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Smart Grids and Microgrids in Smart Cities: Operation, Control, Protection and Security

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (17 May 2024) | Viewed by 2893

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, China
Interests: operation; control; security of smart grids and microgrids

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Guest Editor
School of Electrical Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin City 132012, China
Interests: wind and solar dispatch; uncertainty modeling and analysis; energy storage/EV integration; optimization of integrated energy systems; integrated demand response; AI-driven power system analysis; federated learning
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E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, China
Interests: converter impedance control and modelling; DC and AC microgrid; flexible DC transmission system; AC/DC hybrid power system; renewable energy; AC-DC; stability control; power control

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, China
Interests: renewable energy generation and control; operation and control of flexible DC girds; power electronic converter control

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Renewable energy is gradually replacing traditional energy sources. With the increasing application of renewable energy in the grid, the structure and intelligence level of the grid is changing profoundly. At present, smart grids and microgrids have attracted increasing attention with their advantages of efficient utilization of new energy and flexible power supply, which are inevitable choices the construction for future smart city shifting from theoretical research to engineering construction and commercial operation.

Smart grids and microgrids composed of power electronic converters involve many research fields such as renewable power generation, flexible resource dispatch, multiple time scale operations, intelligent control coupling, and multiple types of transient processes. Therefore, combining the technical challenges faced by smart grids and microgrids in stability analysis and control, this Special Issue welcomes articles delivering new findings and innovative technologies enhancing the operation, control, protection, and security of smart grids and microgrids, aiming to enable the transition towards sustainable smart cities. We welcome original research and review articles with a clear focus in these areas.

In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  1. Intelligent energy management systems for smart grids and microgrids;
  2. Integration of renewable energy sources into smart grids and microgrids;
  3. Demand response and load management in smart cities;
  4. Transient stability analysis of smart grids and microgrids;
  5. Control strategies for efficient energy utilization in smart cities;
  6. Protection schemes for smart grids and microgrids against faults and disturbances;
  7. Grid integration of electric vehicles and energy storage systems;
  8. Power support of renewable energy sources for system stability;
  9. Advanced control strategy of power electronic converters.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Xiangyu Zhang
Prof. Dr. Yang Li
Dr. Yanjun Tian
Dr. Yuan Fu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • smart grid
  • microgrid
  • advanced control
  • renewable energy
  • optimized operation
  • energy management
  • protection
  • transient stability

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

24 pages, 6603 KiB  
Article
Environmental–Economic Analysis of Multi-Node Community Microgrid Operation in Normal and Abnormal Conditions—A Case Study of Indonesia
by Mahshid Javidsharifi, Najmeh Bazmohammadi, Hamoun Pourroshanfekr Arabani, Juan C. Vasquez and Josep M. Guerrero
Sustainability 2023, 15(24), 16625; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152416625 - 7 Dec 2023
Viewed by 749
Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the operation management of a multi-node community microgrid (MG), emphasizing power flow constraints and the integration of photovoltaic (PV) and battery systems. This study formulates MG operation management as a multi-objective optimal power flow problem, aiming [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the operation management of a multi-node community microgrid (MG), emphasizing power flow constraints and the integration of photovoltaic (PV) and battery systems. This study formulates MG operation management as a multi-objective optimal power flow problem, aiming to minimize costs (maximize profits) and emissions simultaneously. The multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MPSO) method is employed to tackle this complex optimization challenge, yielding a Pareto optimal front that represents the trade-offs between these conflicting objectives. In addition to the normative operation scenarios, this research investigates the robustness of the MG system in the face of abnormal situations. These abnormal scenarios include damage to the PV system, sudden increases in the MG load, and the loss of connection to the main electricity grid. This study focuses on Lombok Island, Indonesia as a practical case study, acknowledging the ongoing efforts to implement the community MG concept in this region. It is observed that when the access to the electricity grid is limited, the energy not served (ENS) increases to 2.88 MWh. During the fault scenario in which there is a 20% increase in the hourly load of each MG, a total of 4.5 MWh ENS is obtained. It is concluded that a resilient operation management system is required to ensure a consistent and reliable energy supply in community MGs in the face of disruptions. Full article
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25 pages, 4865 KiB  
Article
Low-Carbon Economic Operation Optimization of Park-Level Integrated Energy Systems with Flexible Loads and P2G under the Carbon Trading Mechanism
by Hongbin Sun, Xinmei Sun, Lei Kou and Wende Ke
Sustainability 2023, 15(21), 15203; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152115203 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 857
Abstract
Against the background of the “30 × 60” target, low-carbon policies and technologies have become the new starting point and destination of energy conservation and emission reduction in energy systems. Power-to-Gas (P2G), as a new energy conversion mode, provides a new way of [...] Read more.
Against the background of the “30 × 60” target, low-carbon policies and technologies have become the new starting point and destination of energy conservation and emission reduction in energy systems. Power-to-Gas (P2G), as a new energy conversion mode, provides a new way of consuming energy and reducing carbon emissions. An optimal dispatching model of a park-level integrated energy system considering flexible load and power-to-gas (P2G) participation in the carbon trading market is proposed. Firstly, a comprehensive demand response model for electricity and heat is established according to the system’s flexible load characteristics, adding power-to gas equipment and a combined heat and power (CHP) unit to the system. Secondly, against the background of the carbon trading mechanism and considering the incentive effect of P2G on the carbon trading mechanism, a systematic comprehensive carbon trading cost model is established. Finally, the operation objectives of the low-carbon economy, with minimum energy purchase costs, carbon emission costs, and operating costs, are constructed using a CPLEX commercial solver. The results verify the importance of considering the operational cost of P2G and the feasibility of considering both operating economy and wind power accommodation ability together in integrated energy systems. Full article
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22 pages, 1919 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Power Market Clearing with Segmented Electricity Prices: A Bilevel Model
by Chong Wang, Mingfeng Ni, Yan Shi, Luxi Zhang, Wenjie Li and Xueling Li
Sustainability 2023, 15(18), 13575; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151813575 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 821
Abstract
The energy sector plays a critical role in reducing emissions by transitioning to renewable energy. However, integrating renewable energy into the electricity market impacts market clearing. This article investigates market clearing decisions of renewable and traditional energy companies, considering electricity price segmentation. We [...] Read more.
The energy sector plays a critical role in reducing emissions by transitioning to renewable energy. However, integrating renewable energy into the electricity market impacts market clearing. This article investigates market clearing decisions of renewable and traditional energy companies, considering electricity price segmentation. We propose an interprovincial bilevel market clearing decision-making model. The upper level optimizes the provincial market through a unilateral bidding model, minimizing the operating cost of the power market as the objective function. Meanwhile, the lower level optimizes power purchases by minimizing the cost of acquiring interprovincial renewable energy. A case study was conducted to determine the optimal interprovincial renewable energy purchasing power for multiple energy generation companies, considering the minimum market operating cost and segmented electricity prices. The proposed bilevel market clearing model captures the interplay between intraprovincial and interprovincial transactions, integrating electricity price and ecological attributes. By solving this model, we can attain optimal interprovincial electricity purchase of renewable energy, minimizing the overall market operating cost in the province. Through simulation, 18% of interprovincial transactions are needed to absorb 7.21 KWH of renewable energy from other provinces. When considering price segmentation, the cross-provincial two-level market clearing model can reduce the market cost by CNY 1,554,700. Full article
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