sustainability-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Urban Sprawl and Sustainability

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Urban and Rural Development".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019) | Viewed by 103907

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Forestry scieNcEs (DAFNE), University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, SNC, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
Interests: remote sensing; land use change; non-point source pollution; environmental monitoring
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Forestry scieNcEs (DAFNE), University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, SNC, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
Interests: sustainability; urban sprawl; land use change; soil loss
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Forestry scieNcEs (DAFNE), University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, SNC, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
Interests: territorial planning; renewable energy, GIS technologies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The present Special Issue proposal has the overall aim of developing and offering new strategies, visions and proposals on the role of sustainability related to the sprawl theme. Urban sprawl is one of the most pervasive urban growth models that affected many metropolitan areas in recent decades, leading to several critical impacts, e.g. soil consumption, new loss of agricultural and natural areas with high quality. It has also brought to light existing restrictions; though, also due to the recent 2007 crisis, which slowed down the speculative building sector, its influences have recorded a slight decline. Now, in a post-crisis period, it is essential to rethink how to manage larger territories, studying their degree of resilience and future (sustainable) development.

Sustainability must be applicable to different territorial contexts at dissimilar spatial scales, exploring local cultural, socio-economic and physical backgrounds that can have a critical influence on shaping urban conditions, urbanisation processes and practices. Declining tendencies in urban sprawl have significant consequences for strategies and policies aiming urban containment and land-saving compact development through self-contained growth. Policy-makers should manage the new chances set up by a post-recession urban scenario. New approaches and sustainable plans would also benefit to recover high-quality areas, revitalise the agricultural sector, which has experienced a strident decline in recent decades, and make the contexts in which people live more liveable and sustainable.

Several targets will be addressed in the present special issue, such as to extend the concept of urban growth model towards awareness of sustainable development systems, to suggest new urban scenarios, to reflect on advanced thoughts as the resilience role of urban and metropolitan regions, to explore strengths and limitations of sustainability in each urban system and to assess if the interplay among urban sprawl and sustainability can conciliated, also through new technologies and innovative urban models (e.g. smart cities).

Prof. Massimo Cecchini
Prof. Andrea Colantoni
Dr. Fabio Recanatesi
Prof. Maria Nicolina Ripa
Dr. Luca Salvati
Dr. Ilaria Zambon
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • urban sprawl
  • territorial planning
  • sustainable development
  • technologies
  • land use change

Published Papers (23 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

26 pages, 1480 KiB  
Article
Urbanisation of Protected Areas within the European Union—An Analysis of UNESCO Biospheres and the Need for New Strategies
by Maryann Harris, Claire Cave, Karen Foley, Thomas Bolger and Tamara Hochstrasser
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 5899; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11215899 - 24 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3622
Abstract
The UNESCO Biosphere Reserves (BRs) comprise core conservation areas supported by a buffer and transition zone of sustainable development. This zoning can help manage urbanisation around conservation areas. Although it is UNESCO policy to measure the number of BRs that have interactions with [...] Read more.
The UNESCO Biosphere Reserves (BRs) comprise core conservation areas supported by a buffer and transition zone of sustainable development. This zoning can help manage urbanisation around conservation areas. Although it is UNESCO policy to measure the number of BRs that have interactions with urban areas, there has been no systematic assessment of urban biospheres since 2008. This research addresses this deficit by measuring the extent of urbanisation of all designated BRs within the European Union (EU). Using the Copernicus Urban Atlas, the proximity of BRs to Functional Urban Areas (FUA) was determined. The results show that 46% (76/167) of BRs are situated within FUAs, including 11% (18/167) entirely within an FUA. The majority (64%) of EU-28 countries have BRs within FUAs. Urban influences on EU-28 BRs are extensive, as 90% are found within 50 km of an FUA. However, integration with urban areas may be lacking as 14% of EU BRs were adjacent to an FUA. Urban pressures are acute for 11% of EU BRs which had multiple FUAs within a 50 km radius. Therefore, urbanisation of BRs is a widespread challenge and recommendations are provided for BRs to function as an information sharing network and develop a new urban strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 7710 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Urban Expansion Analysis of Valley-Type Cities: A Case Study of Chengguan District, Lanzhou, China
by Sijia He, Xiaoyun Wang, Jingru Dong, Baocheng Wei, Hanming Duan, Jizong Jiao and Yaowen Xie
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5663; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205663 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3112
Abstract
The development of cities in the vertical dimension is important in valley-type cities where physical growth is limited by terrain. However, little research has focused on three-dimensional urban expansion of valley-type cities. Lanzhou is a typical valley-type city in China and Chengguan District [...] Read more.
The development of cities in the vertical dimension is important in valley-type cities where physical growth is limited by terrain. However, little research has focused on three-dimensional urban expansion of valley-type cities. Lanzhou is a typical valley-type city in China and Chengguan District is the core area of Lanzhou City. This research is aimed at understanding the development of valley-type cities through the analysis of the three-dimensional urban expansion of Lanzhou Chengguan District and providing a reference for urban planning. We extracted five periods of architectural contours and height information between 1975 to 2018 with the support of multi-source remote sensing and network data. We used overlay analysis and mathematical statistical methods to analyze urban horizontal expansion and used the building density, floor area ratio, vertical expansion speed, fluctuation degree, and skyline to analyze urban vertical expansion. We found that the mode of horizontal expansion of Chengguan District shifted from adjacency to enclave through mountain area reclamation. The area with the fastest vertical expansion speed first appeared in the horizontal expansion completed area, and then in both the rapid horizontal expansion area and in the horizontal expansion completed area. Before 2007, the speed of horizontal expansion increased and reached its peak while the vertical expansion speed was relatively stable. After that, the former decreased, and the vertical expansion increased rapidly and dominated the urban development. The vertical expansion of the valley-type city gradually dominates urban development. Urban planning should consider the three-dimensional expansion, especially in the vertical dimension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 2211 KiB  
Article
The Key Factors Influencing Safety Analysis for Traditional Settlement Landscape
by Yan-Feng He, Chie-Peng Chen and Rung-Jiun Chou
Sustainability 2019, 11(12), 3431; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123431 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3544
Abstract
The secure layout of traditional settlements is key to their sustainability. The criteria and assessment framework for spatial safety have not yet been systematically summarized, and their safety assessment criteria and dimensions have not yet been established. Therefore, this study aims to develop [...] Read more.
The secure layout of traditional settlements is key to their sustainability. The criteria and assessment framework for spatial safety have not yet been systematically summarized, and their safety assessment criteria and dimensions have not yet been established. Therefore, this study aims to develop the constructs, assessment framework, and relational network, and analyze the association among and roles of key criteria of the spatial safety of traditional settlements using the Delphi method, DANP (DEMATEL (Decision Making and Trial Evaluation Laboratory)-based ANP (Analytic Network Process) method), and IPA (Importance–Performance Analysis) for case studies. Based on the results, this study extracted the localized elements of traditional settlements to create special local settlements. This study found that: (1) the dimensions of spatial safety include spiritual, physical, and behavioral aspects, and 16 criteria, eight of which are key criteria; (2) religious beliefs are important and have mutual influence on the organization and source of other criteria; (3) the use of IPA found that key criteria together makes up safe living places. Spiritual defense combines trust with the sense of belonging; the physical defense constructs a spatial environment; and behavioral defense involves daily life activities. Spiritual defense consists of psychological consolation and has a complementary relationship with physical defense. Behavioral defense has a social organizational system, which it reflects in spiritual and physical defenses. The spiritual, physical, and behavioral defenses are related to each other, and are reflected in the psychological, spatial, and living aspects. Overall, when taken together, the spiritual, physical, and behavioral aspects of the spatial safety criteria of settlements construct safe living places. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4745 KiB  
Article
Recognizing Landscapes for the Purpose of Sustainable Development—Experiences from Poland
by Iga Solecka, Dietmar Bothmer and Arkadiusz Głogowski
Sustainability 2019, 11(12), 3429; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123429 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2903
Abstract
Landscape identification forms a base for landscape management and sustainable land use policy. According to the European Landscape Convention, each Member State needs to recognize the landscapes as an essential component of people’s surroundings. Poland developed a method for landscape auditing that will [...] Read more.
Landscape identification forms a base for landscape management and sustainable land use policy. According to the European Landscape Convention, each Member State needs to recognize the landscapes as an essential component of people’s surroundings. Poland developed a method for landscape auditing that will be conducted for landscapes in the whole country. The identification of landscape units is based on landscape type characteristics and spatial data that is layered and analyzed in order to identify landscape units. In this paper, we aim to test the possibilities of automatic landscape identification. We take the assumptions designed for landscape identification for the needs of the audit. Based on the “Typology of Poland’s current landscapes”, we design a process to identify landscape units with the use of the aggregation of land cover data and multivariable analysis. We use tools in an ArcGIS environment to design a process that will support human perception. Our approach is compared with the approach presented in the method designed for a landscape audit in order to be used for landscape unit identification at the municipal level. The case study area is the municipality of Siechnice within the suburban area of the city of Wrocław, an example of a changing landscape under suburbanization pressure. We conclude that both approaches can support each other in the landscape identification process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5640 KiB  
Article
Anatomizing the Institutional Arrangements of Urban Village Redevelopment: Case Studies in Guangzhou, China
by Dinghuan Yuan, Yung Yau, Haijun Bao, Yongshen Liu and Ting Liu
Sustainability 2019, 11(12), 3376; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123376 - 18 Jun 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4054
Abstract
Given the increasing scarcity of urban land, the Chinese government has been initiating large-scale redevelopment of urban villages that are commonly regarded problematic for their low land use efficiencies and negative externalities. During this process, the emerging neo-urbanism in China demonstrates the heterogeneity [...] Read more.
Given the increasing scarcity of urban land, the Chinese government has been initiating large-scale redevelopment of urban villages that are commonly regarded problematic for their low land use efficiencies and negative externalities. During this process, the emerging neo-urbanism in China demonstrates the heterogeneity of institutional arrangements, with different levels of transaction costs incurred. To explore the transaction costs incurred in different institutional arrangements of urban village redevelopment projects, this study anatomizes three projects in Guangzhou from the perspective of neo-institutional economics. The project duration and level of conflict are taken as two key variables to evaluate the efficiency and equality of the projects. With this research design, this study illustrates that institutional arrangements significantly affect the project outcomes. The conclusion suggests that the local and central governments alter the existing institutions with a view to lowering the transaction costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1023 KiB  
Article
Optimization and Application of Integrated Land Use and Transportation Model in Small- and Medium-Sized Cities in China
by Shuhong Ma, Yan Zhang and Chaoxu Sun
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2555; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092555 - 02 May 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3090
Abstract
Integrated land use and transportation models are helpful when policy, planning, or environment impacts are being evaluated, but the strengths and limitations in these models must be optimized. To optimize the ITLUP (Integrated Transportation and Land-Use Planning) model and apply it in small- [...] Read more.
Integrated land use and transportation models are helpful when policy, planning, or environment impacts are being evaluated, but the strengths and limitations in these models must be optimized. To optimize the ITLUP (Integrated Transportation and Land-Use Planning) model and apply it in small- and medium-sized cities in China, this study considered the constraints of land use intensity and introduced two critical indicators (the maximum number of households and maximum employment) to characterize the land capacity and improve the practicality of the model. Then, Monte Carlo simulation analysis was used to analyze the uncertainty factors using the coefficient of variation (C.V) and standardized regression coefficient (SRC). The results suggest that the maximum future employment and households may exceed the land limit and must be adjusted to a new zone, and the model operation simulation was closer to the actual situation of small- and medium-sized cities. The C.V value of the model output showed the increasing trend of the uncertainty of the model output variable over time, especially affected by DRAM model parameters, traffic demand forecasting model parameters and the peak hourly flow ratio. Such findings are meaningful for policymakers, planners, and others when the ITLUP model is used to anticipate the zonal employment and household allocation and to further explore the interaction between land use and transportation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3555 KiB  
Article
Spatio–Temporal Variations in Impervious Surface Patterns during Urban Expansion in a Coastal City: Xiamen, China
by Wang Man, Qin Nie, Lizhong Hua, Xuewen Wu and Hui Li
Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2404; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082404 - 23 Apr 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2853
Abstract
Impervious surfaces (IS) coverage is a quantifiable environmental indicator for understanding urban sprawl and its potential impacts on sustainability of urban ecological environments. Numerous studies have previously demonstrated global and regional IS variation, but little attention has been paid to the different internal [...] Read more.
Impervious surfaces (IS) coverage is a quantifiable environmental indicator for understanding urban sprawl and its potential impacts on sustainability of urban ecological environments. Numerous studies have previously demonstrated global and regional IS variation, but little attention has been paid to the different internal and external patterns of IS development as urbanization progresses. This study estimates IS coverage in a subtropical coastal area of Xiamen, southeastern China, from Landsat TM/OLI images obtained in 1994, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2015, and quantifies its spatio–temporal variations using IS change trajectories and radar graphs. During the study period, IS gradually expanded along the shoreline in a pattern resembling the shape of the bay. The land surfaces are classified into four zones: IS1 and IS2, dominated by cultivated land and forest; IS3, complex land use/coverage; and IS4, built-up areas. The progression and transformations of these zones highlight the main trends in IS changes in the study area. The trajectories of the zones form a layered structure in which the urban centers of each district progressively gain IS4, and transformations into IS3 and IS2 extend successively beyond the centers. The orientation of IS expansion in each of the six districts of Xiamen is revealed by radar graphs. The areas containing intermediate and high percentages IS each expanded in generally consistent directions throughout the study period, except in Tong’an district, which showed a change in the direction of expansion of its area of intermediate and high IS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3319 KiB  
Article
Spatial Patterns and Driving Forces of Conflicts among the Three Land Management Red Lines in China: A Case Study of the Wuhan Urban Development Area
by Yang Zhang, Yanfang Liu, Yan Zhang, Xuesong Kong, Ying Jing, Enxiang Cai, Lingyu Zhang, Yi Liu, Zhengyu Wang and Yaolin Liu
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2025; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072025 - 05 Apr 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2909
Abstract
The delimitation of three land management red lines (LMRLs), which refers to urban growth boundaries (UGBs), ecological protection redlines (EPRs), and basic farmland protection zones (BFPZs), has been regarded as a control method for promoting sustainable urban development in China. However, in many [...] Read more.
The delimitation of three land management red lines (LMRLs), which refers to urban growth boundaries (UGBs), ecological protection redlines (EPRs), and basic farmland protection zones (BFPZs), has been regarded as a control method for promoting sustainable urban development in China. However, in many Chinese cities, conflicts extensively exist among the three LMRLs in terms of spatial partitioning. This study clarifies the connotation of conflicts among the three LMRLs. Moreover, a red line conflict index (RLCI) is established to characterize the intensity of conflicts among the three LMRLs. The Wuhan Urban Development Area (WUDA) is used for a case study, in which the spatial patterns of the three types of conflicts among the three LMRLs (i.e., conflicts between EPRs and BFPZs, EPRs and UGBs, and UGBs and BFPZs) are analyzed through numerous spatial statistical analysis methods (including spatial autocorrelation, urban-rural gradient, and landscape pattern analyses). In addition, the driving forces of these conflicts are identified from the perspectives of natural physics, socioeconomic development, neighborhood, policy and planning using three binary logistic regression models. Results show that the conflicts between EPRs and BFPZs, EPRs and UGBs, and UGBs and BFPZs are mainly distributed on the edge of the WUDA, inside Wuhan’s third circulation line, and at the urban–rural transition zone, respectively. The patch of conflict between BFPZs and UGBs has the lowest aggregation degree, the highest fragmentation degree, and the most complex shape. Logistic regression results show that the combination and relative importance of driving factors vary in the three types of conflicts among the three LMRLs. In the conflict between EPRs and BFPZs, the distance to city centers is the most important influencing factor, followed by the proportion of ecological land and elevation. In the conflict between UGBs and EPRs, the proportion of construction land, the distance to city centers, and whether the land unit is within the scope of a restricted development zone are the three most important factors. The proportion of construction land, the distances to the Yangtze and Han Rivers, and the proportion of cultivated land significantly influence the conflict between UGBs and BFPZs. This study aids in our understanding of the causes and mechanisms of conflicts among the three LMRLs, and provides important information for the “integration of multi-planning” and land management in Wuhan and similar cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 3169 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Three-Dimensional Space Expansion Characteristics in Old Industrial Area Renewal Using GIS and Barista: A Case Study of Tiexi District, Shenyang, China
by Yanyan Xu, Miao Liu, Yuanman Hu, Chunlin Li and Zaiping Xiong
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1860; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11071860 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4020
Abstract
With rapid urban development in China in the last two decades, 3D characteristics have been the main feature of urban morphology. Nevertheless, the vast majority of urban growth research has only focused on area expansion horizontally, with few studies conducted in a 3D [...] Read more.
With rapid urban development in China in the last two decades, 3D characteristics have been the main feature of urban morphology. Nevertheless, the vast majority of urban growth research has only focused on area expansion horizontally, with few studies conducted in a 3D perspective. In this paper, the characteristics of 3D expansion that occurred in Tiexi from 1997 to 2011 were evaluated based on geographic information system (GIS) tools, remote-sensing images, and Barista software. Landscape index, the spatiotemporal distribution of changes in buildings’ renewal modes and variations in city skylines as well as the relationship between number and size of high-rise buildings are the specific phenomena and data utilized to quantify the 3D urban expansion. The results showed that the average height of Tiexi increased by 0.69 m annually, the average urban capacity increased by 490.15 m3 annually, and space congestion degree increased by 0.11% annually. The average annual increase of the building evenness index was 36.43. The renewal area occupied up to 75.38% of the total area. The change of the skyline was more consistent with the east–west direction. The change in the south direction was significant, while in the north direction it was relatively slow. The overall shape of the city was that of a weak pyramid, with the angle of the top of the pyramid gradually becoming larger. The methods proposed in this paper laid a foundation for a wide range of study of 3D urban morphology changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 6543 KiB  
Article
Exploring Urban Expansion and Socioeconomic Vitality Using NPP-VIIRS Data in Xia-Zhang-Quan, China
by Yuantong Jiang, Shoukai Sun and Shuanning Zheng
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1739; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061739 - 22 Mar 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3386
Abstract
Studying the spatiotemporal evolution of urban expansion in the Xia-Zhang-Quan metropolitan area (XZQ) is of crucial importance, to effectively guide coordinated development and industrial adjustment during urbanization. Based on National Polar Partnership-Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS) data this study used an analytical [...] Read more.
Studying the spatiotemporal evolution of urban expansion in the Xia-Zhang-Quan metropolitan area (XZQ) is of crucial importance, to effectively guide coordinated development and industrial adjustment during urbanization. Based on National Polar Partnership-Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS) data this study used an analytical method of irregular spatial grids to explore and evaluate the dynamics of urban spatial expansion and urban socioeconomic vitality in XZQ between 2013 and 2017. The results show that the gulf-type urban development strategy of Xiamen has played a key role in the integration and development of XZQ. The urban area increased by 20–30% and increased intensity of socioeconomic activities was demonstrated by observed increases in the total brightness of urban nighttime light. Due to its unique advantages in the agricultural industries, Zhangzhou made significant economic progress during 2013–2017. At the same time, driven by spatial processes in Xiamen, areas such as the Zhangzhou Port Area and Longhai also achieved significant progress. This is also the case in Quanzhou and thus, collectively there is evidence of multi-polar growth. Jinjiang and Shishi effectively utilized coastal port economy development advantages to play a key role in the integration and development of XZQ. There were both commonalities and differences in terms of the characteristics of spatial expansion in different cities of XZQ. In summary, this study provides evidence to support further promotion of coordinated development in XZQ, and with appropriate caveats these findings could also be transferred to other urban agglomerations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 7328 KiB  
Article
The Interactive Impact of Building Diversity on the Thermal Balance and Micro-Climate Change under the Influence of Rapid Urbanization
by Mehdi Makvandi, Baofeng Li, Mohamed Elsadek, Zeinab Khodabakhshi and Mohsen Ahmadi
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061662 - 19 Mar 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3886
Abstract
Numerous cities face the serious problems of rapid urbanization and climate change, especially in recent years. Among all cities, Wuhan is one of the most affected by these changes, accompanied by the transformation of water surfaces into urban lands and the decline of [...] Read more.
Numerous cities face the serious problems of rapid urbanization and climate change, especially in recent years. Among all cities, Wuhan is one of the most affected by these changes, accompanied by the transformation of water surfaces into urban lands and the decline of natural ventilation. This study investigated the impact of surface urban heat island enlargement (SUHI) and block morphology changes in heat balance. Accordingly, the interactive impact of building diversity with major building forms (low-rise, mid-rise, and high-rise) on thermal balance and microclimate changes under the influence of urban land expansion at the residential block scale was studied. To investigate the heat balance changes by air temperature intensification and air movement reduction, a long-term and field observational analysis (1980–2018) coupled with computational fluid dynamic simulation (CFD) was used to evaluate the impact of building diversity on thermal balance. Outcomes show that urban heat island intensity (UHII) increased by 2 °C when water surfaces in urban areas decreased; consequently, there was a deterioration in the air movement to alleviate UHII. Thus, the air movement declined substantially with UHII and SUHI enlargement, which, through increased urban surfaces and roughness length, will become worse by 2020. Furthermore, the decline in air movement caused by the transformation of urban water bodies cannot contribute to the heat balance unless reinforced by the morphology of the urban blocks. In the design of inner-city blocks, morphological indicators have a significant impact on microclimate and heat balance, where increasing building density and plot ratio will increase UHII, and increasing water surfaces will result in an increase in urban ventilation. Lastly, a substantial correlation between air temperature and relative humidity was found, which, together with the block indicators, can help control the air temperature and adjust the urban microclimate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 12665 KiB  
Article
Mapping and Characterizing Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Impervious Surfaces Using Landsat Images: A Case Study of Xuzhou, East China from 1995 to 2018
by Han Li, Long Li, Longqian Chen, Xisheng Zhou, Yifan Cui, Yunqiang Liu and Weiqiang Liu
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051224 - 26 Feb 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3653
Abstract
As an effective indicator of urbanization, impervious surfaces play a significant role in urban planning and ecological protection. It is, therefore, important to characterize impervious surfaces in urban geographical studies. As a key city in East China, Xuzhou has experienced rapid urbanization in [...] Read more.
As an effective indicator of urbanization, impervious surfaces play a significant role in urban planning and ecological protection. It is, therefore, important to characterize impervious surfaces in urban geographical studies. As a key city in East China, Xuzhou has experienced rapid urbanization in recent decades and is now becoming an environmentally friendly city. To better understand the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of Xuzhou’s urban development, we extracted its impervious surfaces from Landsat images of 1995, 2003, 2010, and 2018 by a linear spectral mixture analysis. Then, a range of complementary methods including landscape indices, profile lines, median centers, standard deviational ellipses, and spatial autocorrelation were adopted to analyze the landscape pattern and expansion of impervious surfaces on both city and district scales. Results show that (1) there was a constant impervious surface expansion, originating in downtown Xuzhou; (2) promoting ecological protection in urban areas fragmented impervious surfaces with increasing heterogeneity and diversity overall; and (3) expansion directions and rates of impervious surfaces varied with district and town, and the central urban area expanded towards east and southeast, which could be related to their own resources and governmental policies. Findings from this study provide useful insights into urban planning of this economically prospective region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1188 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Self-Reported Walking for Transit in a Sprawling Urban Metropolitan Area in the Western U.S.
by Courtney Coughenour, Hanns de la Fuente-Mella and Alexander Paz
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030852 - 06 Feb 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3075
Abstract
Walkability is associated with increased levels of physical activity and improved health and sustainability. The sprawling design of many metropolitan areas of the western U.S., such as Las Vegas, influences their walkability. The purpose of this study was to consider sprawl characteristics along [...] Read more.
Walkability is associated with increased levels of physical activity and improved health and sustainability. The sprawling design of many metropolitan areas of the western U.S., such as Las Vegas, influences their walkability. The purpose of this study was to consider sprawl characteristics along with well-known correlates of walkability to determine what factors influence self-reported minutes of active transportation. Residents from four neighborhoods in the Las Vegas Metropolitan Area, targeted for their high and low walkability scores, were surveyed for their perceptions of street-connectivity, residential-density, land-use mix, and retail–floor-area ratio and sprawl characteristics including distance between crosswalks, single-entry-communities, high-speed streets, shade, and access to transit. A Poisson model provided the best estimates for minutes of active transportation and explained 11.28% of the variance. The model that included sprawl characteristics resulted in a better estimate of minutes of active transportation compared to the model without them. The results indicate that increasing walkability in urban areas such as Las Vegas requires an explicit consideration of its sprawl characteristics. Not taking such design characteristics into account may result in the underestimation of the influence of sprawl on active transportation and may result in a missed opportunity to increase walking. Understanding the correlates of walkability at the local level is important in successfully promoting walking as a means to increase active transportation and improve community health and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 4857 KiB  
Article
Urbanization and Urban Sprawl Issues in City Structure: A Case of the Sulaymaniah Iraqi Kurdistan Region
by Sivan Hisham Al Jarah, Bo Zhou, Rebaz Jalil Abdullah, Yawen Lu and Wenting Yu
Sustainability 2019, 11(2), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020485 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 72 | Viewed by 20948
Abstract
This novel study explores the driving forces and dynamics of rapid urbanization, highlighting the main causes and effects of urban explosion, environmental disruption, and city pattern transformation. This study was carried out that how urbanization and urban sprawl have influenced the structure of [...] Read more.
This novel study explores the driving forces and dynamics of rapid urbanization, highlighting the main causes and effects of urban explosion, environmental disruption, and city pattern transformation. This study was carried out that how urbanization and urban sprawl have influenced the structure of the city of Sulaymaniah in Kurdistan region of Iraq. This is because over the years many urban areas have experienced dramatic growth and population explosion that has resulted in the exhaustion of social amenities in the concerned communities. For this purpose, a qualitative method is used based on in-depth face-to-face interviews with local authority, including planners, architects, and experts of master planning, as well as professors in the academic institutions. This study also utilizes extensive document analysis to present the evolution of urban growth. The findings reveal that the autonomy, political conflict, non-implementation of master plans, and economic prosperity are the driving forces which are accelerating this urbanization process. It is proposed that the practical policies and strategic urban development plans are urgent requirement to control the unplanned urban growth and stimulate the desired sustainable future urban development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2395 KiB  
Article
Urban Sprawl Sustainability of Mountainous Cities in the Context of Climate Change Adaptability Using a Coupled Coordination Model: A Case Study of Chongqing, China
by Yiming Wang and Pengcheng Xiang
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010020 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4593
Abstract
In recent years, a noticeable contradiction has emerged between the disorderly sprawl and fragile climate environment of many cities, especially in mountainous cities. Therefore, this paper respectively constructed evaluation indicators for urban sprawl sustainability (USS) and climate change adaptability (CCA). Next, a coupling [...] Read more.
In recent years, a noticeable contradiction has emerged between the disorderly sprawl and fragile climate environment of many cities, especially in mountainous cities. Therefore, this paper respectively constructed evaluation indicators for urban sprawl sustainability (USS) and climate change adaptability (CCA). Next, a coupling coordination degree model was used to measure the coordinated development of USS and CCA. Finally, this paper analyzed the coordinated development type of USS and CCA in the Chongqing metropolitan area from 2007 to 2017. The results of this paper show that USS and CCA have gradually shifted to coordinated development in the Chongqing metropolitan area during the study period. However, there were obvious regional differences in the type of coordinated development in the Chongqing metropolitan area. The coordinated development degree of USS and CCA in nine districts ranged from 0.635 to 0.721 in 2017. It can be divided into three types: slightly coordinated development with lagging CCA; slightly coordinated development with lagging USS; and moderately coordinated development with lagging CCA. Those districts should give priority to the use of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), and multi-center and multi-group approaches to enhance the coordinated development between USS and CCA, which is also helpful for mountainous cities in China and other countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4549 KiB  
Article
A Coupling Relationship between the Eco-Environment Carrying Capacity and New-Type Urbanization: A Case Study of the Wuhan Metropolitan Area in China
by Min Song and Can Hu
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4671; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124671 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3232
Abstract
Ongoing global urbanization is imposing tremendous pressure on the eco-environment. Research on the coupling of the eco-environment and urbanization has important significance for the sustainable development of urban metropolitan. Looking at the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, which includes nine cities, as a case study [...] Read more.
Ongoing global urbanization is imposing tremendous pressure on the eco-environment. Research on the coupling of the eco-environment and urbanization has important significance for the sustainable development of urban metropolitan. Looking at the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, which includes nine cities, as a case study area, this paper describes an empirical study done to uncover the interactive coupling relationship between the eco-environment and new-type urbanization in the urban metropolitan area from the perspective of eco-environment carrying capacity. The eco-environment carrying capacity evaluation index system was set up using the pressure-state-response (PSR) model, and then the coupling model was built. The results indicate that the eco-environment carrying capacity in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area is generally sustainable and has three grades. The quality of new-type urbanization in the nine cities in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area shows clear spatial heterogeneity. There are five types of the coupling relationship including moderate coordinated development, elementary coordinated development, reluctant coordinated development, edge of maladjustment, and mild maladjustment between the eco-environment carrying capacity and new-type urbanization level in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area. Therefore, this paper proposes corresponding policies from the aspects of coordinating the industrial division of labor, focusing on the eco-environment carrying threshold and strengthening policy guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 99497 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Observation Scale on Urban Growth Simulation Using Particle Swarm Optimization-Based CA Models
by Yongjiu Feng, Jiafeng Wang, Xiaohua Tong, Yang Liu, Zhenkun Lei, Chen Gao and Shurui Chen
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4002; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114002 - 01 Nov 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3194
Abstract
Cellular automata (CA) is a bottom-up self-organizing modeling tool for simulating contagion-like phenomena such as complex land-use change and urban growth. It is not known how CA modeling responds to changes in spatial observation scale when a larger-scale study area is partitioned into [...] Read more.
Cellular automata (CA) is a bottom-up self-organizing modeling tool for simulating contagion-like phenomena such as complex land-use change and urban growth. It is not known how CA modeling responds to changes in spatial observation scale when a larger-scale study area is partitioned into subregions, each with its own CA model. We examined the impact of changing observation scale on a model of urban growth at UA-Shanghai (a region within a one-hour high-speed rail distance from Shanghai) using particle swarm optimization-based CA (PSO-CA) modeling. Our models were calibrated with data from 1995 to 2005 and validated with data from 2005 to 2015 on spatial scales: (1) Regional-scale: UA-Shanghai was considered as a single study area; (2) meso-scale: UA-Shanghai was partitioned into three terrain-based subregions; and (3) city-scale: UA-Shanghai was partitioned into six cities based on administrative boundaries. All three scales yielded simulations averaging about 87% accuracy with an average Figure-of-Merit (FOM) of about 32%. Overall accuracy was reduced from calibration and validation. The regional-scale model yielded less accurate simulations as compared with the meso- and city-scales for both calibration and validation. Simulation success in different subregions is independent at the city-scale, when compared with regional- and meso-scale. Our observations indicate that observation scale is important in CA modeling and that smaller scales probably lead to more accurate simulations. We suggest smaller partitions, smaller observation scales and the construction of one CA model for each subregion to better reflect spatial variability and to produce more reliable simulations. This approach should be especially useful for large-scale areas such as huge urban agglomerations and entire nations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4083 KiB  
Article
Spatial Pattern Evolution and Optimization of Urban System in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, China, Based on DMSP-OLS Night Light Data
by Yang Zhong, Aiwen Lin, Zhigao Zhou and Feiyan Chen
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3782; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103782 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3096
Abstract
It is of great significance to research the spatial pattern of the urban system of the Yangtze River economic belt to analyze the characteristics and laws of the spatial structure of the Yangtze River economic belt and to promote the optimal development of [...] Read more.
It is of great significance to research the spatial pattern of the urban system of the Yangtze River economic belt to analyze the characteristics and laws of the spatial structure of the Yangtze River economic belt and to promote the optimal development of the urban system of the Yangtze River economic zone. In this paper, the time data of the Yangtze River economic zone are corrected using Landsat satellite data and the clustering analysis method. The threshold of the urban built area is obtained by comparing the auxiliary data with other auxiliary data. Based on this threshold, a total of eight typical landscape pattern indicators—including the total area of the landscape, the total patch number, and the aggregation index—are used, and then FRAG-STATS 4.2 software is used to analyze the spatial pattern of urban development in the Yangtze River economic zone from 1992 to 2013. The results show the following: (1) During the period from 1992 to 2013, the urbanization of the Yangtze River economic zone expanded rapidly; the area of urban built-up area increased by a factor of 9.68, the number of patches increased by a factor of 2.39, and the patch density increased greatly, indicating that the Yangtze River economic zone, with an increasing number of towns and urban areas, continues to expand. (2) The complexity of the landscape patch shape gradually increased, the small and medium-sized cities continued to grow, more small towns emerged, and the total length of the border and the average density had average annual growth rates of 21.56% and 21.58%; the degree of aggregation and the mutual influence are increasing. (3) The maximum plaque index and the aggregation index show an overall declining trend. However, there are some fluctuations and disorder in the process of evolution, such as the total area of the landscape, the total patch number and the total patch density, which reflects that the Yangtze River economic zone is in the process of urbanization and has irregular and disordered characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 11489 KiB  
Article
Historical Geomorphological Research of a Ligurian Coastal Floodplain (Italy) and Its Value for Management of Flood Risk and Environmental Sustainability
by Anna Roccati, Fabio Luino, Laura Turconi, Pietro Piana, Charles Watkins and Francesco Faccini
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3727; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103727 - 16 Oct 2018
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4594
Abstract
The alluvial plain of the Entella River (Eastern Liguria), historically affected by damaging flood events, has been heavily modified over the past 250 years by human activity and natural processes. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the morphological and land use evolution of [...] Read more.
The alluvial plain of the Entella River (Eastern Liguria), historically affected by damaging flood events, has been heavily modified over the past 250 years by human activity and natural processes. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the morphological and land use evolution of the Entella floodplain since the 18th century was carried out using base maps and aerial photos ranging from 1758 to 2016. These diverse sources were Geographical Information System (GIS) georeferenced. Additional information on land-use change was gathered from historical documents and recent research reports. The main transformations to the floodplain include morphological changes, e.g., narrowing, channelization, displacement of the river channel and the advance of the coastal line due to fills and embankments. In addition, there has been very significant urbanization with loss of vegetated and agricultural areas. Our results indicate the primary role of human disturbance on morphological changes and landscape modifications of the coastal floodplain, particularly over the last 200 years. Furthermore, the historical geomorphological and cartographical analysis we adopted to reconstruct the floodplain transformation represents an essential tool in flood risk mitigation and environmental sustainability management, particularly in an urbanized coastal plain historically affected by floods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3471 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Dynamic Urban Expansion Based on Multi-Sourced Data from 1998 to 2013: A Case Study of Jiangsu Province
by Ge Shi, Nan Jiang, Yang Li and Bin He
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3467; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103467 - 28 Sep 2018
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3318
Abstract
Recently, with the fast speed of urban expansion, research concerning the regulation of urban built-up area expansion is a significant topic, especially in Eastern China with its high urbanization level. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light data has [...] Read more.
Recently, with the fast speed of urban expansion, research concerning the regulation of urban built-up area expansion is a significant topic, especially in Eastern China with its high urbanization level. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light data has a high association with the urban-rural distribution, which provides a new method to study urban expansion effectively and with relatively high accuracy. Between 1998 and 2013, China experienced a rapid economic development period, making it crucial to learn the patterns and driving forces to better manage urban master planning and sustainable development. The urban built-up area for the research years are mapped, and the annual urban expansion speed, urbanization intensity index, and built-up area gravity center are analyzed in this paper. The results will show that the amount of the urban built-up area grows continuously from 1998 to 2008, with the development focus in southern Jiangsu, while from 2008 to 2013, the development center moves to northern Jiangsu. The main driving forces behind this urban built-up area expansion are population growth and economic development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1104 KiB  
Article
Urban Growth and Demographic Dynamics in Southern Europe: Toward a New Statistical Approach to Regional Science
by Mariateresa Ciommi, Francesco M. Chelli, Margherita Carlucci and Luca Salvati
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2765; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082765 - 05 Aug 2018
Cited by 130 | Viewed by 3766
Abstract
Metropolitan growth in Europe has resulted in drastic changes of urban forms, socio-spatial structures and land-use patterns due to sequential processes of urbanization, suburbanization and re-urbanization. To assess latent shifts from mono-centric models towards more disarticulated and decentralized settlement configurations, the present study [...] Read more.
Metropolitan growth in Europe has resulted in drastic changes of urban forms, socio-spatial structures and land-use patterns due to sequential processes of urbanization, suburbanization and re-urbanization. To assess latent shifts from mono-centric models towards more disarticulated and decentralized settlement configurations, the present study evaluates spatio-temporal patterns of growth between the 1920s and the 2010s in three Mediterranean cities with different structure and functions (Barcelona: compact and moderately polycentric; Rome: dispersed, medium-density; Athens: mono-centric, hyper-compact). To identify and characterize long-term urban transformations, an original approach was illustrated in this study, based on a multivariate analysis of 13 indicators resulting from descriptive statistics and linear regression modeling the relationship between population density and distance from inner cities. The empirical results of this study indicate that Barcelona, Rome and Athens have experienced different urbanization cycles, characterized by a (more or less) concentrated distribution of population along urban gradients. Despite similarities in demographic dynamics and planning practices, these processes have determined (i) a mostly centralized growth in Barcelona, (ii) a relatively dispersed and discontinuous spatial structure in Rome, and (iii) a steep decline of population density with the distance from downtown Athens. Compact urban expansion, population decline and urban de-concentration were finally assessed using the analytical approach proposed in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

12 pages, 953 KiB  
Case Report
Population Age Structure, Complex Socio-Demographic Systems and Resilience Potential: A Spatio-Temporal, Evenness-Based Approach
by Massimo Cecchini, Sirio Cividino, Rosario Turco and Luca Salvati
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2050; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072050 - 06 Apr 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3025
Abstract
The present study illustrates an original approach grounded on entropy theory and complex system thinking with the aim to investigate changes over time and space in population structure by age in Italy, in light of socioeconomic resilience and post-crisis recovery potential. Assuming that [...] Read more.
The present study illustrates an original approach grounded on entropy theory and complex system thinking with the aim to investigate changes over time and space in population structure by age in Italy, in light of socioeconomic resilience and post-crisis recovery potential. Assuming that population structure may reflect different levels of resilience to exogenous shocks, a Pielou J evenness index was calculated on census data made available every 10 years (1861–2011) with the aim to identify compositional homogeneity (or heterogeneity) in the age structure of the Italian population. Trends over time in the Pielou J evenness index were identified using descriptive statistics, comparison with ancillary demographic indicators and multivariate exploratory techniques including principal component analysis. The empirical results allowed the identification of multiple dimensions of demographic transition in Italy, distinguishing two phases, the former encompassing a relatively long time period between 1861 and 1936, and the latter covering a shorter period between 1936 and 2011. A spatially-explicit analysis of Pielou J evenness indices applied to the population age structure of each Italian municipality at the latest survey (2017) finally provided a comprehensive overview of the demographic characteristics likely influencing the resilience potential of local districts. The empirical evidence outlined the consolidation of a coastal–inland divide as a result of the complex linkage between demographic dynamics and local background contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 7316 KiB  
Case Report
Housing and the City: A Spatial Analysis of Residential Building Activity and the Socio-Demographic Background in a Mediterranean City, 1990–2017
by Massimo Cecchini, Ilaria Zambon and Luca Salvati
Sustainability 2019, 11(2), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020375 - 13 Jan 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3562
Abstract
Fluctuations in residential building activity are becoming progressively more intense over time and space in advanced economies and especially in Europe, fueling real estate market segmentation and making the performance of the construction industry increasingly unpredictable. If non-linear urbanization paths are the result [...] Read more.
Fluctuations in residential building activity are becoming progressively more intense over time and space in advanced economies and especially in Europe, fueling real estate market segmentation and making the performance of the construction industry increasingly unpredictable. If non-linear urbanization paths are the result of economic downturns consolidating progressively more volatile real estate markets, the present study investigates the impact of recent building cycles on long-term urban expansion in a Mediterranean city (Athens, Greece), using multiple clustering techniques run on a large set of building activity and socio-demographic indicators. Changes over time in building activity were evaluated considering 12 spatially-explicit indicators derived from the analysis of building permits released by Greek municipalities between 1990 and 2017. By referring to different analysis’ scales (macro-scale: settlements, meso-scale: buildings, micro-scale: dwellings), indicators allow a comprehensive investigation of multiple dimensions and characteristics of construction markets at four-time intervals of 7 years each (1990–1996, 1997–2003, 2004–2010, 2011–2017). Spatio-temporal variability in building activity was further investigated considering 12 contextual indicators assessing the basic socio-demographic attributes of local municipalities. Cluster analysis allows identification of distinctive, local-scale responses of real estate markets to economic cycles (expansion–stagnation–recession) in both short- and long-term horizons and relate them to the dominant socio-demographic context. Density of new buildings, average floors per new building, density of buildings’ additions and number of building permits per inhabitant were found to be the most sensitive indicators to economic downturns in the study area. Infrastructure-driven development, as a result of the 2004 Olympic Games, has produced relevant short-term alterations in residential construction markets, complicating urbanization trends at the local scale. Multi-scale indicators from building permit records provide a useful insight in the diachronic mechanisms of urban growth, with implications for regional planning and design of sustainable development practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop