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Toward Sustainable 6G Wireless Communication Systems

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2024) | Viewed by 16545

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos 100213, Nigeria
2. Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Ruhr University, 44801 Bochum, Germany
Interests: 6G wireless communication systems; cell-free massive MIMO systems; energy-efficient wireless systems; channel modeling; artificial intelligence; wireless security systems; chaotic communication; sustainable communication; telecommunication networks
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Guest Editor
School of Engineering, University of Mount Union, Alliance, OH 44601-3993, USA
Interests: ML/federated learning in wireless systems; heterogeneous networks; massive MIMO; reconfigurable intelligent surface-assisted networks; mmWave communication networks; energy harvesting; full-duplex communications; cognitive radio; small cell; non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA); physical layer security; UAV networks; visible light communication; IoT system
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The enormous communication capabilities of 6G wireless systems that will contribute significantly to global environmental sustainability and offer massive support for various services to promote healthy and economic stability cannot be overemphasized. 6G will bring about a dramatic change in the business arena to facilitate poverty alleviation, resulting in global prosperity and progress. 6G will provide an atmosphere of productivity and accelerated business growth in rural and urban geographies toward achieving sustainable development goals. 6G will provide a user-friendly platform for intelligent analysis of complex data for high-end products and specialized services. These products and services would be well-tailored to address the specific needs of users globally. Moreover, 6G will aid crowdsourcing and enhance cutting-edge distribution platforms to accelerate realizing the equitable distribution of scarce resources. The need to examine how these unprecedented possibilities would be achieved in the 6G era is imperative. This Special Issue calls for original contributions on designing and developing sustainable 6G wireless systems, experimental measurements and propagation models, performance characterization, resource management, standardization challenges, innovative business models, and viable solutions to address critical issues toward achieving sustainable 6G wireless communication. The topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  • 6G standardization and commercialization;
  • Ubiquitous connectivity and urbanization in the 6G era;
  • 6G enabling the democratization of government institutions;
  • Sustainable 6G use cases in academia, industries, healthcare delivery, etc.;
  • Economic policies and regulatory frameworks for 6G wireless systems;
  • Advanced quantum computing for sustainable 6G wireless systems;
  • Spectrum management strategies for sustainable 6G wireless systems;
  • Cell-free massive MIMO technology enabling 6G wireless systems;
  • Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces empowering 6G wireless systems
  • Unmanned aerial vehicle-assisted 6G wireless systems;
  • Mixed realities and digital twins enabling sustainable 6G wireless systems;
  • Energy-efficient propagation channel models for 6G wireless systems;
  • New architectures and frameworks for massive data transmission in 6G;
  • Design and development of intelligent wireless devices using sustainable metamaterials;
  • Extra large-scale integration of massive devices toward reducing the carbon footprint in 6G;
  • Security and privacy schemes for 6G wireless devices compatibility and sustainability;
  • Artificial intelligence to facilitate low-latency and highly reliable 6G wireless systems;
  • High-speed and low complexity signal processing techniques for 6G wireless systems;
  • Case studies and recommendations for designing future wireless communication systems.

This Special Issue will provide insightful contributions that will orchestrate cutting-edge research toward achieving sustainable 6G wireless communication.

Dr. Agbotiname Lucky Imoize
Dr. Dinh-Thuan Do
Prof. Dr. Cheng-Chi Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 6G wireless communication
  • cell-free massive MIMO
  • reconfigurable intelligent surfaces
  • artificial intelligence
  • energy-efficient wireless systems
  • unmanned aerial vehicles
  • security and privacy
  • 6G use cases
  • 6G sustainability
  • ultra-low latency
  • ubiquitous connectivity
  • spectrum management
  • advanced quantum computing
  • signal processing techniques
  • 6G standardization
  • 6G commercialization

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 8992 KiB  
Article
Automatic Recognition of Beam Attachment for Massive MIMO System in Densely Distributed Renewable Energy Resources
by Alaa Alaerjan
Sustainability 2023, 15(11), 8863; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15118863 - 31 May 2023
Viewed by 989
Abstract
Several large-scale and distributed systems such as renewable energy systems (RESs) require ubiquitous and reliable communication. RESs are designed to provide efficient power management and improve both energy production and consumption. Decision making in RESs heavily depends on real-time communication. Fifth and sixth-generation [...] Read more.
Several large-scale and distributed systems such as renewable energy systems (RESs) require ubiquitous and reliable communication. RESs are designed to provide efficient power management and improve both energy production and consumption. Decision making in RESs heavily depends on real-time communication. Fifth and sixth-generation (5G, 6G) wireless networks promise to deliver significant communication advantages to RESs including ultra-low latency, high throughput and improved coverage. However, the communication behavior in RESs is categorized as unpredictable due to aspects such as system flexibility and equipment heterogeneity. This may affect the stability of the entire RES, which results in further issues such as signal reliability and degraded coverage. Therefore, precise identification of user equipment’s (UE) location greatly improves the sustainability of 5G and 6G wireless services. In this work, we propose a novel low-complexity technique to automatically recognize UE locations in an area of interest. The approach aims at providing precise identification of UE with minimum memory and feature requirements. We use the lazy learning approach to build a prediction model to construct beam-attachment maps. We then train the model to provide distributed intelligent models to automatically recognize beam-attachment indexes. We compare the proposed approach with instance-based techniques to measure its ability at predicting beam-attachment maps. The results show that the proposed model has the ability to provide an accurate prediction with respect to the beam-attachment index (around 100%) with minimal complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainable 6G Wireless Communication Systems)
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16 pages, 731 KiB  
Article
Improved Rate of Secret Key Generation Using Passive Re-Configurable Intelligent Surfaces for Vehicular Networks
by Hina Ayaz, Muhammad Waqas, Ghulam Abbas, Ziaul Haq Abbas, Muhammad Bilal and Kyung-Sup Kwak
Sustainability 2023, 15(1), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010342 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
The reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) is a new technology that can be utilized to provide security to vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications at the physical layer. In this paper, we achieve a higher key generation rate for V2V communications at lower cost and computational complexity. [...] Read more.
The reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) is a new technology that can be utilized to provide security to vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications at the physical layer. In this paper, we achieve a higher key generation rate for V2V communications at lower cost and computational complexity. We investigate the use of a passive RIS as a relay, to introduce channel diversity and increase the key generation rate (KGR), accordingly. In this regard, we consider the subsets of consecutive reflecting elements instead of the RIS as a whole in a time slot, i.e., instead of a single reflector, the subsets of reflectors are utilized to redirect the signal to the receiver via passive beam forming. Simulations are conducted for different sizes of RISs and subsets of reflectors per RIS. From the results obtained, it can be seen that when we consider a subset of reflectors instead of the RIS as a single entity, it becomes increasingly difficult to intercept the signal at the eavesdropper. In the proposed scheme, the KGR reaches up to 6 bps per time slot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainable 6G Wireless Communication Systems)
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Review

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45 pages, 42998 KiB  
Review
From Efficiency to Sustainability: Exploring the Potential of 6G for a Greener Future
by Rohit Kumar, Saurav Kumar Gupta, Hwang-Cheng Wang, C. Shyamala Kumari and Sai Srinivas Vara Prasad Korlam
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16387; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316387 - 28 Nov 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4417
Abstract
This article provides a comprehensive examination of sustainable 6G wireless communication systems, addressing the urgent need for environmentally friendly and energy-efficient networks. The background establishes the broader context and significance of the study, emphasizing the escalating concerns surrounding the environmental impact and energy [...] Read more.
This article provides a comprehensive examination of sustainable 6G wireless communication systems, addressing the urgent need for environmentally friendly and energy-efficient networks. The background establishes the broader context and significance of the study, emphasizing the escalating concerns surrounding the environmental impact and energy consumption of wireless communication systems. The purpose of this study is to explore and propose sustainable solutions for 6G networks. The methods employed in this research encompass an analysis of various strategies and technologies, including energy-aware network design, dynamic power management, energy harvesting, and green infrastructure deployment. The main findings of this article highlight the effectiveness of these approaches in enhancing energy efficiency, reducing carbon footprint, and optimizing resource management in 6G networks. The conclusions drawn from this study emphasize the importance of sustainable 6G wireless communication systems in achieving a more eco-friendly and energy-efficient future. It is crucial to adopt these sustainable practices to minimize environmental impact and address the increasing energy demands of wireless communication networks. The article provides valuable insights to researchers, industry practitioners, and policymakers, aiding in the development and implementation of sustainable practices for 6G wireless communication systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainable 6G Wireless Communication Systems)
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71 pages, 5823 KiB  
Review
5G Frequency Standardization, Technologies, Channel Models, and Network Deployment: Advances, Challenges, and Future Directions
by Yusuf Olayinka Imam-Fulani, Nasir Faruk, Olugbenga A. Sowande, Abubakar Abdulkarim, Emmanuel Alozie, Aliyu D. Usman, Kayode S. Adewole, Abdulkarim A. Oloyede, Haruna Chiroma, Salisu Garba, Agbotiname Lucky Imoize, Bashir Abdullahi Baba, Abdulwaheed Musa, Yinusa A. Adediran and Lawan S. Taura
Sustainability 2023, 15(6), 5173; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15065173 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 8213
Abstract
The rapid increase in data traffic caused by the proliferation of smart devices has spurred the demand for extremely large-capacity wireless networks. Thus, faster data transmission rates and greater spectral efficiency have become critical requirements in modern-day networks. The ubiquitous 5G is an [...] Read more.
The rapid increase in data traffic caused by the proliferation of smart devices has spurred the demand for extremely large-capacity wireless networks. Thus, faster data transmission rates and greater spectral efficiency have become critical requirements in modern-day networks. The ubiquitous 5G is an end-to-end network capable of accommodating billions of linked devices and offering high-performance broadcast services due to its several enabling technologies. However, the existing review works on 5G wireless systems examined only a subset of these enabling technologies by providing a limited coverage of the system model, performance analysis, technology advancements, and critical design issues, thus requiring further research directions. In order to fill this gap and fully grasp the potential of 5G, this study comprehensively examines various aspects of 5G technology. Specifically, a systematic and all-encompassing evaluation of the candidate 5G enabling technologies was conducted. The evolution of 5G, the progression of wireless mobile networks, potential use cases, channel models, applications, frequency standardization, key research issues, and prospects are discussed extensively. Key findings from the elaborate review reveal that these enabling technologies are critical to developing robust, flexible, dependable, and scalable 5G and future wireless communication systems. Overall, this review is useful as a resource for wireless communication researchers and specialists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainable 6G Wireless Communication Systems)
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