dynamic alterations, especially in engineering and sociology. Sociological changes pose new challenges for all branches of engineering. Societies of each country require greater necessities regarding their comfort of life and the reliability of the supply chain of basic goods (safety, food, housing, energy, and information). On the other hand, the development of engineering means that new products appearing on the market can replace older ones that still meet our needs. Accordingly, rich societies tend to replace fully functioning devices with new ones. This process applies to almost all sectors of the economy: ICT, construction, energy, transport, agriculture, and many others. Decisions on whether to replace devices are based on technical and economic analyses that include detailed calculated outlays and the resulting profits, in which the basic factors are efficiency and reliability. In this case, diagnostics and nondestructive testing play a key role. The development of reliable methods and means for assessing the state of technical infrastructure elements allows one to make sound investment decisions. Decisions on the continuation of operation or its termination (for technical and economic reasons) and the replacement of machines, devices, or a specific system of machines and devices, for new ones should be based on reliable, standardized, or innovative methods of diagnostics and nondestructive testing. What happens to products at the end of their useful life in rich societies? Is it possible to reuse them in countries where they are not morally (or economically) consumed? The answer seems to be clear. With proper identification of their technical condition via nondestructive testing, this is achievable. We can make our world better, but first we should understand how important the role of diagnostics and nondestructive testing in sustainability is.

Papers selected for this Special Issue were subject to the following:

  • Industrial development and energy crisis;
  • Changing consumption and production patterns;
  • Impact of safety, security, and disaster management on sustainability;
  • System analysis methods, including life cycle assessment and management;
  • Applications of sustainability;
  • Other topics related to sustainability.

Prof. Dr. Maciej Roskosz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nondestructive testing
  • Destructive testing
  • New methods of inspections
  • Lifetime management
  • Durability

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 13092 KiB  
Article
TMR-Array-Based Pipeline Location Method and Its Realization
by Zhenning Wu, Hanyang Huang, Guangdong Zhao and Jinhai Liu
Sustainability 2023, 15(12), 9816; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15129816 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 807
Abstract
Pipeline inspection is important to ensure the safe operation of pipelines. Obtaining the location of an underground pipeline is a prerequisite for most inspection technologies. Existing pipeline location methods can find a pipeline’s location, but they require multiple measurements and cannot be used [...] Read more.
Pipeline inspection is important to ensure the safe operation of pipelines. Obtaining the location of an underground pipeline is a prerequisite for most inspection technologies. Existing pipeline location methods can find a pipeline’s location, but they require multiple measurements and cannot be used by automatic inspection robots. In this paper, a tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR)-sensor-array-based pipeline location method is proposed to solve this problem. Firstly, a detection probe is designed using a TMR sensor array. It is calibrated by the improved ellipsoid fitting method to measure the magnetic field around the pipeline accurately. Secondly, a relative pipeline-position-locating method is proposed by detecting the phases of the magnetic induction signals at different frequencies. Thirdly, a three-dimensional pipeline location method is proposed. The horizontal and vertical distances and the angle between the pipeline and the probe are calculated by measuring the magnetic induction amplitude. Finally, a simulation model and a test platform are established, and the experimental results illustrate that, by adopting the TMR array, the three-dimensional pipeline location method can locate a pipeline in real time in three dimensions with good accuracy. Full article
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13 pages, 3971 KiB  
Article
Some Stochastic Aspects of Safety Work of Steel Wire Ropes Used in Mining-Shaft Hoists
by Andrzej Tytko, Grzegorz Olszyna, Grzegorz Kocór and Mariusz Szot
Sustainability 2023, 15(9), 7590; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15097590 - 05 May 2023
Viewed by 1252
Abstract
In most rope transport devices, the used steel wire ropes are replaced with new ones after working for a certain period of time, or after reaching the acceptable level of wear. The operational safety of the entire system depends on the correct diagnosis [...] Read more.
In most rope transport devices, the used steel wire ropes are replaced with new ones after working for a certain period of time, or after reaching the acceptable level of wear. The operational safety of the entire system depends on the correct diagnosis of the condition of the working wire rope. This is not easy, because the working lives of the ropes are varied, and their wear depends on many factors, including random ones. This article presents three different aspects of the work of steel ropes in mining-shaft hoists. What they have in common is a stochastic approach to interpreting the level of rope wear. The process of progressive wear due to fatigue breaking of wires is presented as the first example. This process is non-linear with a strong upward trend, which, in the final stage, turns into a phase often referred to as “explosive”. The rate at which subsequent wire breaks appear is influenced by numerous random factors, e.g., in the form of different methods and materials from which a given rope is constructed. However, the character of the progressing wear process is most affected by the random distribution of stresses experienced by individual wires and the randomly variable nature of the working environment. The second aspect presented in this article is an attempt to determine the probability of wire breaks of the rope. This was presented on the example of wear of the hoisting rope of a mining-shaft hoist. The last aspect of a stochastic nature, which is discussed in the article, is the issue of separating individual components of this distribution from the multimodal distribution describing the tensile strength of the rope wires, possibly of a normal character. Modern methods of analysis allow such distributions to be assigned to specific structural elements of the wire rope. This gives information about which structural elements of the rope wear faster or unusually and, consequently, determine its strength. This was presented on the basis of the results of strength tests of the wires of the mining-shaft hoist rope, which broke due to excessive corrosion wear of the inner strands. The presented examples explain only a short part of randomness in the description of working ropes, but the intention of the authors is to draw the attention of the personnel responsible for their safe operation to unavoidable random factors. Full article
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17 pages, 9800 KiB  
Article
Mass and Volumetric Abrasive Wear Measurements of the Mining Conical Picks
by Krzysztof Krauze, Kamil Mucha, Tomasz Wydro, Jan Pawlik and Aleksandra Wróblewska-Pawlik
Sustainability 2023, 15(1), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010850 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
The wearing of cutting tools is a bottleneck of many branches in the industry. However, the tools used in the mining sector are extraordinarily prone to rapid deterioration since many rocks exhibit aggressive abrasive properties. A typical example of a fast wearing cutting [...] Read more.
The wearing of cutting tools is a bottleneck of many branches in the industry. However, the tools used in the mining sector are extraordinarily prone to rapid deterioration since many rocks exhibit aggressive abrasive properties. A typical example of a fast wearing cutting tool is a conical pick. It is used in the mining industry and other businesses requiring rock cutting, such as in roadworks and tunnelling. Both manufacturers and users attempt to find a way to enhance the lifespan of the working surface of conical picks via different approaches, namely heat treatment, chemical treatment, work hardening, and hardfacing, etc. To correctly estimate the resistance to abrasive wear for a particular conical pick, one must select appropriate procedures and methods. By this time, the most common estimation method is to measure the mass loss before and after cutting, preserving the specified and constant conditions. This method was developed for users (mines) and manufacturers of cutting tools, especially conical picks. Alternative methods of assessing the picks’ wear are also sought. In this paper, the authors perform additional volumetric loss measurements via a photogrammetric approach, which results in a 3D scan of brand-new and exploited conical pick. Three different sets of four picks were measured both in the domain of mass loss and volume loss, and the results were compared. Slight differences in parameters C2 and C3 were found. Additionally, the authors enclose recommendations regarding the proper use of the methods mentioned above, mainly focusing on the ability to perform linear and angular measurements of the tool performed on the 3D scan. Full article
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12 pages, 14868 KiB  
Article
Detecting Discontinuities in Steel Wire Ropes of Personal Lifts Based on the Analysis of Their Residual Magnetic Field
by Paweł Mazurek, Maciej Roskosz, Jerzy Kwaśniewski, Jianbo Wu and Krzysztof Schabowicz
Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 14641; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142114641 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
Steel wire rope is essential to many rope transport devices. As steel ropes are used, they become damaged, the identification of which is often very difficult or time-consuming. The criteria for retiring steel wire ropes are rigorous—sometimes, ropes that remain fit for further [...] Read more.
Steel wire rope is essential to many rope transport devices. As steel ropes are used, they become damaged, the identification of which is often very difficult or time-consuming. The criteria for retiring steel wire ropes are rigorous—sometimes, ropes that remain fit for further operation are replaced. This article aims to define a novel method of identifying the condition of steel ropes based on their residual magnetic field measurements and their potential use in other industries in the event of damage. This article presents a methodology for detecting discontinuities in steel ropes, which allows for determination of their suitability for further operation. The work uses a rope as a load-bearing element of a personal lift. The initial signal was recorded with a SpinMeter-3D magnetometer. The obtained results were subjected to the extraction of features, the analysis of which allowed identifying the damage. The obtained results enable us to conclude that this procedure is crucial in the context of sustainable development. Full article
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15 pages, 3470 KiB  
Article
Non-Destructive Testing of Pipe Conveyor Belts Using Glass-Coated Magnetic Microwires
by Karol Semrád and Katarína Draganová
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8536; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148536 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
Belt conveyors have been used in a wide range of applications because in comparison to the alternative solutions represented by the rail or road transportation, their operation is typically more cost effective, with lower energy demands and the possibility of utilizing renewable energy [...] Read more.
Belt conveyors have been used in a wide range of applications because in comparison to the alternative solutions represented by the rail or road transportation, their operation is typically more cost effective, with lower energy demands and the possibility of utilizing renewable energy sources, and during their operation, less noise and air pollution is produced. The presented article is focused on pipe belt conveyors that are even more sustainable and in harmony with the environment, especially considering transportation of fine and dusty materials. More specifically, pipe belt conveyors have the possibility of utilizing microwires as a sensing element for microwire-based sensors for the pipe belt conveyor diagnostics from a mechanical loading point of view. This is because during the enclosing of the pipe conveyor belt, periodical cyclical mechanical loading is applied due to the bending. From the results of the performed set of FEM (Finite Element Method) analyses of the glass-coated magnetic microwires, it can be concluded that during the selection process of the microwires, emphasis should be directed the thickness of the glass coating, which can affect the lifetime of the microwire significantly. The microwire length has negligible influence on the estimated number of bending cycles until the damage or crack occurs. Full article
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19 pages, 84756 KiB  
Article
Optimisation of the Magnetic Circuit of a Measuring Head for Diagnostics of Steel-Polyurethane Load-Carrying Belts Using Numerical Methods
by Hubert Ruta, Tomasz Krakowski and Paweł Lonkwic
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2711; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052711 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
The paper describes the process of a prototype head optimisation for magnetic diagnostics of steel-polyurethane load-carrying belts. The prototype, validated on a number of cranes, was subject to an improvement and optimisation attempt using numerical analysis of magnetic field distribution in the magnetic [...] Read more.
The paper describes the process of a prototype head optimisation for magnetic diagnostics of steel-polyurethane load-carrying belts. The prototype, validated on a number of cranes, was subject to an improvement and optimisation attempt using numerical analysis of magnetic field distribution in the magnetic circuit, tested load-carrying belt, and environment. The analysis was carried out in the ANSYS environment using PDS—Probabilistic Design System tools (DOE—Design of Experiment). Taking the dimensions of individual elements of the magnetic circuit, material densities, and magnetic material properties as the input data, the magnetic circuit was optimised with respect to metrological properties as well as mass and size criteria. Based on the analyses carried out and the results obtained, the head design was modernised, which involved changing the geometry of elements forming the magnetic circuit. Based on observations made during tests of the prototype version of the device performed on real objects, several improvements were also proposed, consisting of the replacement of selected components with elements printed in the FDM technology. The correctness of the performed numerical analyses was verified by comparing the measured and calculated values of the total magnetic field induction in the defined plane of the magnetic circuit. The prototype versions of heads before and after modernisation were subject to comparative tests. Under laboratory conditions, both versions of heads were used to diagnose the steel-polyurethane load-carrying belts with modelled damages. The obtained test results and their statistical characteristics were analysed in detail. Full article
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23 pages, 10878 KiB  
Article
Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields in Diagnostics of Low-Speed Electrical and Mechanical Systems
by Milan Oravec, Pavol Lipovský, Miroslav Šmelko, Pavel Adamčík, Mirosław Witoś and Jerzy Kwaśniewski
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9197; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169197 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2001
Abstract
The magnetic field created by technical devices is a source of information. This information could be used in contactless diagnostics and predictive maintenance or for resolving problems along with standard NDT (nondestructive testing) methods, especially if we consider large, slow-speed devices, such as [...] Read more.
The magnetic field created by technical devices is a source of information. This information could be used in contactless diagnostics and predictive maintenance or for resolving problems along with standard NDT (nondestructive testing) methods, especially if we consider large, slow-speed devices, such as electromotors, transmissions, or generators. Identification of causalities of device failure processes with near magnetic field is one of the suitable NDT methods improving sustainability of systems. The measurements presented in the article were performed with the VEMA 04 fluxgate vector magnetometer with the DC-250 Hz bandwidth and 2 nT sensitivity. Postprocessing of the results was performed in the means of standard methods of discrete Fourier Transform, spectrogram creation and Wavelet Transform. The article presents data gathered during the measurement of a pair of extraction fans with power of 140 kW each and maximum revolutions up to 740 rev/min controlled by frequency converters and a single semi-Kaplan water power plant with 400 kW peak power at 1005 rev/min maximum generator speed. The measurements were performed before and after repairs of one of the ventilators in the ventilation system at 60% and 100% of maximal output power. The rotating magnetic fields of the fan electromotor stator, fan rotor revolutions, rotor slip frequency and ball-bearing frequencies were identified in frequency spectrums in the distance of 700 mm from fan electromotor axis in both cases. During the measurements on the semi-Kaplan turbine, the changes in states of mechanical and electrical components of the machine were monitored in the magnetic fields with increase of the power in the range of 0–95%, before and after phasing to the electrical grid. Standard processing methods, Discrete Fourier Transform, spectrograms and Discrete Wavelet Transform were used. In the spectrograms of the measured magnetic fields, the 1st–4th harmonics of the turbine shaft, generator shaft and also their side frequencies were identified. Significant changes of magnetic fields in time were identified in the area of 60–95% power. With the help of the Wavelet, transform intervals were identified where it is desirable to operate the turbine. The analyses of magnetic fields measurements performed on the power plant were compared with vibro-diagnostic principles. Full article
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14 pages, 9480 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Distribution of Conveyor Belt Noise Sources under Laboratory Conditions
by Piotr Bortnowski, Anna Nowak-Szpak, Robert Król and Maksymilian Ozdoba
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2233; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042233 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2778
Abstract
In compliance with ecological policies, activities undertaken by surface mines in relation to environment protection should be comprehensive and must take into account the principle of sustained development. One of the most basic tasks in this area is to reduce the nuisance caused [...] Read more.
In compliance with ecological policies, activities undertaken by surface mines in relation to environment protection should be comprehensive and must take into account the principle of sustained development. One of the most basic tasks in this area is to reduce the nuisance caused by the noise emitted to the environment. The problem of above-standard noise levels caused by transportation systems operated in mines can be solved only after major noise sources are identified and analyzed in detail. This article first focuses on the literature studies to describe the possible sources of noise generated by a belt conveyor and in its second part it presents exploratory research into noise sources. The research was performed under laboratory conditions with the use of an acoustic camera as a tool for spatially identifying and classifying individual noise sources. The article identifies some phenomena related to the operation of main belt conveyor components and describes their characteristic frequency ranges. Full article
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13 pages, 5146 KiB  
Article
Influence of Design Parameters of Idler Bearing Units on the Energy Consumption of a Belt Conveyor
by Piotr Kulinowski, Piotr Kasza and Jacek Zarzycki
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010437 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3782
Abstract
This publication presents the results of laboratory tests of idler rolling resistance under operational loads. Operational loads are understood as radial and axial forces acting on the idler, with values corresponding to those that occur in the conditions of its operation in copper [...] Read more.
This publication presents the results of laboratory tests of idler rolling resistance under operational loads. Operational loads are understood as radial and axial forces acting on the idler, with values corresponding to those that occur in the conditions of its operation in copper ore mines. Knowing the rolling resistance is important not only at the stage of conveyor design, selection of the drive power or calculations of the necessary belt strength, but also when improving and searching for new idler design solutions. The idlers adopted for this research were differentiated in terms of bearings and idler axial clearance. The investigations were carried out on a unique test stand designed and built by the authors. The construction of the stand enables simulating operational loads while measuring the rolling resistance. The test rig measures idler bearing losses and rolling drag, not belt indentation rolling resistance. The object of the research were ø133×465 idlers, which are most commonly used in the raw materials industry. The results show the possibility of reducing the belt conveyor energy consumption by appropriate selection of the design features of the idler bearing unit. Full article
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Review

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21 pages, 5554 KiB  
Review
Application of Rock Abrasiveness and Rock Abrasivity Test Methods—A Review
by Kamil Mucha
Sustainability 2023, 15(14), 11243; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151411243 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
The processes of rock formation have long been known and widely described in many literature items worldwide. Due to the multitude of occurring rock types, they are distinguished by various properties. For many decades, scientists worldwide have been determining various parameters by which [...] Read more.
The processes of rock formation have long been known and widely described in many literature items worldwide. Due to the multitude of occurring rock types, they are distinguished by various properties. For many decades, scientists worldwide have been determining various parameters by which these properties of rocks can be described. Tests of these parameters are commonly performed in many research centres worldwide. Depending on the scientific discipline, some researchers focus on geological properties (colour, structure, texture, chemical composition). Other researchers focus on physical and mechanical properties: hardness, density, strength properties, compactness, etc. Among them, abrasiveness and abrasivity can also be distinguished. In terms of nomenclature, they are very similar and often confused. Even within the academic community, researchers often use the names interchangeably, which needs to be corrected. This article aims to explain the difference between rock abrasiveness and rock abrasivity, classify methods for their assessment and present their practical applications in the mining and construction industry. It should be emphasized here that abrasiveness is determined when we are interested in the abrasive wear of natural stone and abrasivity when we are interested in the wear of the tool with which we cut the stone. The purpose of this article is also to let the reader decide whether to carry out an abrasiveness or abrasivity test and which method to use. Full article
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21 pages, 6148 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review of Steel Wire Rope Degradation Mechanisms and Recent Damage Detection Methods
by Paweł Mazurek
Sustainability 2023, 15(6), 5441; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15065441 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3228
Abstract
Steel wire ropes are the vital load-bearing element in many rope transport devices, such as mine hoists, personal lifts, bridges and cableways. Non-destructive fault detection is a crucial issue for safety and reliability. This paper presents a comprehensive review covering three areas: damage [...] Read more.
Steel wire ropes are the vital load-bearing element in many rope transport devices, such as mine hoists, personal lifts, bridges and cableways. Non-destructive fault detection is a crucial issue for safety and reliability. This paper presents a comprehensive review covering three areas: damage mechanisms for steel wire ropes, physical phenomena used for diagnostics of steel wire ropes and practical applications of magnetometers. The advantages and disadvantages of each group of sensors, such as the induction coil, Hall element, magnetoresistance and optically pumped magnetometers, are presented. The author indicates the direction of the development of signal analysis techniques. In summary, the challenges and future directions for the development of wire rope flaw detection in practical applications are presented, especially considering the future of passive magnetic methods. Full article
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