sustainability-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Constructed and Floating Wetlands for Sustainable Water Reclamation

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sustainability and Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 65953

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
Interests: constructed wetlands; plant-bacteria interplay; microbial ecology; phytotechnologies; sustainability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Soil & Environmental Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan
Interests: Phytotechnologies, Constructed Wetlands, Floating Wetlands, Plant-Bacteria Partnership, Phytoremediation

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India
Interests: environmental pollution; plant-environment adaptation; phytoremediation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One of the major challenges faced by modern urbanized societies is to maintain clean water resources. Wastewater generated from industrial/municipal activities contains a wide range of inorganic and organic pollutants. To this end, ecofriendly remediation approaches are encouraged particularly for the countries with low economic constraints. Constructed wetlands (CWs) and its variants (e.g. floating wetlands) are among the most promising solutions for the decontamination of large water resources. These technologies are engineered variants of traditional methods of phytoremediation that aim to harness the interactions among plants, microorganisms, and water to remove the contaminants from water bodies.

This Special Issue is dedicated to all types of wetland ecotechnologies, which are available to remove a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants in the wastewater of multiple origins. This will include both passive and engineered systems for the field-scale and lab-scale investigations. In view of that, the editors of this Special Issue encourage authors to submit new quality manuscripts explaining theoretical concepts or applied science practices in the modern era of wetland engineering and functioning. The specific focus for this Special Issue is given on the environmental performance of these systems through effective plant-microbe interactions. This Issue will include full research, short communications, and critical reviews, in order to present new research results or compile previously published information in a holistic way.

References:

  1. Afzal, M., Arslan, M.*, Müller, J. A., Shabir, G., Islam, E., Tahseen, R., Anwar-ul-Haq, M., Hashmat, A., Iqbal, S., Khan, Q (2019). Floating treatment wetlands as a suitable option for large-scale wastewater treatment. Nature Sustainability, 1-9. 10.1038/s41893-019-0350-y
  2. Tara, N., Arslan, M., Hussain, Z., Iqbal, M., Khan, Q. M., & Afzal, M. (2019). On-site performance of floating treatment wetland macrocosms augmented with dye-degrading bacteria for the remediation of textile industry wastewater. Journal of Cleaner Production, 217, 541-548.
  3. Fahid, M., Arslan, M., Shabir, G., Younus, S., Yasmeen, T., Rizwan, M., Siddique, K., Ahmad, S.R., Tahseen, R., Iqbal, S. and Ali, S., (2019). Phragmites australis in combination with hydrocarbons degrading bacteria is a suitable option for remediation of diesel-contaminated water in floating wetlands. Chemosphere, p.124890.
  4. Rehman, R., Ijaz, A., Arslan, M., Afzal, M., (2019). Floating treatment wetlands as biological buoyant filters for wastewater reclamation, International Journal of Phytoremediation, DOI: 10.1080/15226514.2019.1633253
  5. Shahid, M. J., Arslan, M., Siddique, M., Ali, S., Tahseen, R., & Afzal, M. (2019). Potentialities of floating wetlands for the treatment of polluted water of river Ravi, Pakistan. Ecological Engineering, 133, 167-176.
  6. Hussain, Z., Arslan, M., Shabir, G., Malik, M. H., Mohsin, M., Iqbal, S., & Afzal, M. (2019). Remediation of textile bleaching effluent by bacterial augmented horizontal flow and vertical flow constructed wetlands: A comparison at pilot scale. Science of the Total Environment, 685, 370-379.
  7. Nguyen, P. M., Afzal, M., Ullah, I., Shahid, N., Baqar, M., & Arslan, M. (2019). Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products using constructed wetlands: effective plant-bacteria synergism may enhance degradation efficiency. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-18.
  8. Hussain, Z., Arslan, M.,* Malik, M.H., Mohsin, M., Iqbal, S., Afzal, M., (2018). “Treatment of the textile industry effluent in a pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetland system augmented with bacterial endophytes”, Science of The Total Environment.
  9. Hussain, Z., Arslan, M.,* Malik, M.H., Mohsin, M., Iqbal, S., Afzal, M., (2018). “Integrated perspectives on the use of bacterial endophytes in horizontal flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of liquid textile effluent: Phytoremediation advances in the field”, Journal of Environmental Management
  10. Shahid, M.J., Arslan, M., Ali, S., Siddique, M. and Afzal, M., (2018). Floating Wetlands: A Sustainable Tool for Wastewater Treatment. CLEAN–Soil, Air, Water, 46(10), p.1800120.
  11. Saleem, H., Rehman, K., Arslan, M.,* Afzal, M., (2018). Enhanced degradation of phenol in floating treatment wetlands by plant-bacterial synergism. International Journal of Phytoremediation.
  12. Saleem, H., Arslan, M.,* Rehman, K., Tehseen, R., Afzal, M., (2018). Phragmites australis — a helophytic grass — can establish successful partnership with phenol-degrading bacteria in a floating treatment wetland. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences.

Dr. Muhammad Arslan
Dr. Muhammad Afzal
Dr. Naser A. Anjum
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Ecotechnologies
  • Constructed wetlands
  • Plant-bacteria partnership
  • Wetland microbial ecology
  • Wastewater
  • Remediation
  • Sustainability

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

4 pages, 199 KiB  
Editorial
Constructed and Floating Wetlands for Sustainable Water Reclamation
by Muhammad Arslan, Muhammad Afzal and Naser A. Anjum
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031268 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2395
Abstract
Modern urbanized societies are facing serious challenges in the maintenance of their water resources [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed and Floating Wetlands for Sustainable Water Reclamation)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

14 pages, 1747 KiB  
Article
A Combined System Using Lagoons and Constructed Wetlands for Swine Wastewater Treatment
by Pietro Denisi, Nicola Biondo, Giuseppe Bombino, Adele Folino, Demetrio Antonio Zema and Santo Marcello Zimbone
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12390; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212390 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2406
Abstract
This study evaluates the depuration efficiency of a combined system consisting of lagoons (with aerated and non-aerated tanks) and CWs (with Typha latifolia L.) working at pilot scale for treating SW under two recirculation rates (RRs, 4:1 and 10:1) of the CW effluent. [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the depuration efficiency of a combined system consisting of lagoons (with aerated and non-aerated tanks) and CWs (with Typha latifolia L.) working at pilot scale for treating SW under two recirculation rates (RRs, 4:1 and 10:1) of the CW effluent. The combined system removed about 99% of the total suspended solids and organic matter, and from 80% to 95% of the total nitrogen at both tested RRs. The lagoon system was effective as a pre-treatment of SW, particularly for nitrogen removal. It is convenient to adopt the higher RR, since nitrogen removal can be increased by approximately 20%. The irrigation of the CWs with SW did not generally determine the phyto-toxic effects on Typha latifolia L., except at the start of the experiment and under the lower RR. Despite the limited spatial and temporal scale of this investigation, these results provide a starting point for the use of V-SSF CWs to treat livestock wastewater with a high pollution potential (such as SW). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed and Floating Wetlands for Sustainable Water Reclamation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1240 KiB  
Article
Plant-Microbe Synergism in Floating Treatment Wetlands for the Enhanced Removal of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate from Water
by Momina Yasin, Muhammad Tauseef, Zaniab Zafar, Moazur Rahman, Ejazul Islam, Samina Iqbal and Muhammad Afzal
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2883; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052883 - 07 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2381
Abstract
Excessive use of detergents in wide industrial processes results in unwanted surfactant pollution. Among them, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) has well-known history to be used in pharmaceutical and industrial applications. However, if discharged without treatment, it can cause toxic effects on living organisms [...] Read more.
Excessive use of detergents in wide industrial processes results in unwanted surfactant pollution. Among them, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) has well-known history to be used in pharmaceutical and industrial applications. However, if discharged without treatment, it can cause toxic effects on living organisms especially to the aquatic life. Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) could be a cost-effective and eco-friendly options for the treatment of wastewater containing SDS. In this study, FTWs mesocosms were established in the presence of hydrocarbons-degrading bacteria. Two plant species (Brachiaria mutica and Leptochloa fusca) were vegetated and a consortium of bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. strain BRSI56, Acinetobacter junii strain TYRH47, and Acinetobacter sp. strain CYRH21) was applied to enhance degradation in a short-time. Results illustrated that FTWs vegetated with both plants successfully removed SDS from water, however, bacterial augmentation further enhanced the removal efficiency. Maximum reduction in SDS concentration (97.5%), chemical oxygen demand (92.0%), biological oxygen demand (94.2%), and turbidity (99.4%) was observed in the water having FTWs vegetated with B. mutica and inoculated with the bacteria. The inoculated bacteria showed more survival in the roots and shoots of B. mutica as compared to L. fusca. This study concludes that FTWs have the potential for the removal of SDS from contaminated water and their remediation efficiency can be enhanced by bacterial augmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed and Floating Wetlands for Sustainable Water Reclamation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

35 pages, 863 KiB  
Article
Implementation of Floating Treatment Wetlands for Textile Wastewater Management: A Review
by Fan Wei, Munazzam Jawad Shahid, Ghalia S. H. Alnusairi, Muhammad Afzal, Aziz Khan, Mohamed A. El-Esawi, Zohaib Abbas, Kunhua Wei, Ihsan Elahi Zaheer, Muhammad Rizwan and Shafaqat Ali
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5801; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145801 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 9163
Abstract
The textile industry is one of the most chemically intensive industries, and its wastewater is comprised of harmful dyes, pigments, dissolved/suspended solids, and heavy metals. The treatment of textile wastewater has become a necessary task before discharge into the environment. The textile effluent [...] Read more.
The textile industry is one of the most chemically intensive industries, and its wastewater is comprised of harmful dyes, pigments, dissolved/suspended solids, and heavy metals. The treatment of textile wastewater has become a necessary task before discharge into the environment. The textile effluent can be treated by conventional methods, however, the limitations of these techniques are high cost, incomplete removal, and production of concentrated sludge. This review illustrates recent knowledge about the application of floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) for remediation of textile wastewater. The FTWs system is a potential alternative technology for textile wastewater treatment. FTWs efficiently removed the dyes, pigments, organic matter, nutrients, heavy metals, and other pollutants from the textile effluent. Plants and bacteria are essential components of FTWs, which contribute to the pollutant removal process through their physical effects and metabolic process. Plants species with extensive roots structure and large biomass are recommended for vegetation on floating mats. The pollutant removal efficiency can be enhanced by the right selection of plants, managing plant coverage, improving aeration, and inoculation by specific bacterial strains. The proper installation and maintenance practices can further enhance the efficiency, sustainability, and aesthetic value of the FTWs. Further research is suggested to develop guidelines for the selection of right plants and bacterial strains for the efficient remediation of textile effluent by FTWs at large scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed and Floating Wetlands for Sustainable Water Reclamation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 7551 KiB  
Article
Microbial Communities Associated with Acetaminophen Biodegradation from Mangrove Sediment
by Chu-Wen Yang, Yi-En Chen and Bea-Ven Chang
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5410; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135410 - 04 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2440
Abstract
Acetaminophen (ACE) is a widely used medicine. Currently, concerns regarding its potential adverse effects on the environments are raised. The aim of this study was to evaluate ACE biodegradation in mangrove sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Three ACE biodegradation strategies in mangrove [...] Read more.
Acetaminophen (ACE) is a widely used medicine. Currently, concerns regarding its potential adverse effects on the environments are raised. The aim of this study was to evaluate ACE biodegradation in mangrove sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Three ACE biodegradation strategies in mangrove sediments were tested. The degradation half-lives (t1/2) of ACE in the sediments with spent mushroom compost under aerobic conditions ranged from 3.24 ± 0.16 to 6.25 ± 0.31 d. The degradation half-lives (t1/2) of ACE in sediments with isolated bacterial strains ranged from 2.54 ± 0.13 to 3.30 ± 0.17 d and from 2.62 ± 0.13 to 3.52 ± 0.17 d under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The degradation half-lives (t1/2) of ACE in sediments amended with NaNO3, Na2SO4 and NaHCO3 under anaerobic conditions ranged from 1.16 ± 0.06 to 3.05 ± 0.15 d, 2.39 ± 0.12 to 3.84 ± 0.19 d and 2.79 ± 0.14 to 10.75 ± 0.53 d, respectively. The addition of the three electron acceptors enhanced ACE degradation in mangrove sediments, where NaNO3 yielded the best effects. Sixteen microbial genera were identified as the major members of microbial communities associated in anaerobic ACE degradation in mangrove sediments with addition of NaNO3 and Na2SO4. Three (Arthrobacter, Enterobacter and Bacillus) of the sixteen microbial genera were identified in the isolated ACE-degrading bacterial strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed and Floating Wetlands for Sustainable Water Reclamation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3276 KiB  
Article
Bacterial Augmented Floating Treatment Wetlands for Efficient Treatment of Synthetic Textile Dye Wastewater
by Neeha Nawaz, Shafaqat Ali, Ghulam Shabir, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Bilal Shakoor, Munazzam Jawad Shahid, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Arslan, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni and Parvaiz Ahmad
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3731; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093731 - 04 May 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4837
Abstract
Floating treatment wetland (FTW) is an innovative, cost effective and environmentally friendly option for wastewater treatment. The dyes in textile wastewater degrade water quality and pose harmful effects to living organisms. In this study, FTWs, vegetated with Phragmites australis and augmented with specific [...] Read more.
Floating treatment wetland (FTW) is an innovative, cost effective and environmentally friendly option for wastewater treatment. The dyes in textile wastewater degrade water quality and pose harmful effects to living organisms. In this study, FTWs, vegetated with Phragmites australis and augmented with specific bacteria, were used to treat dye-enriched synthetic effluent. Three different types of textile wastewater were synthesized by adding three different dyes in tap water separately. The FTWs were augmented with three pollutants degrading and plant growth promoting bacterial strains (i.e., Acinetobacter junii strain NT-15, Rhodococcus sp. strain NT-39, and Pseudomonas indoloxydans strain NT-38). The water samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), color, bacterial survival and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, Pb and Fe). The results indicated that the FTWs removed pollutants and color from the treated water; however, the inoculated bacteria in combination with plants further enhanced the remediation potential of floating wetlands. In FTWs with P. australis and augmented with bacterial inoculum, pH, EC, TDS, TSS, COD, BOD and color of dyes were significantly reduced as compared to only vegetated and non-vegetated floating treatment wetlands without bacterial inoculation. Similarly, the FTWs application successfully removed the heavy metal from the treated dye-enriched wastewater, predominately by FTWs inoculated with bacterial strains. The bacterial augmented vegetated FTWs, in the case of dye 1, reduced the concentration of Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and Pb by 75%, 73.3%, 86.9%, 75%, 70% and 76.7%, respectively. Similarly, the bacterial inoculation to plants in the case of dye 2 achieved 77.5% (Cu), 73.3% (Ni), 83.3% (Zn), 77.5% (Fe), 66.7% (Mn) and 73.3% (Pb) removal rates. Likewise in the case of dye 3, which was treated with plants and inoculated bacteria, the metals removal rates were 77.5%, 73.3%, 89.7%, 81.0%, 70% and 65.5% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and Pb, respectively. The inoculated bacteria showed persistence in water, in roots and in shoots of the inoculated plants. The bacteria also reduced the dye-induced toxicity and promoted plant growth for all three dyes. The overall results suggested that FTW could be a promising technology for the treatment of dye-enriched textile effluent. Further research is needed in this regard before making it commercially applicable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed and Floating Wetlands for Sustainable Water Reclamation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2372 KiB  
Article
Cyperus laevigatus L. Enhances Diesel Oil Remediation in Synergism with Bacterial Inoculation in Floating Treatment Wetlands
by Muhammad Fahid, Shafaqat Ali, Ghulam Shabir, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Tahira Yasmeen, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Arslan, Afzal Hussain, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni and Parvaiz Ahmad
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2353; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062353 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2897
Abstract
Diesel oil is considered a very hazardous fuel due to its adverse effect on the aquatic ecosystem, so its remediation has become the focus of much attention. Taking this into consideration, the current study was conducted to explore the synergistic applications of both [...] Read more.
Diesel oil is considered a very hazardous fuel due to its adverse effect on the aquatic ecosystem, so its remediation has become the focus of much attention. Taking this into consideration, the current study was conducted to explore the synergistic applications of both plant and bacteria for cleaning up of diesel oil contaminated water. We examined that the application of floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) is an economical and superlative choice for the treatment of diesel oil contaminated water. In this study, a pilot scale floating treatment wetlands system having diesel oil contaminated water (1% w/v), was adopted using Cyperus laevigatus L and a mixture of hydrocarbons degrading bacterial strains; viz., Acinetobacter sp.61KJ620863, Bacillus megaterium 65 KF478214, and Acinetobacter sp.82 KF478231. It was observed that consortium of hydrocarbons degrading bacteria improved the remediation of diesel oil in combination with Cyperus laevigatus L. Moreover, the performance of the FTWs was enhanced by colonization of bacterial strains in the root and shoot of Cyperus laevigatus L. Independently, the bacterial consortium and Cyperus laevigatus L exhibited 37.46% and 56.57% reduction in diesel oil, respectively, while 73.48% reduction in hydrocarbons was exhibited by the joint application of both plant and bacteria in FTWs. Furthermore, microbial inoculation improved the fresh biomass (11.62%), dry biomass (33.33%), and height (18.05%) of plants. Fish toxicity assay evaluated the effectiveness of FTWs by showing the extent of improvement in the water quality to a level that became safe for living organisms. The study therefore concluded that Cyperus laevigatus L augmented with hydrocarbons degrading bacterial consortium exhibited a remarkable ability to decontaminate the diesel oil from water and could enhance the FTWs performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed and Floating Wetlands for Sustainable Water Reclamation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

28 pages, 1652 KiB  
Review
A Review on Constructed Treatment Wetlands for Removal of Pollutants in the Agricultural Runoff
by Zepei Tang, Jonaé Wood, Dominae Smith, Arjun Thapa and Niroj Aryal
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 13578; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413578 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4265
Abstract
Constructed wetland (CW) is a popular sustainable best management practice for treating different wastewaters. While there are many articles on the removal of pollutants from different wastewaters, a comprehensive and critical review on the removal of pollutants other than nutrients that occur in [...] Read more.
Constructed wetland (CW) is a popular sustainable best management practice for treating different wastewaters. While there are many articles on the removal of pollutants from different wastewaters, a comprehensive and critical review on the removal of pollutants other than nutrients that occur in agricultural field runoff and wastewater from animal facilities, including pesticides, insecticides, veterinary medicine, and antimicrobial-resistant genes are currently unavailable. Consequently, this paper summarized recent findings on the occurrence of such pollutants in the agricultural runoff water, their removal by different wetlands (surface flow, subsurface horizontal flow, subsurface vertical flow, and hybrid), and removal mechanisms, and analyzed the factors that affect the removal. The information is then used to highlight the current research gaps and needs for resilient and sustainable treatment systems. Factors, including contaminant property, aeration, type, and design of CWs, hydraulic parameters, substrate medium, and vegetation, impact the removal performance of the CWs. Hydraulic loading of 10–30 cm/d and hydraulic retention of 6–8 days were found to be optimal for the removal of agricultural pollutants from wetlands. The pollutants in agricultural wastewater, excluding nutrients and sediment, and their treatment utilizing different nature-based solutions, such as wetlands, are understudied, implying the need for more of such studies. This study reinforced the notion that wetlands are effective for treating agricultural wastewater (removal > 90%) but several research questions remain unanswered. More long-term research in the actual field utilizing environmentally relevant concentrations to seek actual impacts of weather, plants, substrates, hydrology, and other design parameters, such as aeration and layout of wetland cells on the removal of pollutants, are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed and Floating Wetlands for Sustainable Water Reclamation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 1034 KiB  
Review
Role of Microorganisms in the Remediation of Wastewater in Floating Treatment Wetlands: A Review
by Munazzam Jawad Shahid, Ameena A. AL-surhanee, Fayza Kouadri, Shafaqat Ali, Neeha Nawaz, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Rizwan, Basharat Ali and Mona H. Soliman
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5559; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145559 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 81 | Viewed by 9286
Abstract
This article provides useful information for understanding the specific role of microbes in the pollutant removal process in floating treatment wetlands (FTWs). The current literature is collected and organized to provide an insight into the specific role of microbes toward plants and pollutants. [...] Read more.
This article provides useful information for understanding the specific role of microbes in the pollutant removal process in floating treatment wetlands (FTWs). The current literature is collected and organized to provide an insight into the specific role of microbes toward plants and pollutants. Several aspects are discussed, such as important components of FTWs, common bacterial species, rhizospheric and endophytes bacteria, and their specific role in the pollutant removal process. The roots of plants release oxygen and exudates, which act as a substrate for microbial growth. The bacteria attach themselves to the roots and form biofilms to get nutrients from the plants. Along the plants, the microbial community also influences the performance of FTWs. The bacterial community contributes to the removal of nitrogen, phosphorus, toxic metals, hydrocarbon, and organic compounds. Plant–microbe interaction breaks down complex compounds into simple nutrients, mobilizes metal ions, and increases the uptake of pollutants by plants. The inoculation of the roots of plants with acclimatized microbes may improve the phytoremediation potential of FTWs. The bacteria also encourage plant growth and the bioavailability of toxic pollutants and can alleviate metal toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed and Floating Wetlands for Sustainable Water Reclamation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

33 pages, 528 KiB  
Review
Application of Floating Aquatic Plants in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals Polluted Water: A Review
by Shafaqat Ali, Zohaib Abbas, Muhammad Rizwan, Ihsan Elahi Zaheer, İlkay Yavaş, Aydın Ünay, Mohamed M. Abdel-DAIM, May Bin-Jumah, Mirza Hasanuzzaman and Dimitris Kalderis
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1927; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051927 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 238 | Viewed by 23834
Abstract
Heavy-metal (HM) pollution is considered a leading source of environmental contamination. Heavy-metal pollution in ground water poses a serious threat to human health and the aquatic ecosystem. Conventional treatment technologies to remove the pollutants from wastewater are usually costly, time-consuming, environmentally destructive, and [...] Read more.
Heavy-metal (HM) pollution is considered a leading source of environmental contamination. Heavy-metal pollution in ground water poses a serious threat to human health and the aquatic ecosystem. Conventional treatment technologies to remove the pollutants from wastewater are usually costly, time-consuming, environmentally destructive, and mostly inefficient. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective green emerging technology with long-lasting applicability. The selection of plant species is the most significant aspect for successful phytoremediation. Aquatic plants hold steep efficiency for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and Duck weed (Lemna minor) along with some other aquatic plants are prominent metal accumulator plants for the remediation of heavy-metal polluted water. The phytoremediation potential of the aquatic plant can be further enhanced by the application of innovative approaches in phytoremediation. A summarizing review regarding the use of aquatic plants in phytoremediation is gathered in order to present the broad applicability of phytoremediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed and Floating Wetlands for Sustainable Water Reclamation)
Back to TopTop